Volume 9 1900 > Volume 9, No. 4, December 1900 > Ko 'Aotea' Waka. Te haerenga mai a Turi ki Aotea-roa nei, na Hetaraka Tautahi raua ko Werahiko Taipuhi, p 200-233
KO “AOTEA” WAKA.
KO te tupunga mai o te tangata kei Te Paparoa-i-Hawaiki; a ka haere mai, ka marara mai i taua Paparoa-i-Hawaiki, ka marara ki nga moutere o te moana nui noho ai. Ko te tangata, ko Nga-ruarangi; koia te tangata i heke atu i taua whenua; te waka, ko “Takere-o-toitaha.” He nui nga tangata i heke mai i Te Paparoa-i-Hawaiki, engari ko te tangata i rangona nuitia koia ia, ko Nga-ruarangi.
Ko nga moutere i tae atu ratou i te hoenga haeretanga i te moana nui, koia enei;—ko Whanga-paraoa, ko Tutu-hira, ko Rarohenga, ko Kuparu, ko Wawau-atea, ko Maiteka. He nui nga motu ki ko mai o Whanga-paraoa—a Onetu, a Onehunga, a Onerere, me etehi atu. He whenua ano a Mo tiwhatiwha, a Motu-tapu. Ko nga motu enei i haere mai nei ratou i runga i a ratou waka. Tenei nga ingoa o etehi o aua waka; ko “Takere-o-toitaha,” ko “Rangi-takō,” ko “Haki-rere,” ko “Karamu-raunui,” ko “Tata-taiore,” ko “Whakarewarewa,” ko “Rangi-totohu,” ko “Rangi-kekero,” ko “Pahi-tonoa,” koia te waka o Rauru. Ko nga waka enei i marama i a au, nga waka i ahu mai i Te Paparoa-i-Hawaiki, a ka tae atu ki Hawaiki Rangiatea—etehi, ara, a “Takere-o-toitaha,” a “Rangi-takō,” a “Hakirere,” a “Pahi-tonoa.” Ko etehi o nga waka nei i kotiti atu ki te ra-tō; i mate katoa ena waka.
I noho tuturu hoki a Rauru ki Hawaiki Rangiatea, ko etehi o aua tangata kaore au i te mohio. Na! ko te whakapapa tenei i a Rauru:—- 201
Family Tree. Toi-te-huatahi = Rongo-wairere-ki-ao (w) Ruarangi = Rongo-ue-roa (w), 1Rauru, 2Te Awa-nui, 3Tahatiti, 4Riki, 1Rakau-maui, 2Hatonga, 3Piha i-mua, Rongotea-taukarihi, Puru-ora, 1Turi, 2Kewa
Kua tae tenei ki Hawaiki-Rangiatea.
Na Turi raua ko Kewa te pakanga i tupu ki Awa-rua, ki a Uenuku. He pakanga nui taua pakanga i Awarua, he whenua te take; ko Uenuku, e tango ana i te whenua mana. Katahi ka turia te parekura e Turi, ka mate Te Tini-o-Uenuku; ko Kemo, te taina o Uenuku i mate i a Kewa; koia ka aranga i konei te whakawai nei:—
Ka tino mate taua iwi i a Turi, ka tau te pouri ki a Uenuku i tona matenga. Katahi ka kohurutia e ia te tamaiti a Turi, ko Potiki-roroa te ingoa Ka kite a Turi kua mate tana tamaiti te patu, ka patua hoki e ia te tamaiti a Uenuku, ko Awe-potiki te ingoa—ka patua ki roto ki te wai, ka tangohia mai, katahi ka tikarohia mai te kanohi, ka taona ki te umu, ki roto ki te pohata. Ka maoa te koara, ka karanga-tia a Uenuku kia haere mai kia kai tahi raua ko Turi. Kei te huna a Turi i taua taoanga i te kanohi o te tamaiti ra. Ka tae mai a Uenuku, ka takoto te kai. Katahi ka totoro atu te ringa o Uenuku ki tetehi pohata mana, Na! ko te koheratanga o te uira i roto i te koara. Katahi ka karanga a Uenuku, “E Awe aku! e ngaro ana koe i te kai i nga kai. Kei hea ra koe i te takanga i nga kai?” Katahi ka wahia e Turi, “A! tena pea ka ngaro ki roto ki te hopara nui a Toi!” (he tupuna nona a Toi, tupuna tonu o Rauru). Heoi, ka whakatika a Uenuku, ka haere ki tona kainga; kua mohio tonu ia, ko tana tamaiti ake tera i kainga ra e ia i roto i te pohata.
I te po, ka turia te ahiahi-korero a Uenuku mo Ngati-Rongotea (koia te hapu o Turi) mo Turi hoki, kia tikina kia patua. Na! ka puta a Rongorongo,—te hoa wahine a Turi—ki waho i te po, i waho i to raua whare—ko Rangiatea te ingoa o to raua whare—ka puta ra te wahine ki waho ki te whakamarie i tana tamaiti. Puta kau ki waho, kua rongo ia i te karakia makutu a te tangata ra, a Uenuku. Koa tenei:— - 202
Whakarongo marire ana te wahine ra, a, ka hoki ki roto ki to raua whare ko Turi, ka karanga atu ki a ia, “Kei te rongo au i te pu-maire a Uenuku!” Ka ui atu a Turi, “Tera! whakarangona nga kupu!” Katahi ka korerotia atu e Rongorongo nga kupu i rongo ai ia. Katahi ka karanga atu a Turi, “E! ko nga hara i Awarua!” Kua mohio mai ia he mate tera mona me ona tamariki me tona iwi. (Nga tamariki a Turi i whanau ki rawahi, ki Hawaiki, ko Turanga-i-mua, ko Tane-roa—he wahine—ko Potiki-roa).
Heoi, kua mohio ia—a Turi—tera ratou e mate katoa i a Te Tini-o-Uenuku. Ka mahara ia kia tikina a “Aotea” waka i tona hunga-wai, i a Toto, hei ara ma ratou ko tona whanaunga. Ka tae a Turi ki te huru-kuri, he awarua; te ingoa o taua huru ko Potaka-tawhiti. E waru nga kiri kuri i taua huru; na ra nga ingoa o aua kuri:—
Katahi ka hoatu i taua huru ki te wahine, ki a Rongorongo, ka ki atu, “Haere! ka kimi mai i tetehi huarahi mo tatou i a Toto.” Ka haere te wahine ra ki tona papa, ki a Toto, ka karanga atu ki a ia, “I haere mai au ki tetehi waka mo matou.” Ka uia mai e te papa, “E haere ana koutou?” Ka ki atu a Rongorongo, “Ae! e haere ana - 203 matou, ka whakarere i tenei whenua.” Heoi, katahi ka homai e te tangata ra ko “Aotea” hei waka mo tana tamahine raua ko te tane, a, ka hoatu hoki e te wahine ra, te huru, a Potaka-tawhiti, ka hoatu ki te matua (ara, he utu-matua). Ko etehi o nga waka o Toto i hoatu ki era tamahine ana.
Heoti, ka whakariterite a Turi ma mo te haere, ara, mo te hoenga mai ki Aotea-roa; he maha nga utanga o taua waka a “Aotea” koia a “Aotea-utanga-nui.” Kua huihui mai era waka ki te tauranga; ko “Te Arawa,” i a Whakaoti-rangi, tera waka; ka utaina katoa nga waka, Akuanei, ko Kauika, he tangata mohio, he tangata karakia, he tohunga mai no mua, ka eke hoki ia me Turi katoa ki runga ki te waka, koia te kai-whakatere i te waka, ara, ki te karakia. Tenei nga tangata o runga o “Aotea,” ara:—
Ko nga hapu i aua tangata, ko Ngati-Rongotea, Ngati-Kahu. Ngati-Rangi, Ngati-Tai, Ngati-Kauika.
He nui nga iwi ki runga ki a “Aotea,” kaore i te mohiotia etehi—ko Taranaki, ko Ngati-Ruanui, ko Nga-Rauru, ko Whanganui ko Ngati-Apa, ko Mua-upoko me etehi atu. Na! he waka ano a “Kura-haupo,” tona ingoa tawhito ko “Tarai-po,” ko Ruatea te rangatira. Otira i pakaru taua waka ki Rangi-tahua, a, ka eke mai a Ruatea, a Hatonga ki runga ki a “Aotea.” I te rerenga mai o “Aotea” raua ko “Kura-haupo,” ka u mai raua ki te moutere nei, otira, i a raua e whakaeke ana ki uta ka mate a “Kura-haupo,” haere tonu iho ki te moana. Ko nga tangata me nga utanga ka utaina ki runga ki a “Aotea.” No te unga ki taua moutere katahi ka tu nga tira a Turi, ka tu te tahua a Turi—ko taua tahua, e rua nga kuri hei whakahere ki te atua, kotahi o aua kuri i tapaea matatia, kotahi i tapaea mao-atia. Na taua tahua a Turi i huaina ai te ingoa o taua moutere ko Rangi-tahua. Ko te wahi i mate ai a “Kura-haupo” i huaina ko Te-Au-o-kura. I mua atu ia o tenei wa, kaore he ingoa o Rangi-tahua. No konei te ingoa o “Aotea utanga nui,” no te utanga o “Kura-haupo” ara, te tangata, te taonga, te atua, te korero, te kai, me era atu mea, ka huia atu ki nga utanga ake o “Aotea.”
Na! ko nga taonga enei a Turi i eke mai i runga i a “Aotea”—
Nga atua i riro mai i runga i a “Aotea”—
Nga mana i riro mai i runga i a “Aotea”—
Nga Tipua nana i kawhaki mai i a “Aotea,” tokowha, ara:—
Te Awa o “Aotea,” te karakia i te haerenga mai i te moana:—
Mo te toko tenei:—
Ko te tapuae na Turi, mo tona waka, mo “Aotea,” kia tere ai te rere:—
Heoti; ka rere mai te waka nei, i Rangi-tahua. A, ka tae ki waenga-nui moana, ka mea atu a Potoru ki a Turi, “E Turi! me tika te ihu o te waka ki te ra-tō.” Ko Potoru hoki i te ihu o te waka, ko Turi i te kei, me Tuau, me Kauika hoki. Ka mea atu a Turi ki a Potoru, “Kao! me tika taua ki te ra hurunga.” Ka tohe atu a Potoru me tika raua ki te ra-tō; ka tautohetohe a raua kupu i konei mo to raua waka e rere ra, a roa noa iho, ka riro i te tohe a Potoru, a, ka tika tonu ta raua waka ki Te Tautope-ki-te-uru, katahi ka rumakina te waka ki reira ki Te Korokoro-o-te-Parata. E waru nga taumanu o te waka i ngaro i te wai. Ka ki a Turi ka mate ia. Katahi ia ka tu ki runga ka whakaunu i tona waka koia tenei:—
He karakia ano tenei:—
Ka kapu a Turi ki te tatā nei, ki a Te Ririno-o-te-rangi ka hapainga te karakia:—
Heoi ano, kua ea te wai o te waka nei. Katahi a Turi ka tino mohio he kohuru ta Potoru i a ia. Katahi ka hopukia iho a Potoru, ka panga ki roto ki te wai. Na! koia “Hurihanga.” Ka totohu ki roto ki te wai, koia “Tapō”; no te pueatanga ki runga i te wai, koia “Maiea.” He ingoa hou katoa enei, i tapā ki a Potoru. Te kitenga a Maru, ka rere ki runga ki te tangata e mānu haere i te wai ra, ara, ki te whakaora i a ia, me te karanga mai ki a Turi, “Tama ra! Tama ra! kia au ra iana; me uta atu au ki runga ki te papa-teretere o Aotea. Kia whakamau mai koe ki au, he ruru, he kato; kia whakamau taua ki te whetu mata-nui. E kore e penei mai tamaiti pukana-nui, kei tu-whenua taua.” Heoi, ka utaina mai a Potoru raua ko te atua ki runga ki a “Aotea.” Na te atua i tika ai, i whakaae ai a Turi kia eke raua ki runga ki te waka. Ka aranga i konei te whakawai nei:—
He tapuae ano tenei i tere ai a “Aotea” ki uta:—
Heoi ano: Kua tae mai a Turi me tona waka ki uta nei, i poua ki waenganui o Kawhia, o Aotea—no reira taua ingoa, a Aotea—no te waka. Ka toia te waka ki uta, ko te ihu kei te moana, ko te kei ki uta. Katahi ka whakaawhitia nga tangata me te waka, koia te ingoa nei a Ka-whia.
Heoti; kua u mai ratou ki Aotea-roa nei. Katahi a Turi ma ka haere mai ma uta. Na Turi i whakahua te ingoa o Mokau, o Ure-nui, o Wai-tara, o Mangati, o Oakura (i whakakitea te kura ki reira, a Hunakiko), o Wai-ngongoro me etahi atu wahi, a tae atu ana ki Patea, ka tuaina e ia te ingoa o taua awa ko Patea-nui-a-Turi.
Ka toua te karaka ki reira e Turi, te ingoa ko Te Pou-o-Turi. Ka noho, ka hanga tona whare ko Matangi-rei, kei tenei taha o Patea, kei Rangi-tāwhi (e tata ana ki te teihana-rerewe). Ka mahi i tana māra ko Hekeheke-i-papa kei Rangi-tāwhi ano. Tana ko, ko Tupu-i-whenua. Ka koia atu te māra, e waru nga wakawaka, toua atu nga purapura e waru. Ka tae ki te ngahuru ka hauhaki mai; te putanga e waru rau nga kete.
Heoi ano, ka noho nei a Turi ratou ko ana tamariki ki to ratou nei kainga i Rangi-tāwhi. Ka whanau ki reira tana tamaiti a Tonga-potiki. - 209
Heoi; ka kaumatua a Turi, ka haere ia, ka mate atu. Kaore e mohiotia te wahi i mate ai ia, i hoki pea ki Hawaiki, kaore i mate ki tenei motu, i ngaro tonu atu, i haere pea i runga i te ara taniwha.
Kia ngaro a Turi ka moe-tane tana tamahine, a Tane-roa ka moe i a Uhenga-puanake, no “Takitumu”—he tamaiti na Tamatea. Ka hua te tamaiti i roto i te kopu o Tane-roa, ka hiakai te tamaiti; katahi ka patua nga kuri o Turanga-i-mua hei kai māna, ka patua hunatia e te tane a te wahine ra, hei kai ma tana wahine. Nga ingoa o aua kuri ko Papa-tua-kura, ko Mata-ware, he momo kuri no Hawaiki mai. Na Tane-roa te kupu ki te tane kia patua aua kuri; a, ka taona, ka kainga e te wahine raua ko tana tane. Akuanei, ka kimi te tangata nona nei nga kuri, i te mea kua kore ona kuri, kua ngaro. Kua pouri ia; kimi noa, kimi noa, te kitea. Katahi ia ka haere atu ki te tuahine, ka ui atu, “Kaore ranei koe i kite i nga kuri a to whanau?” Ka ki mai tera, “Kaore!” Ka pouri tonu te whakaaro a Turanga ka hoki ki te kainga ki te kimi i nga kuri, no hea hoki! A, na te pupa ka kitea, he mea karakia i kitea ai. Katahi ka korerotia nuitia kua kitea te kaiātanga a te wahine ra; ka whakama ia, ka haere, noho rawa atu raua ko te tane ki tera taha o Patea (i te taone), ka tu te whare ki reira, ko Kai-kāpo. I whanau ki reira nga tamariki a te wahine ra. A, kia tupu aua tamariki ra ka ki iho te wahine ra ki aua tamariki, “Ka kite koutou i te ahi e ka mai i tawahi; na o koutou tuakana; hei kai ma koutou a koutou tuakana.” He kanga hoki tena ki nga tungane. Ka wahi i konei nga iwi, nga tamariki a Turi. Noho ana te wahine ra i tera taha, noho ana nga uri tane i tenei taha. Ka mau tonu te raruraru i roto i a Nga-Rauru, i a Ngati-Rua-nui, a, patu ana tetehi i tetehi, kai ana tetehi i tetehi a, taea noatea te Whakapono.
Na! ka wahi atu nga uri a Turi, ko te ara wahine i tera taha, ko te ara tane i tenei taha ki te tonga, a e noho nei. A, ko enei korero he mea tuku iho i o matou tupuna i a Turi ano, tae iho ki a matou.
Tenei nga ingoa o a matou whare-wananga, timata mai i a Turi, a, tae iho ki a matou, ara:—
Na! Koia nei toku whakapapa i a Turi:—
He tane katoa enei, he matamua katoa; he kawai-ariki tenei.- 211
THE “AOTEA” CANOE.
THE MIGRATION OF TURI TO AOTEA-ROA (NEW ZEALAND).
THE Society has already published accounts of two of the celebrated canoes that formed part of the fleet in which the ancestors of the Maoris came here about the year 1350, viz., Te Arawa and Mata-atua canoes, the descendants of whose crews are to be found in the Bay of Plenty. It has long been desirable to secure an authentic account of the “Aotea” canoe, whose crew settled on the Taranaki and Cook Strait coasts at about the same time as the fleet arrived, the more so, as the accounts repeated by the Maoris in later years have given rise to considerable discussion amongst themselves, and many of the statements are contradicted. Sir George Grey in his “Nga mahinga a nga tupuna,” published in 1854, has given one version of the “Aotea” history, which was supplied to him by the father of Tauke, a well-known native chief of the Ngati-Ruanui tribe of Patea and neighbourhood, and who is probably the best living authority for the history of that tribe. Beyond the above no full account has appeared, and some portions even of that have been disputed. We are, therefore, fortunate to obtain the following, as it is derived from a source that seems to me unquestionable as far as it goes, and, moreover, it is, I believe, the first time the Nga-Rauru tribe—to which H. Tautahi belongs—has ever allowed their ancient history to be written in full.
The circumstances under which the following matter was obtained are as follows:—Our energetic corresponding member, T. Tarakawa, being on a visit to the Nga-Rauru tribe, told them of several matters he had learned from me in reference to the homes of their ancestors in Eastern Polynesia, in which they were greatly interested, and at a meeting of the tribe they decided to send me an invitation to visit them, when they promised to give me their version of the “Aotea” story. The following is the result of my visit, which I hasten to lay before the Society. Old Tautahi knows of the work of the Polynesian Society, and says that he had heard that imperfect accounts of “Aotea” had reached us, and that he particularly desired that a true account should be furnished to us.- 212
It is unlikely that the matter Tautahi dictated to me will pass unchallenged by other tribes whose ancestors came in “Aotea,” but I question if any man living has a greater right to speak authoritatively on the subject. He claims that after the division that separated Turis' children, all his sons remained with the Nga-Rauru tribe, and his daughter married and left the tribe. Hence, as the tribal history, etc., passed by custom to the sons, generally to the first-born, they have retained the true history. The descendants by the daughter, not having been taught in the tribal whare-wananga with all the ceremonies and rites customary, can only know by hearsay, and imperfectly. Moreover, Tautahi has supplied—which has, I think, never been done before—a list of the tribal whare-wananga, or houses in which their sacred history was taught, from the arrival of the “Aotea” canoe down to the time when such things ceased to exist. He claims that the teachers in these “houses of learning” inherited the knowledge that descended to them in unbroken sequence from the very celebrated house, Whare-kura, which was situated in far Hawaiki, not Hawaiki-Rangiatea, from which Turi migrated to New Zealand, but a far older one, but which particular one is not now known. This statement causes some surprise, because Tahitian history, so far as at present known, indicates Opoa in Rai'atea (Rangiatea) Island as the site of this seat of learning, and as the place where the great disruption of tribes took place through schism in the teachings of rival priest-hoods, which were then known as the Ao-tea and Ao-uri factions, the first representing the Eastern Polynesian, the second the Western Polynesian. This serious split is known (traditionally) to both Tahitians and Maoris, but it has no direct bearing on the “Aotea” story.
The matter dictated by Tautahi is as full as I could get it, but he often spoke too fast to allow of his being followed in shorthand, so that some detail has necessarily been omitted. Tautahi is an old man of about seventy, quite blind, but retains all his faculties. We will now follow his stories, my notes appearing in brackets.
“The growth, or origin of man was in Te Paparoa-i-Hawaiki, and they came from there, spreading from that Paparoa-i-Hawaiki—spreading to the Islands of the great ocean and dwelling there. The man was named Nga-ruarangi; it was he who migrated from that land; his canoe was named “Takere-o-toitaha.” There were a great many people who migrated from Te Paparoa-i-Hawaiki, but the man whose name is most celebrated was he—Nga-ruarangi.
[This name—Te Paparoa-i-Hawaiki—is new to me as one of the names for Hawaiki and it is abundantly evident from what follows, that it is not the Hawaiki from whence the Maoris came to New Zealand, clearly it is very much more ancient. The translation of the first part of the name, is the “long-flat” or plain, and in view of - 213 what has been written in “Hawaiki”1 as to the origin of the Polynesian Race, as derived from Rarotonga sources, I am much inclined to refer this name to India, but the point is doubtful. Nga-rua-rangi is a name not, I think, previously known to Maori genealogists, nor could I obtain his position with regard to well-known people. He is not mentioned either on the long lines of ancestry obtained in Rarotonga. The following were given to me as the names of mountains in Te Paparoa-i Hawaiki:—Apaapa-te-rangi, Tipua-o-te-rangi, Tawhito-o-te-rangi, Tawhiti-nui, and Hikurangi. It is probable that the latter name is that particular Hikurangi with which is connected the story of the flood.]
“The islands which they visited in their passage over the great ocean are:—Whanga-paraoa, Tutuhira, Raro-henga, Kuparu, Wawau-atea and Maiteka. There are very many islands on this side of Whanga-paraoa, such as Onetu, Onehunga, Onerere, and others. These are the islands they came to as they voyaged along in their canoes. The following are the names of some of those canoes:—‘Takere-o-toitaha,’ ‘Rangi-tăkō,’2 ‘Hakirere,’ ‘Karamu-raunui,’ ‘Tata-taiore,’ ‘Whaka-rewarewa,’ ‘Rangi-totōhu,’ ‘Rangi-kekero,’ and ‘Pahi-tonoa’ which was the canoe of Rauru. These are the canoes that I am clear about as coming from Te Paparoa-i-Hawaiki and as far as Hawaiki-Rangi-atea, that is, some of them only reached there,—‘Takere-o-toitaha,’ ‘Rangi-takō,’ ‘Hakirere’"†" and ‘Pahi-tonoa.’3 Some of the canoes turned off towards the sun-set, and all of them were lost.”
[With reference to these islands at which the people stayed or called at, in their easterly progress, the first, Whanga-paraoa, I do not recognise in Maori tradition previously. It is the name given to the place where the fleet of six canoes assembled on the east shores of the Bay of Plenty, after their arrival in this country, but the one named above, from the orderly sequence in which the names of islands that follow are given, is clearly to the west or north-west of Samoa and is probably an ancient name for one of the Fiji groups, now lost or over-laid by Melanesian names. With regard to the rest, Tutuhira may easily be recognised for Tutuila the third in size of the Samoan group, Rarohenga is Olosenga of the same group, Kuparu is Upolu likewise of the same group, (the Samoans have not retained the Maori “k,” and “a” and “o” are inter-changeable vowels in the Polynesian language. The Rarotongans call Upolu, Kuporu.) Wawau-atea is Porapora island of the Society Islands, the ancient name of which was Vavau. Maiteka, is Osnaberg island, called by the Tahi-tians Maite'a, and by the Paumotuans, Mekiteka. Thence they went to Hawaiki-Rangiatea. The above course of progressive - 214 migration is strictly in accord with Rarotonga tradition, except, that we now learn that this particular branch of the Polynesians occupied Maiteka before Rangi-atea, which is Ra'iatea of the Society group. (The Ra'iatea and Tahiti people omit the “ng” in all words.) It is remarkable that this story omits any reference to Tawhiti-nui or Tahiti, which lies between Maiteka and Rangi-atea, but the reason is to me tolerably plain. These people are a separate tribe, and a separate migration from those who came here with the fleet from Tahiti in circa 1350 and only retain the names of islands occupied by their own immediate ancestors. The islands beginning with “One” are not known to me, but it is highly probable from the translation of the names, that they refer to some of the Paumotu or Low Archipelago not far to the eastward of Maiteka, which are mostly low atolls. The account does not say that they called at these islands on their migration but that they are names of islands “this side” of Whanga-paraoa, “this side” being the side towards which the migration travelled, i.e., towards the east. It is well known now from Rarotonga traditions that the ancestors of the Maoris were in the habit of visiting the Paumotu group. Motiwhatiwha, and Motu-tapu are also mentioned as islands that were known, but apparently not visited by the migration. Motu-tapu is so common a name it may be anywhere, and Motiwhatiwha can be shown to be the island Matietie of Rarotongan traditions by following the simple rules of letter changes in the Polynesian language. For instance, the Rarotongans do not pronounce the “wh” of Maori, the common Maori causitive prefix whaka, is spelt and pronounced in Rarotonga, aka. Hence we have the name reduced to Motiatia and as “a,” “e,” “o,” inter-change without altering the meaning, the word becomes Matietie, the name of an island lying somewhere north of Fiji, but which is not known, as it has now received some more modern name.]
“Rauru was one of those who settled permanently in Hawaiki-Rangiatea; others, I do not know the names of. This is the genealogy of Rauru:—
Family Tree. Toi-te-huatahi=Rongo-wairere-ki-ao(f), Rurangi=Rongo-ue-roa(f), 1Rauru, 2Te Awa-nui, 3Tahatiti, 4Riki, 1Rakau-maui, 2Hatonga, 3Piha-i-mua, Rongotea-taukarihi, 1Puru-ora, 2Pau-matua, 1Turi, 2Kiwa
“We have now arrived at Hawaiki-Rangiatea.”
[With regard to this genealogy a great deal might be said, but those amongst us who have often puzzled over the several men of the name of Toi, are not yet prepared to make a definite statement. It will suffice to say that Toi-kai-rakau, the ancient ancestor of so many tangata-whenua Maoris, also had a son named Rauru, and another named Awa-nui-a-rangi. But it is abundantly clear to me that Toi-te-huatahi herein referred to is not identical with Toi-kai-rakau, though the evidence of this is too long to quote. Suffice it to say that this Toi (Toi-te-huatahi) and his son Rauru, are both to be found in Rarotonga genealogies, and that they flourished about the period of the great migration from Fiji and Samoa to eastern Polynesia, according to the above traditions. Turi, herein shown, is the captain of the “Aotea” canoe who migrated to New Zealand circa 1350, and who is well known to the Tahitian traditions. He was born at Mahaina on the island of Tahiti, and thence migrated to Ra'iatea, thence to New Zealand (see “Hawaiki.”)]
“It was Turi and his brother Kewa that were concerned in the war at Awarua against Uenuku. This was a very great war, the land at Awarua being the cause of it, through Uenuku's seizing of the land for his own. Turi met them in battle and the Tini-o-Uenuku tribe were defeated, and Kemo, Uenuku's younger brother, was killed by Kewa, hence arose the saying, ‘Do not end the (karakias) at Awarua.’”4
After that people had suffered a severe defeat by Turi, Uenuku was very much troubled about it, and in consequence murdered Turi's son, named Potiki-roroa. When Turi learned that his son was dead, he then killed the son of Uenuku, named Awe-potiki—he was killed in the stream (other traditions give the name of this stream as Waima-tuhirangi), the body was then pulled ashore and the eyes gouged out and cooked with pohata (native cabbage). When the native oven was ready, Uenuku was invited to come and partake of the food with Turi. Turi concealed the fact that the child's eyes were cooked with the food. When Uenuku arrived the food was spread out, and Uenuku stretched forth his hand for some of the pohata. Behold! then flashed the lightning in the oven. Uenuku thus soliliquised: “O Awe, my child! thou art absent from the feast. Where art thou now the food is ready?” Turi then exclaimed: “A! perhaps he is within the great belly of Toi!” (referring to his ancestor Toi, grand- - 216 father of Rauru). This was enough, Uenuku arose and returned home; he at once knew (from Turi's remark) that it was his own child that he had been eating.”
[It is stated that this great fight took place at Awarua. Now Avarua is the name of the opening in the reef at Ra'iatea (or Rangi-atea) now called Ava-piti, piti being the modern Tahitian equivalent for the old word rua. Just opposite the opening is the principal settlement of Ra'iatea, where the U.S.S. Co.'s steamers call once a month; it is the headquarters of the French government in the island. About four miles to the south lies the celebrated marae of Opoa or Taputapu-atea, the most sacred place in eastern Polynesia. No more serious insult could have been offered to Uenuku than giving part of his own son to him as food. The incident shows that the cannibal habits acquired by this branch of the Polynesians in Fiji, was well established at this time, i.e., circa 1350. The “flashing of the lightning in the oven,” was, I would suggest, the bursting of one of the basaltic stones which strew the shore at Avarua, but similar incidents are frequently alluded to in Maori history, and are considered as aitua, or ill-omens.]
“At night, Uenuku called a council to consider what should be done in the case of Ngati-Rongotea, which was the name of Turi's hapu, or tribe, and also how Turi should be punished. During the proceedings, Rongorongo, who was Turi's wife, went forth from their house—which was named Rangi-atea—to quiet her child. Whilst there she heard the karakia-makutu or incantation to bewitch, of that man—of Uenuku—which is as follows:—
Prepare (thy powers ye gods) above,
Prepare them then, to destroy,
Sweet will be first food (of revenge),
Bind then Rongo (Ngati-Rongo),
Agitated is my heart
Who was laid on top
Of the food-stage of Tane,5
Bind firmly Rongo,
Go forth and fetch- 217
The many of Ngati-Rongotea,
Drag them hither, lead them here,
That they may be destroyed, extinguished,
The first food will be sweet,
Bind firmly Rongo,
Thy hips were cut in two,
Thy hips were burnt,
Thy hips were eaten going along
On the high food-stage of Tane;
Bind firmly Rongo,
The woman listened to catch the words, and then returned to her and Turi's house, and said to him: “I have been listening to the pu-maire of Uenuku.” Turi said to her: “Let me hear the words!” Then Rongorongo repeated the words which she had heard, at which Turi exclaimed: “Oh! It is the sin at Awarua!” He knew at once it was intended to kill him, his children, and his people (Turi's children, born in Hawaiki, were Turanga-i-mua, Tane-roa—a female—and Potiki-roa).
Turi also knew that in the end they would be defeated by the Tini-o-Uenuku tribe. He therefore decided to send for the “Aotea” canoe, belonging to his father-in-law Toto, as a way of escape for him and his relatives (by migrating). He then took a valuable dog-skin cloak—a double one—the name of which was Potaka-tawhiti. There had been eight dog skins used in making this cloak, the names of the dogs being:—
Turi gave the cloak to his wife, Rongorongo, and said: “Go! seek a way for us with Toto!” So the woman went to her father, to Toto, and said to him: “I came to fetch a canoe for us.” The father asked: “Are you departing (from here)?” to which Rongorongo replied: “Yes; we are going to abandon this land.” Enough, the old man gave “Aotea” as a canoe for his daughter and her husband, whilst she presented him with the dog-skin cloak, called Potiki-tawhiti, such a present being called an utu-matua. Some of Toto's other canoes were given to his other daughters.
[It is nothing uncommon for a Polynesian to retain correctly the whole of the words of a long karakia, or song, at first hearing. The powers of memory in a race in the same culture stage as they, are very astonishing to us, who habitually use artificial memories in the shape of writing. So there is nothing wonderful in Rongorongo retaining the words of the incantation. The “sin at Awarua” (te hara i Awarua) is very often alluded to in native songs. It refers here to Uenuku's defeat at Turi's hands, but I am inclined to think it really originated at the great division between Eastern and Western Polynesians already referred to. The Ra'iatea account of Toto—which I learned from a very well-informed woman of that island, at - 218 Tahiti—is, that he was a man possessed of many canoes, much land, and great power. The publication of the names of the dogs from whose skins this celebrated cloak was made will clear up many obscure references in old Maori songs.]
“Turi now made preparations for his departure, that is, for his voyage to New Zealand. In consequence of the many things with which the canoe was freighed, she is known as “the richly laden Aotea.” The other canoes had all assembled at the landing place; “Te Arawa,” belonging to Whakaoti-rangi (another of Toto's daughters), and all were laden for the voyage. At this time the learned man Kauika also joined the canoe; he was a tohunga, or priest, by profession; he joined Turi, and became the director of her course, by means of his karakias. The following are the names of those men (besides women and children) who came in “Aotea”:—
The tribes represented by these men were:—Ngati-Rongotea, Ngati-Kahu, Ngati-Rangi, Ngati-Tai, and Ngati-Kauika.
There were many tribes on board “Aotea” (i.e., ancestors of tribes now in existence), some of which are not now known, but some of them are:—Ngati-Ruanui, Nga-Rauru, Whanganui, Ngati-Apa, Mua-upoko, and others (all well-known Cook Strait tribes).
Now, there was another canoe also, named “Kura-haupo,” the former name of which was “Tarai-po,” and Ruatea was her captain, but that canoe was wrecked at Rangi-tahua, and Ruatea, Hatonga, and others of her crew came on board “Aotea.” On the voyage of “Aotea” and “Kura-haupo” they landed at this island. But as they did so the “Kura-haupo” was wrecked, and sunk in the sea. The crew and their possessions were taken on board “Aotea.” After they had landed on the island, Turi set up his altar and made his sacrifice to the gods—there were two dogs offered in sacrifice, one alive, the other cooked. It was in consequence of this sacrifice (tahua) that the island was named Rangi-tahua (place, or day of sacrifice), and the place where “Kura-haupo” was wrecked was called Te-Au-o-kura. Before that time this island had no name. Through this wreck also arose the name “The-richly-laden-Aotea,” because the cargo of “Kura-haupo” was added to that of “Aotea,” i.e., men, goods, gods, history, food and other things.
[It seems from this story that the other canoes of the fleet came to Ra'iatea (Rangi-atea) and started for New Zealand about the same time. It is highly probable that the news of the migratory expedition - 219 to New Zealand had spread from Tahiti to Ra'iatea, for the islands are only 140 miles apart, and that this news, coming just at the time of Turi's anticipated trouble with Uenuku, would act as an incentive to him and his party to emigrate also. The course these canoes would take from Tahiti to Rarotonga would be viâ Ra'iatea, in order to be more certain of the direction, and as a resting place on the long voyage. It is clear, however, that “Aotea” either did not start from Ra'iatea with the others or that she separated from the fleet on the way, for her name is not known at Rarotonga, whilst those of the other six canoes forming the fleet are preserved there. It appears certain that all the navigators of the canoes knew where they were going, and also the direction in which to steer with considerable accuracy, and I feel sure that Rangi-tahua island had been appointed a rendezvous on the way, it being just in the course from Rarotonga to the northern parts of New Zealand, that is, if Rangi-tahua is Sunday Island, which there are strong reasons for believing to be the case, though it would take too long to state them here.
In this account we have the definite statement made that the “Kura-haupo” canoe was wrecked at Rangi-tahua, which confirms the Taranaki account published in this Journal, vol. ii., p. 189, with this difference, that the latter story says that the wreck took place at Hawaiki. It seems more probable it took place at Rangi-tahua, for the “Kura-haupo” called in with the fleet at Rarotonga. The crew of “Kura-haupo” seem to have been distributed between the “Aotea” and “Mata-atua” canoes and came on with them to New Zealand. Other accounts say that this wrecked canoe was subsequently repaired and followed the fleet to New Zealand. With respect to the names of the people who came in the canoe, those commencing with Kahui, are families. When members of the same family bear the same name (like our surnames) they are alluded to as Kahui. See the genealogy at the end of this paper.]
“The following was Turi's ‘outfit’ on board the ‘Aotea’”:—
The gods that were brought over in “Aotea” were:—
The minor gods were:—
The măna brought over in “Aotea” were:—
These were all stones, called whatu, such as were made by the men of old, and much carved and very precious.
The “tipuas” (monsters of the sea) that aided “Aotea” on her course were four in number:—
These were the helpers of “Aotea” on the breaking waves of ocean, as they came across the great Deep.
[Turi's paddle is said to have been in existence quite recently. But it appears doubtful if any wooden object would remain intact for over 500 years, unless some extraordinary care were taken in preserving it. At the present day in Polynesia, paddles are usually made of Hau (the Hibiscus), which is a perishable wood. Arms were usually made of Toa (Casuarina), a much harder and more durable wood. The names of Turi's “outfit” are interesting, as indicating the common practice of all Polynesians to give names to their personal belongings, which were often in addition endowed by them with supernatural powers. The translation of the names may be given as follows:—The paddle=“The extinction of Fiji”; the spear=“The paralyzing power of Heaven”; the bailer=“The Maelstrom of Heaven;” the axe=“The encircler of Heaven.” There is a very interesting history attached to this axe, which is still in possession of the Nga-Rauru tribe, but hidden away in a secret place only known to a few. It is too tapu for any white man to see. In the appendix hereto, will be found an account of the finding of this illustrious axe.
The gods brought over were probably in the form of small idols such as are figured in the “Internationales Archiv für Ethnographie,” Bd. xii., 1899, the originals of which came from the Taranaki coast. None of Turi's atuas are of the supreme rank, but are tribal gods; Maru, however, is known to the Hawaiians, which is an additional proof of the connection between that people and the Maoris, which is otherwise clear from common ancestry.
The măna, brought by Turi, were hollow stones called whatu, which were carved and ornamented, and were highly treasured as representing a link between their old home and their new one.6
The tipuas cannot exactly be said to be “guardian angels,” but - 221 are rather monsters of the deep, familiar spirits of the great ones of old, that were amenable to karakia and supposed to assist their masters. Amongst these we find Toi-te-huatahi, an ancestor of Turi's.
Every tribe had an “Awa,” or karakia, for calming the sea, and securing prosperity for the voyage. The following is that for the “Aotea” canoe, when she started on her long voyage of some 2500 miles. In this and the karakias to follow I have done my best to render them into English, but many parts are obscure, and it is not unlikely I have sometimes quite missed the meaning the old Tohungas had in their minds, and, moreover, the meaning of words has probably changed since they were composed.]
The Awa of “Aotea.” “Aotea” is the canoe,
Turi is the man on board,
Te Roku-o-whiti is the paddle.
Close to the side, the paddle,
Encircle the side, the paddle,
Forward, standing, the paddle,
Forward, flying, the paddle,
Forward, springing, the paddle,
Forward, flapping, the paddle.
The paddle! up is the paddle, O Rangi!- 222
The paddle of whom?
'Tis the paddle of Te Kau-nunui,
The paddle of whom?
'Tis the paddle of Te Kau-roroa—
The paddle of Great Heavens above.
Now the (course of the) canoe rests
On the place of Rehua's7 eyes
Horizontal will I place the handle
Of my paddle, Te Roku-o-whiti,
To cross over, rattling along,
To fly along, rattling along,
To be light, rattling along,
The up-rising, the up-lifting,
The thrusting in, the dragging hither,
The whirling, the turning round,
Of the spray of the water,
Of this paddle of mine.
Like the far-off sky,
Like the uplifted sky,
Like the great expanse of Tu,
Now does the way part.
The way of this first-born chief,
The way of this section of a tribe,
The way of Great Heaven above.
Name the handle of my paddle, then,
'Tis the Heavens elevated.
'Tis the Heavens uplifted.
'Tis the Heavens that stretch thither.
'Tis the Heavens that extend hither.
'Tis the Heavens where stands Dread.
'Tis the Heavens where stands the thrust.9
'Tis the Heavens where stands the power.
'Tis the Heavens where stands the tapu.
Now does the way part,
The way of Tane-matohe-nuku,10
The way of Tane-matohe-rangi,‡
The way of the Kau-nunui,11
The way of the Kau-roroa,§
The way of this chief,
The way of the great Heavens above,
Hold on (the course) to Rehua—12
To the son in the world of light,
Lift her up, Hae!
The following is for Turi's spear:—
Aotea is the canoe,
Turi is the man,
Anewa-i-te-rangi is the spear.
Upraise the spear (to strike),
Guard with the spear,
Thy angry face,
Thy pounded face,
Thy slit face,
Thy riven face,
Exhibit (the powers of a) man,
Go and search for water
It wells up!
By thy calm seas,
Rise to the surface by thy reddish sea,
Tangaroa! be with me.
Turis's tapuae14 for his canoe, for “Aotea,” to hasten the speed:—
Recite, the tapuae of my canoe,
Stretch forth, away,
The tapuae of my canoe,
Let her stand up, let her move,
Be moved by whom?
Moved by the bird—
With outstretched wings to fly.
Spread out the wings of my bird to a distance;
And so, the canoe “Aotea” came away. When they had reached mid ocean, Potoru 16 said to Turi, “O Turi! direct the bows of the canoe to the sun-set.” Potoru's place was in the bows of the canoe, whilst Turi's was at the stern, together with Tuau and Kauika (the priests). Turi said to Potoru, “No! let us steer for the sunrise.” But Potoru insisted that they should go towards the sunset, and in consequence strife took place as to the proper direction for their canoe to steer, which after a long time was settled as Potoru insisted, and hence, their canoe went straight to the Tautope-ki-te-uru, where she began to sink to Te Korokoro-o-te-Parata. Eight thwarts of the canoe were under water. Turi thought they would all be lost; then he arose and withdrew his canoe, thus:—
Karakia, to withdraw the “Aotea” from the depths—
This is my prayer (incantation)
(Dwelling) above on the source of squally winds,
I will shoulder my axe,
Named Awhio-rangi, Wai-o-rua,
Returned up above,
Returned down below,
To the world of being
To the world of light,
Maru! open up (the waves)
Tangaroa! withdraw her!
Great ocean waves that stand there,
Give us thy help,
Keep close to me here,
Thou ridge of land that stands there,
Give us your help,
Keep close to me here,
Be near to me here.
Then Turi seized the bailer, named Te Ririno-o-te-rangi, and up-lifted his karakia:—
I will uplift my bailer now,
To the extreme limits of the heavens,
To the girdle of the heavens,
To the stability of the heavens,
To the resting place of heaven,
Adhere to the foundation of heaven,
Adhere to the summit of heaven,
Affix it to Great Heaven above,
The uprising, the uplifting,
The insertion, the bailing out,
Of the water of my canoe.
Dry up to above,
Dry up to below,
Dry up to seaward,
To the Great Heavens above,
The bailer; the Tipua-horo-nuku,
There stands the deep blue ocean,
There stands the reddish ocean,
There stands the breaking ocean,
There stands the surging ocean,
There stands the ruddy shore,
The water of my canoe,
Houra, do you
Dry up that colored water,
Of my canoe here,
Houra, do you
The sky of Tawhiri-matea18 at sea—
Strike the prow of the canoe
Dry up effectually
The sea to Hawaiki.
After this the water in the canoe arose out of her. Then Turi felt quite sure that Potoru intended to kill him (by advising the course which led them to disaster). So he caught Potoru and cast him into the water. Hence is (the expression) Hurihanga (the capsizing, over-turning). When he sank in the water came the expression Tapō, and the emergence to the surface was called Maiea (emergence).20 When Maru (the god) saw this, he flew on to the man floating along on the water, that is, to save him, at the same time calling out to Turi: - 225 “Tama ra! Tama ra! hold fast there; take me on board the drifting plank ‘Aotea.’ Take me with you, put me on board, help me in; let us direct our canoe by the great-eyed star, and it will not be long on the rising of the grimacing child (the star) that we shall reach the main land.” So Potoru and the god were taken on board the “Aotea” again. It was through the god that Turi consented to take them on board. Through this incident arose the saying: “The strife of Potoru” (often applied to an obstinate person: Ka tohe koe i nga tohe a Potoru!”
[From the other accounts of “Aotea's” voyage it appears that the disaster she met with was after they had left Rangi-tahua Island, which is believed to be Sunday Island. It would seem from the fact that Turi desired to sail towards the sun-rise, that he was apprehensive they had made too much westing already to strike New Zealand. In consequence, however, of Potoru's insistance on a westerly course, they met with the disaster, and came near sinking at Te Tai-tope-ki-te-uru, which name may be translated “The-sea-cut-off-(or sinking)-to-the-west.” I would suggest that from the course apparently taken that they fell in with the Minerva reef, and were nearly lost on it. Some of the expressions in the kirakia seem rather to favour their being near land, and the Minerva reef is dry at low water. The other name, Te Korokoro-o-Te-Parata—the throat of Te-Parata—is possibly only emblematical for the dangerous place they had gotten to, and is probably far more ancient than the fourteenth century. According to Maori story, Te Parata is the name of a monster that dwells in a certain part of the ocean, and by the inhaling and exhaling of whose breath the tides are caused. The scene with Potoru and the god Maru going to his assistance is very peculiar. Quite possibly, as so often was the case, one of the two priests was possessed of the power of ventriloquism, and thus pretended that the god Maru, which he represented, or was the medium of, spoke through Potoru as he was in the water. The “great eyed star” is said to refer to the morning star, by which Turi was advised to direct his course to ensure making land quickly, which again seems to indicate the possibility of the canoe having got too far to the westward and that they had to steer S.E. to make the coast, which they did on the west side of New Zealand, not on the east as the other canoes did; but the detail of all this is lost.]
Turi now continued his tapuae to hasten the progress of “Aotea” towards the land:—
Bear up, lift up,- 226
Arrange21 the tapwae.
Fly like feathers,
Sail as a bird,
It stands, it moves,
It slides, it slips along.
The son goes on
To his main land.
Dead is the son
Of the nautilus22
We have come forth
To the surface,
To the world of being,
To the world of light.
Proceed! O Tane-waka!23
With thy saving prayer to the land.
To the firm land ashore,
To the firm-standing mountains ashore,
To the stable land ashore,
To the Ano-a-Tu ashore.
We land! we land! ashore,
We land! we land! by the sea,
We land! we land in this strange country.
To climb mountains, be strong!
To climb cliffs, be strong!
Thy safety, thy lord,
Thou shalt eat
The heart of this stranger.
Enough! Turi and his canoe reached the land; they landed between Kawhia and Aotea, hence the name Aotea, derived from the canoe. The canoe was hauled up, the bow being towards the sea, the stern inland. Then they proceeded to Whaka-awhiawhi, the crew and the canoe, and hence is the name Ka-whia (i.e., Ka-awhia, from awhiau hi, a ceremony which appears to be used to destroy any evil influences that may exist in the strange country. The karakia for this purpose was repeated to me, but being very tapu, the reciter would not consent to its being written.)
They had now arrived at Aotea-roa (New Zealand). Then Turi and the rest of them came along (southwards) overland. It was Turi who gave names to several places along the coast, such as Mokau, Ure-nui, Wai-tara, Mangati, Oakura (where Hunakiko, the sacred stone was exhibited), Wai-ngongoro and other places, right on to Patea, which he called Great-Patea-of-Turi.
Karaka seed (brought with them) were planted there, and the place was named Pou-o-Turi. Then they settled down and there was built the house Matangi-rei, on this (south) side of Patea, at Rangi-tāwhi (not far from the Railway Station). After this he made his - 227 cultivation near Rangi-tāwhi and named it Hekeheke-i-papa. Turi's spade was named Tupu-i-whenua. When the field was planted with kumaras, there were eight hillocks in each of which was set a seed-kumara. When autumn came and the food was harvested, there were eight hundred baskets of kumaras.
[The story of Turi bringing with him the seed of the karaka tree (Coryinocarpus lœvigata) has been used by Europeans to discredit the tradition of Turi, for it grows nowhere else in the world but in the colony of New Zealand (which includes Chatham and Kermadec Islands) but if Rangi-tahua is Sunday Island, and if this was the island at which the “Aotea” canoe called, they would find the karaka tree growing there, and the fruit being new to them, doubtless they brought some of the seed on with them and planted it, notwithstanding that the tree is indigenous to New Zealand.]
“It is enough! Turi and his children dwelt at their home at Rangi-tāwhi, where his child Tonga-potiki was born, as alluded to in this old song:—
Turanga-i-mua and Tane-roa were born in Hawaiki, whilst (Turi's other son) Tu-taua was born at sea, hence his name Tu-taua the-sea-born.
Where was set up his house,
Above at Rangi-tāwhi,
Where Tonga-potiki was born,
Turi lived to be an old man, and then he departed and died at some other place, but no one knows where—perhaps he returned to Hawaiki, he did not die in this land, he disappeared totally, and maybe he returned by aid of the taniwhas.
[Other accounts of Turi's death differ somewhat. Tautahi told me that his son Turanga-i-mua was a great warrior, and that he and the priest Kauika proceeded to the north on a war expedition, and on the Auckland Isthmus—then called Tamaki—defeated the Wai-o-Hua tribe in a great battle called Te One-potakataka. After that they returned homeward by the East Coast, and near Manawatu Gorge fought a great battle with the tangata whenua or original inhabitants, where Turanga-i-mua was killed and buried, but his bones were subsequently taken to Patea. The place where he was buried, on the old mountain track north of Manawatu Gorge, is still called Te Ahu-o-Turanga—after Turi's son. On the news reaching the old father, he suddenly left his home and disappeared for ever. It is a remarkable thing, that the Ra'iatea people say that, whilst Turi never returned to his old home in Eastern Polynesia in the flesh, that his - 228 spirit did, and used to trouble them much. I leave members of the Society to suggest an explanation of this. Turi is not singular in being supposed to have made a voyage by aid of a taniwha, or sea-monster; several instances are quoted in tradition. This is simply to say, in other words, that it is not now known, or forgotten, how these taniwha-riders came here.]
After the loss of Turi, his daughter Tane-roa married Uenga-puanake, who came here in the “Taki-timu” canoe, and who was a son of Tamatea's. When the time approached for the birth of her child, Tane-roa longed for certain foods; so the dogs of Turanga-i-mua were killed for her to eat—they were killed surreptitiously by her husband as food for her. The names of those dogs were Papa-tua-kura and Mata-ware, and were of the stock brought from Hawaiki. Tane-roa incited her husband to kill these dogs; and they were cooked and eaten by her and her husband. Presently the owner of the dogs began to seek for them, seeing they were lost; he was very anxious about them. He searched, and searched in vain, and found them not. He then went to his sister and asked of her, “Hast thou not seen the dogs of thy relatives? She replied, “No!” Turanga continued to be much grieved about his loss, and searched everywhere on his return to his home, but could find nothing of them. After a time, they were found by the eructations of the eaters, which was due to incantations. After this it was proclaimed that the theft of the woman was discovered, whereat she was very much ashamed; so she and her husband arose and settled down on the other side of Patea (near the present town), and there built a house called Kai-kāpo, where her children were born.
When these children had grown up, the woman said to them: “Do you see the fires burning there across the river? They are those of your elder brethren (cousins); they shall be food for you!” This was a curse towards the elder branches. The people (Turi's descendants) separated from that time. The woman and her descendants lived on the north bank of the river, whilst the descendants of the sons remained on this (south side). Troubles have always existed, in consequence of the curse, between the tribes of Nga-Rauru and Ngati-Ruanui; the one killing the other, and often eating one another, even down to the days of the Gospel.
Behold them! the descendants of Turi separated; the female branch settled on the north side, and so they remain to this day.
Now, this history has been handed down from our ancestors, even from Turi, down to our parents.
The names of our whare-wananga, or houses of learning in which our history was taught, from the time of Turi down to our parents, are as follows:—- 229
Behold! The following is my genealogical descent from Turi; they are all males, and elder sons:—
The Finding of Te Awhio-rangi Axe.
The following account is translated and abbreviated from “Te Korimako” newspaper, No. 71, 1888, and it was written by our corresponding member, Wiremu Kauika, of the Nga-Rauru tribe of Wai-totara.- 230
“All the people of this island have heard of the axe “Awhio-rangi,” but hitherto none have seen it, since it was hidden by our ancestor Rangi-taupea, seven generations ago. It has recently been found by our people living at Okoutuku. A girl, named Tomai-rangi, who is a stranger here, but married to one of our tribe, and who was not acquainted with the tribal sacred places, went out by herself in search of hakekakeka, or fungus, and inside a hollow pukatea tree saw something gleaming which alarmed her. She rushed away crying out in alarm, whilst at the same time a fearful thunderstorm burst, with much lightning and a fall of snow, which made her quite foolish. One of our old men, named Rangi-whakairi-one, hearing the woman and seeing the storm, at once knew that someone had trespassed on a wahi-tapu, or sacred place. He therefore lifted up his karakia, and the storm ceased. Presently all the people assembled and the old man asked, “Which of you has been to Te Tieke?” The woman replied, “Which is Te Tieke?” “Behind there, near the bend in Wai-one.” Said Tomai-rangi, “I have been there, but I did not know it was a wahi-tapu. I saw something there, it was like a god, and great was my fear.” After this the people went to look at the object, and all recognised it (by description handed down) as Te Awhio-rangi. Moreover, the descendants of the guardians, Tu-tangata-kino and Moko-hiku-aru were there. (These are two makutu, or wizard gods, in the form of lizards, probably the people saw one near the place.) Rangi-whakairi-one now said a karakia, after which the axe was taken from its hiding-place, and all the people cried over this relic of their great ancestors, after which it was taken to the village.
The place where the axe had been hidden was known traditionally to the Nga-Rauru tribe, because Rangi-taupea—he who concealed it—had informed his people, saying, “Te Awhio-rangi lies hidden at Tieke on the flat above the cave of sepulchre.” That place has never been trespassed on for these seven generations, until the 10th December, 1887, when Tomai-rangi found the axe.
The people of Nga-Rauru, Whanganui and Ngati-Apa assembled to the number of 300 on the 11th December to see the axe, which was exhibited at 5 a.m. It was placed on a post so that all might see it. Then the priests, Kapua-Tautahi and Werahiko Taipuhi (those who dictated the “Aotea” story, ante) marching in front reciting their karakias, were followed by all the people, each carrying a branch in their hands, to the post, where all cried over Te Awhio-rangi.
As they approached the spot, the thunder rolled, the lightning flashed, and the fog descended till it was like night. Then the priests repeated the karakias, and it cleared up, after which the people all offered to the axe their green branches, besides the following articles: six parawai, four koroai, four paratoi, and two kahu-waero cloaks. - 231 Following the presentation, came a great wailing and crying over the illustrious axe, and then some songs were sung in which Te Awhio-rangi is referred to, one of which is as follows:—
E noho ana i te ro o toku whare—
O Te-Ao-kai-whitianga-te-ra, a, i,
Kei te mania, kei te paheke i aku taringa,
Me kohea to whare i tanumia ai,
Te muka mo to kaha whiri-kau.
He muka ano taku, i tu ki te aro auahi,
Te angiangi matangi, te whakararau o te rangi, e, i,
Kotia ki te uru o te rangi, te whakapakinga
Whakaupokoa te kaha mo nga atua
Mo taku toki.
Ka hua au, i maka ki uta, ki a Tane,
Maka ki tai ki a Tangaroa,
Hiringa wareware te ika,
Wareware ou taringa
Whakaharore popoia mango.
Ko Te Whakaipuipu te waka o Maru
Korenga te ika, i,
He wareware, kihai i rongo i nga tupu,
I te hakunetanga, i te rukuhanga matua
I te Kahui-Kore,
Ngaro atu ki te po-o-i
Te kitea ko Turou-Pokohina,
Whakaaturia niu wananga
Ko Hāhau-tunoa te waka o Te Kahui-rua
I ruku ai nga whatu, u, i
Ka rewa ki runga ra
Ko te whatu a Ngahue,
Hoaina, ka pakaru,
Te Horutu-whenua, te Horutu-maunga
Whakarawea ki a Kewa,
Ko te Kauri-whenua,
Whakarawea ki a Maui
Ko te Ihono ko Te Awhio-rangi
Whakarawea ki a Rongo
Haua iho ko Teretere-ki-ao,
Ko te Kopu-huri, te ika,
Kia rongo mai koe,
Ehara i te toki Ihu-wareware
Ko te aitanga tera a Hine-poa, Ira-pawake, e, i,
Noku te tipuna i whiti ki rawahi
Ko Torokaha, ko Te Rangi-amio te waka, a, i
He waka utanga nui taku waka
Ko Torohaki-uaua, ko Whakamere te ika,
He waka aha tou waka?
Te waka hoenga, nga hoenga papake,
Te taroa te ngoringori ki runga, a, i.
There are a great many songs about Te Awhio-rangi. In appearance this axe is ruddy (kura) like a china cup, but it is also like the breast of the Pipiwharauroa (the little cuckoo, i.e., striped), at the same time it is like nothing else. One's likeness can be seen in it. It is eighteen inches long and one inch thick, the edge is six inches broad, and the slope of the sharp edge is two and a half inches, and it is shaped like an European adze.
This axe was sought for by our ancient ancestor Rua-titi-pua in the Kahui-kore, and he brought up the “Stone of Ngahue,” i.e., Te Awhio-rangi. [Here our author shows his want of historical criticism, for Ngahue, the discoverer of the greenstone, flourished ages after the Kahui-kore, which are some of the early stages of creation.] Ngahue devised the axe to Tāne at the time that the Heavens embraced the Earth, and with it Tāne severed the muscles of Heaven and Earth. When they were separated Tāne received the name Tāne-toko-rangi (or Tāne-who-propped-up-the-heavens).
Te Awhiorangi hence became the măna for all axes in this world. [In this connection, probably măna may be translated as the “prototype,” but in a supernatural sense.] The case, or covering of Te Awhio-rangi, was named Rangi-whakakapua, the lashing (of the axe on to the handle) was called Kāwe-kairangi; the handle was called Mata-a-heihei. The axe descended in the line of elder sons from Tāne toko-rangi down to Rakau-maui, and from him to his great grandson Turi, who brought it across the seas in the “Aotea” canoe to New Zealand. Turi bequeathed it to his first-born son, Te Hiko-o-te-rangi25 (? Turanga-i-mua), and from him it descended to Rangi-taupea, who hid it in his sacred mountain of Tieke, at Moerangi, as related in the following fragment of an old song:—
E amo ana a Rangi i tana toki,
Ko Te Awhio-rangi
E whiri ana i tona kaha.
Ko te rangi-whiri-rua a Pare-te-rangi,
No te haurarotanga
Ko te Kaha-a-Paepae.
I whakarawea ki a Ru,
Ko te waro-uri,
Hoake ki a Tane,
Ko te mau tongatea,
Ko te mata toki i tika,
Tuaia ki te tangata
Ka urupa te toki
Ka eke i Moerangi-e—
[Our fellow member, the Rev. T. G. Hammond, of Patea, secured a sketch of this celebrated axe from a native who had seen it, and from this it is obvious that it is unlike the ordinary Maori axe in shape and size. It will possibly turn out to be—when we can see it—one of the great axes made of the giant Tridacna shell of Polynesia, which W. Kauika's description, as to its being like a “china cup,” seems to support.
The axe is well-known to other tribes, and, indeed, has been claimed by some, who all acknowledge its age, and that it was brought from Hawaiki. Like so many of their ancient possessions it is endowed by the Maoris with supernatural powers, and in Kauika's account is said to have been used by Tane, the god, when he separated Heaven and Earth. This is, of course, a subsequent gloss invented by some one of its owners to give additional lustre to this celebrated axe, which is looked on as a god. The translation of the songs must await help from the learned men of the tribe. They are full of historical allusions but imperfectly known to me.]
1 See this Journal vol. vii. and viii.
2 See reference to this canoe, Journal Polynesian Society, vol. vii. p. 62.
3 See Journal Polynesian Society vol. iii. p. 105, for an account of the voyage of these two canoes to bring the Taro to Hawaiki.
4 The full meaning of this is not explained by a translation of the saying which was given to me as follows:—An evil omen occurred to Turi's people before engaging in the fight, but nevertheless, at Kewa's instigation, the priest left at home reciting his karakias for the welfare of the taua, was induced to continue his operations, with the result that Turi and his party were victorious.
5 The stage on which offering were made to the Ariki.
6 Vide this Journal, vol. iii, p. 39.
7 Rehua, said to be the star Antares, and by which the canoe steered her course until Tawera, the morning star, appeared.
8 The name of one of the paddles used in one of the famous canoes that brought their ancestors to Hawaiki-Rangiatea.
9 i.e., Spear thrust of Heaven; syn: for calamity.
10 Tane—Splitter, or Separator of Heaven and Earth, which action he did, according to Maori mythology: used here symbolically for the canoe.
11 Kau here appears to be the obsolete word for “company,” hence the meaning = The great ones of old, the mighty ones of old.
12 A god, a star; said to be Antares.
13 Here we have the double form of Tane and Rongo, so frequent in Raro-tongan traditions.
14 A tapuae is a karakia to hasten the footsteps (tapuae) of one in chase of an enemy, or of one being chased—here applied to hasten the progress of the canoe across the ocean.
15 A frequent expression in karakias, sometimes Manu-te-kutikuti, but probably expressive of speed, as in the rapid descent of the gannet after its prey with closed (kutikuti) wings.
16 Potoru was said by my informant to be a man of a different tribe to Turi.
17 Said to be a man's name. do you,
18 God of gales and tempests.
19 God of ordinary winds.
20 It is said that all these names were applied to Potoru subsequently.
21 Rangaranga, literally to weave; often so used in the sense of composing or arranging the words of a song, karakia, etc.
22 Said to apply to Potoru.
23 Emblematical for the canoe as a child of Tane, god of trees, probably; but said to be an address to Tuau, one of the priests, to recitehis karakia,
24 Note.—From Puruora's younger brother Paumatua descend some of the great families of the Hawaiian Islands, but this is not the place to shew that connection.
25 No such name as this for a son of Turi's is known. It may be, however, a second name for Turanga-i-mua.