Volume 38 1929 > Volume 38, No. 152 > Maori customs pertaining to birth and baptism, by Elsdon Best, p 241-269
                                                                                             Previous | Next   

- 241
MAORI CUSTOMS PERTAINING TO BIRTH AND BAPTISM.

THE following account of various customs and ceremonial performances connected with parturition and baptism was given many years ago by a member of the Ngati-Kahungunu tribe. It is remarkable for the detailed explanation given of certain rites and usages, and illustrates the importance in native eyes of the aristocratic marriage as compared with the form observed by the ordinary folk of a community. Another account of these customs and rites obtained from other members of the same tribe agrees closely with the one here given, but includes certain data not included in this version. One of its most remarkable items consists of a description of the whakato tamariki rite, a singular performance that was believed to cause conception.

The whare kowhanga or “nest house” was a hut specially erected to serve as a lying-in hospital for an expectant mother. It was but a temporary structure and it was situated at some distance from the village home. This segregation was due to the condition of tapu that pertained to birth among the Maori people. It must be understood by readers that the elaborate proceedings herein described were observed in connection with the more important families only of a community. Much less ceremony was observed among the ordinary people of a clan.

This is a dissertation of mine on the doings of my elders, as handed down from their generations to us folk now living. But those usages are not in vogue in these times, owing to the activities of the strange peoples, of the Europeans, and their priests, and their many arts and knowledge that pervade the world. Hence our Maori knowledge and usages have been brought into contact with hot-water vessels; our bodies, garments, heads and sacred places have been contaminated by food products, such as sheep, pigs, cattle, potatoes, wheat, maize and other European foods; no single - 242 tapu place remains. The tapu of Europeans is confined to the houses of kings and queens, and this is owing to the power of money. Hence I will merely discourse on certain phases that illustrate the desires of persons who like to preserve the knowledge of the wise men of yore who have departed this world to sojourn in the next world, there to abide for ever. Our old-time knowledge is no longer favoured, and the present generation possesses but scant knowledge to preserve as a means of conserving the lore so prized by the ancients, and which was cherished as the fruits of their understanding. You of this generation are fortunate, for indistinct are the behests of the gods concerning the tapu-destroying influences that have banished them. Our thoughts dwell upon the prized receptacles of such knowledge as you collect and assemble. Let my remarks to you on this subject now cease.

When wife and husband were both of high rank, and had been married in a manner orthodox and punctilious by their parents, grandparents and also their clans, then were observed the usages now about to be explained by me.

When the condition of the woman had reached the seventh month, then the parents or grandparents of the husband ordered a “nest house” to be erected for the expectant mother. A suitable site for that nest house was sought, when it was built and completed. It was merely an inferior place, covered with totara or kahikatoa bark, or with nikau fronds, or tree-fern fronds or green flax, or toi (Cordyline indivisa), or green raupo (bulrush), these were fit material for lining such a hut. For outside covering totara or kahikatoa bark was used. If none other of these materials was available then green flax (Phormium) was used, the leaves being laced together by means of a weaving process in two bands, one near the butt ends of the leaves, and the other a cubit distant from it, the width of the fabric being one fathom. Such was the width of all sections so made so that they might be light to handle. The butt ends were placed downward in using this flax covering material. If flax was not available, then toi would be used, treated in the same manner, laced together with butts downward. Or, if no toi was obtainable, then leaves of the cabbage tree, kauka (Cordyline australis) would be used in the same manner, laced together in two places. The same method was - 243 adopted with bulrushes, laced in the same way, butts laid downward when the hut was being covered. One of the koropihanga vents was left open at the rear of the hut, and one at the front end was of a similar nature. No window was made in such a hut, lest damp and cold enter, whereby the mother or child might be affected by damp cold or chill draught. Thus it was that the vents were made just under the ridgepole of the nest house.

The length of the nest house was one and a half fathoms; the height of the walls was one fathom; the width (of the hut) was one fathom and a cubit. The high walls were employed so that the cold air would ascend and so escape from the hut. The porch was half a fathom in width (depth) and served as a sitting place for the woman. The doorway was one fathom in height, so that the woman might pass out or in in an erect manner. The screen to close the doorway was a mat, so that it was easily thrust aside by the hand of the woman when she left the hut or entered it. Only the tupopoto form of fire was used, being bound with forest vines, and a piece of green white pine bark lay handy to be used as a cover for the tupopoto fire when it was desired that the warmth within that nest house be somewhat abated.

The pit was excavated by the attendants at the back of the hut; the length, breadth and depth of that pit was one cubit; then was constructed a screen a cubit in height round the pit. That pit served as a urinal for the woman, and it was so situated because frequently resorted to by women in that condition. The spot usually occupied by the woman at meal times was in the porch just outside the doorway, at the left side. Her sleeping place within the nest house was on the right side.

It was not until her time of trial was near that the woman took up her residence in the nest house with her two tapuhi (attendants, nurses). Those attendants, or one of them, would be nearly related to her on either her mother's or her father's side, and this arrangement was made so that they would not object to the task of tending the woman, and would take every care of her, also be patient with her when she was in pain. It was considered an excellent arrangement if both attendants were near relatives of the woman.

- 244

As to the women who attended to the cooking fire in the cookshed, there is no reason why they should be spoken of, but the two attendants were constantly in attendance on the woman.

After the birth of the child, when the day arrived on which the iho (middle portion of umbilical cord) became detached, then it was that the woman left the nest house and proceeded to the wai matua waters where the tohi baptismal rite would be performed over the child.

The husband of the woman would be with her in the nest house to assist in tending his wife, and at times she would desire that he remain seated by her, that she might see him, and so that he might sympathise with her. At other times she would desire her own mother to remain by her.

Now let my remarks revert to the period of labour of the woman. When her trouble came then she entered the nest house. Then word went abroad—“So-and-so is in the nest house.” So all would understand, her grandparents, parents, clans, also the parents, grandparents and clans of her husband, and the tribe as a whole. Then commenced the assembling of articles to serve as presents, and of food supplies, in connection with the birth of the child, the baptismal rite, the ceremonial feast, and the ceremonial presentation of gifts to the child. Whether the child be male or female the proceedings in its honour were the same.

Now should the period of labour of the woman exceed four days, then trouble would ensue, and that was because the prolonged suffering was caused by some indiscretion on the part of the woman or her husband. Well, it was for the priestly expert to remove such disabilities, that is, to make enquiries as to what their shortcomings might be. Then the expert chanted the following formula:—

(See original version, p. 259)

(This peculiar recital is a calling of the infant into the world of life, the child that comes from the sheltered haven and crosses the threshold thereof, the haven in which it has acquired form, and wherein the rudiments of knowledge were acquired. And so the infant enters the world of light and life.)

- 245

As this recital was concluded the priestly expert touched the head of the woman in labour with his right hand, and the child was delivered. If not so delivered then the woman and the two attendants, and the parents of the woman, and those of her husband, and their grandparents would be conducted to the tuahu or place of rites. On arriving at that place it was arranged as to who should support the woman, and, this having been arranged, the woman knelt down so that the upper part of her abdomen was in contact with the knees of the person selected to clasp her body. Then the following formula was recited by the priestly expert of the place of rites:—

(See p. 260 for formula)

(Here again the child is called upon to come forth to the world, and to grasp in his hand the baskets of knowledge to obtain which Tane ascended to the twelfth heaven, up-borne and protected by the horde of the Wind Children. As usual, some of these charms are largely composed of utterly irrelevant matter having no bearing on the subject.)

At this juncture the priest, with his right hand, touched the crown of the woman's head. The midwife now pressed firmly with her hands and also with her knees below the lower extremity of the breastbone. Delivery would now result, whether the infant be alive or dead it would assuredly be delivered. After that the woman who had given birth and her child were conducted back to the nest house, there to remain. All residual matter, as also the umbilical cord of the child were buried at the tapu place. We now see that, should the period of labour of any woman be prolonged beyond the fourth day, then some disability pertains to the mother, or, if not to the mother, then to the husband. If no hindering disability exists in relation to these two, then there is nought to prevent the birth of the child.

Now the woman who has given birth to her child returned to abide within her nest house, and await the day on which the iho of the child should become detached, or, if the child were dead, then the woman and her attendants would return to stay in the nest house, to which also the dead infant would be taken. All mourning parties would there assemble to mourn, and not until the child had been buried would the woman abandon the nest house.

- 246

The woman would be conducted to the porch of the superior house of the village and seated therein. Then commenced the respectful greetings of the people to the woman and her husband, after which gifts consisting of native garments were placed before the woman and her husband, their parents and grandparents. Those articles were such as had been collected to be presented to the child when conveyed to the water to be baptised, that is if the child had lived; also the supplies for the feast were stacked up in front of the woman who had given birth to the dead child. After this all the articles were placed compactly together and then the feast was spread. This feast was for the whole of the assembled people, but separate portions were assigned to the husband and wife, their parents and grandparents, and separate portions to the bulk of the people.

Now, if the infant of the woman of the nest house were living then the two or more priestly experts proceeded as follows, but there would not be less than two such experts. When the wife of a man of rank was with child then the report “So-and-so is with child” was heard far and wide. Then commenced the collection of articles, whether native garments, greenstone, whales' bones or sharks' teeth, all the kinds of articles that they could possibly collect on account of that report of the conception. When these were all ready to hand the people set about collecting food supplies for the day on which the highborn child was to be baptised. Now the priestly experts would proceed to examine the waters whereat the highborn child was to be baptised. Such a place would be selected whereat there would be no likelihood of food products being cultivated by man. The questing experts having decided, then such a place was selected as highly suitable as a baptismal place for highborn folk; such decision being made then the matter was settled.

Now prior to the birth of the child the aspect of the person of the expectant mother was considered. If her left side had a wrinkled appearance and her breasts were deeply discoloured, then the child was a female. If her right side was wrinkled, and if such discolouration was confined to a small part of the breasts, then the child was a male. In some women, however, the signs are different; it depends on the physical peculiarities of the woman. If a person of poor physique and growth then the signs are - 247 difficult to discern in that sort of woman. If of spare build then the signs of such a pregnant woman are easily noted. If a stout, corpulent woman then again it is difficult to judge. Thus, when repeating his charms, if it was believed that the child was a male, the priest would say:— “Haramai, e tama,”—and if it was held to be a female child:—“Haramai, e hine,” but if it was not known as to whether the child was a male or a female, then the priest recited his formula as follows:—

(See p. 262)

(This is another form of appeal to the child to come forth to the world, and also to Io the Supreme Being for certain benefits.)

At the conclusion of this recital the priest touched the crown of the woman's head with his right hand, and then the child was born. The kind of stone used to cut the umbilical cord of the child was rehu, a form of chert, and a light-coloured kind of kărā known as huka-a-tai; a thin edged flake was struck off and rubbed on sandstone until the edge was very sharp, with which to cut the iho.

THE BAPTISMAL RITE.

Now when the pito or end of the umbilical cord fell away from the highborn child the principal priestly expert said to his assistant expert:—“You go in front.” Then the mother of the child and her husband followed behind him, then came the female parents of the wife and husband, then the two female attendants, then the male parents, these were the persons privileged to proceed to the baptismal waters. The superior priestly expert followed behind all the others. He plucked a branchlet of tawhiri (Pittosporum tenuifolium) or of mapou (Myrsine Urvillei) or, if one of these was not procurable, then any branchlet that he, the baptising expert, deemed suitable. The tohunga taurewa (assistant expert) was also known as tohunga tarahau, and tohunga tuakoi; those are all the names known to me. The tohunga waitohi 1 (tohunga tohi, tohunga wai matua) was also known as tohunga tuahu; it depended upon the duties performed by him as to what title was bestowed upon him.

- 248

When the assistant expert arrived at the place selected by him as a place for the baptising of the child then the people halted. Both the female attendants advanced to the side of the assistant and there stood together. The assistant expert grasped the mat and spread it out so that the plaited border was at the margin of the water, or the bank of the stream. When the assistant had spread the mat he took certain native garments and spread them over the mat, so that the twisted hems on the collars thereof were at the margin of the water. If a korowai cloak, or one somewhat superior, were at hand, then it would be spread on the mat, and then over it a paepaeroa cloak, or an uhipuni, or a mahiti. If a greenstone or whalebone weapon, or a taiaha were available, then the butt ends of the weapons would be placed together and the blades outward, such was the manner in which they were deposited on the cloaks. Then the taiaha was laid below them so as to elevate the short weapons, or weapon.

The woman seated herself at the left side of her husband (on the spread cloaks or paparoa as this place of honour was called). Their female and male parents stood behind them. The head of the child lay on the right arm of the mother, and its feet were to the left. The priestly experts stood at the right side, also the female attendant, the other female attendant took her stand behind the first one at a certain juncture. The chief expert who was to baptise the child now doffed his garments and entered the water until it was up to his waist, or no deeper than the navel. The branchlet brought by him was handed to him, he took that branchlet in his right hand, and, scooping up some water in his left hand, he recited:—

(See p. 263 for recital)

Having concluded this formula he dipped the branchlet in the water and extended his hand to the child, who was handed to him by the mother. The head of the child rested on his right hand; its feet were to the left. The expert turned the child, and himself, so as to face the sun, and repeated:—“Tenei to aro he aro tama,” or, if a female:—“Tenei to aro he aro wahine.” Now, we will say that the child was a male, so the expert proceeded as follows:—

(See p. 264 for recital)

- 249

(It was during this recital that the name assigned to the child was uttered where the blank spaces occur in the formula.) The expert then stooped down so as to immerse the body of the child in the water, placing his hand over the child's mouth as he did so, and then rose again, and, having turned the child from side to side, so as to allow the water to run out of its ears, he handed it to the father, who handed it to the mother. The expert continued to stand in the water, while the assistant plucked up and handed to him a small quantity of herbage, which he held in his hand as he repeated the following:—

(See p. 264 for recital)

The herbage was now allowed to drift away on the surface of the water, and the sign of future health and welfare for the child could not be overlooked, for the herbage would float directly down stream, until lost to sight. Then the priest recited:—

(See p. 264 of original)

(This effusion is an appeal to the powers of space, personified forms of natural phenomena, viz. Tawhirimatea, Whaitiri and Tama-te-uira, who represent wind, thunder and lightning, to give effect to the desire of the appellant. If the priestly expert possessed sufficient mana, power and influence, it was believed that the beings mentioned would be complaisant, and so the thunders of the heavens would resound. Not only would this result betoken the supernormal powers of the priest, but auguries were also derived from the phenomenon, hence the rite was a divinatory one.)

The performer then struck two stones together and cast them up into the air. At this juncture the thunder resounded, and, if the rumble of the sound of the thunder was to the eastward or northward, then it betokened the future welfare of the infant, good fortune and a prosperous career; if it rumbled to the southward or westward, then the child would be luckless and unfortunate.

The chief expert then sprinkled water over the assembled people, male and female, sitting or standing. As he was so sprinkling them he repeated a brief formula:—

(See p. 265 of original)

- 250

So ended the performance, and the officiating expert now left the water, but on no account might he wipe off the water clinging to his body. He took his stand by the side of his assistant, and to him was handed a bird, a miromiro or tatahore. The bird was first charmed by him, that is, a charm was recited over it, and he then touched the head of the infant with the bird, after which he released the bird and allowed it to fly away. The following is the formula repeated over the bird:—

(See p. 265 of original)

As the recital concluded the bird was released. Then the expert inserted the pou uekaha (a wooden stake) in the earth behind the lower hems of the spread garments of the paparoa; it was inserted about knee deep. Having formed the hole to that depth the baptismal expert procured some stones, one for each day of the period of labour of the highborn woman whose child I have been discussing, and those stones were deposited in the hole. On these stones was deposited the severed iho cord of the infant, and gravel was then poured in until the hole was filled up, whereupon the assistant stamped upon it with his heel to make all firm. Now the location of this spot as in relation to some adjacent tree was carefully noted.

The highborn woman, husband and child now moved aside from the paparoa, the garments were lifted by the collars and carried away by the male parents or male grandparents, and the return to the village commenced. As they came near the nest house the assistant expert commenced to chant the formula by means of which a garrison is kept on the alert, and so all people knew that the baptism of the highborn child was over. All the people would be assembled on the plaza of the village in order to welcome the baptismal party. On arriving at the porch of the superior house of the plaza the party proceeded directly toward the doorway and halted outside the outer plank bounding the porch. The assistant expert spread a mat in the porch, laid the fine cloaks over it with the collars under the window and lower borders toward the outer plank, and also arranged the weapons thereon. The weapons were laid under the window on the collars of the cloaks utilised at the paparoa. This being done the highborn infant was then laid on the cloaks so - 251 that its head lay on the weapons. The assistant expert now took his stand before the post supporting the large boards of the house, with his back to the house, so that he faced the people who were crying a welcome to the child. He then chanted this portion of the formula:—

(See p. 266 of original)

(The gods are asked to endow the child with knowledge, with a quick understanding, and with mana).

The tearful welcome to the infant now ceased, and persons would rise to greet the child, the mother, the father, the grandparents and the priestly experts, after which came the presentation of gifts, and then all such gifts were placed near the spot where the highborn child lay. Now the feast was spread, a separate portion thereof being placed before the highborn husband and wife, the parents and grandparents, while the balance was allotted to the rest of the people.

After the above function the nest house was demolished, and all the material was conveyed to the latrine and there burned. Then the residue, charcoal and ashes, was scooped up and cast behind the horizontal beam of the latrine, that is, the turuma, whakaheke, paepae tautara, paepae tutae, such are the names by which that convenience is known. All these tasks had to be performed on the same day on which the highborn child was baptised, as already related. Enough of these explanations.

Now this mode of baptising highborn infants described by me, whether pertaining to male or female, such was the procedure, as written down. There was but one difference when performing the ceremony over a female, when the phrase “Welcome, O maid!” was employed instead of “Welcome, O son!”—but if a name had been assigned to the child then it was greeted by name. This explanation will suffice.

The baptismal rite as performed by some tribes differs from that of Ngati-Kahungunu, as described. In the case of an infant of good family it was taken and baptised by the expert, but the paparoa was merely a common mat. The manipulation of the bird was another instance, but as to the ritual formulae these differed among the experts of different tribes. Some tribes slew a person for the feast spread when the tua rite was performed over a highborn child. Among some tribes the tua was not performed over - 252 a child when the iho fell away, but when a sufficient quantity of gifts and food supplies had been assembled. Such an arrangement would be owing to a reluctance to having such a function when no suitable supplies were to hand. Now as to peoples who slew a person as food for the baptismal feast pertaining to a highborn child, that was an assumption of superiority. Persons so slain for feasts as described would be members of weak clans and members of other tribes captured in war.

In the case of poor folks the expert and the parents would convey the child to the baptismal waters, and, if sea-water were handy, such would be used for the purpose. There would be no feast, but the expert would not fail to introduce a bird into the rite. Again, the ritual formulae were not all recited in baptismal rites relating to lowborn persons, the only ones employed were the formulae recited by the expert when he stooped down in the water and that repeated when the bird was released. Also the hole in which the stones signifying the number of nights and days during which the mother was in labour pains were deposited, and also the stones that betokened the month in which the child was born. My explanation of these things is now concluded.

The above account of old-time usages connected with birth and baptism, as practised among the Maori folk, is an interesting one, but another version obtained from another member of the same tribe contains more information on some points, and this account was published in Vol. 44 of the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. See also yet another in Dominion Museum Bulletin, No. 13.

The narrator of the account given above commences his discourse by referring to the changed conditions brought about by the intrusion of Europeans, notably in connection with the two strong and effective influences in native life, tapu and mana.

Some peculiar expressions are employed by the narrator. The terms putea rauroha and putea whakanakonako are used to denote a depository of knowledge, and so may be applied to a person or a school of learning. The former term is often used with the meaning of the dissemination of prized knowledge.

- 253

The Maori did not practise the same forms of ceremonial performances pertaining to birth, marriage and death in connection with all classes of society, hence the reference to the fact that the marriage of the two members of the chieftain class had been brought about by means of deliberate and punctilious arrangement.

The method adopted in thatching a hut described above was sometimes employed when erecting temporary or inferior huts, as being quicker than the tedious process usually practised.

The koropihanga alluded to is a small vent, an aperture situated under the ridgepole, that serves as a smoke escape. The form of fire termed ahi tupopoto was certainly a novel contrivance, and it may be described as a self-burning stove. It is described at p. 157 of Vol. 33 of this Journal. The narrator we are following gives no explanation of it, but tells us that the bark cylinder containing the charcoal was bound round with forest vines, and that a piece of green bark was used as a cover for the “stove.”

The expression wai matua is applied to the waters whereat the baptismal rite took place; it is an abbreviated form of the term wai matua o Tuapapa, which denotes fresh water, the pure virgin waters of the Earth Mother that contain no contaminating influences, as found in springs and running streams. It may be described as a sacerdotal term for such waters, the ordinary terms for fresh water being wai mata and wai maori. Wai manawa whenua, waters from the bowels of the earth, were viewed by the Maori as the most desirable, the purest and safest for use in connection with tapu rites.

The aristocratic tendencies of the Maori were much in evidence in the functions pertaining to the birth of a child in a family of superior rank. This was evident in the ultra-ceremonial nature of the baptismal rite, the welcoming of the infant into the world of life, and on its return from the baptismal font, the collection and presentation of gifts to the child.

When a case of difficult birth occurred it was believed that the cause thereof was some moral impurity on the part of one of the parents, or some transgression of the laws of tapu that had been committed by one of them. In such cases it was the duty of a priestly expert to make enquiries - 254 as to what was the cause of the disabilities affecting the patient, and to remove that cause by means of an appeal to the gods. It was quite clear to the Maori that the trouble experienced by the woman was a punishment inflicted by such gods for some transgression of moral or spiritual laws. It will be noted that in extreme cases the woman was conveyed to the tapu place of rites of the village community, there to give birth to her child.

We are told that Io the Supreme Being was appealed to only in connection with people of some importance, and only by experts of a superior status; the formulae employed were not taught to shamanistic gentry of the warlock type.

Important rites were always performed by priestly experts in a nude condition, save for a rude apron of leaves secured to the waist, and all participants fasted until the ceremony was over, hence such rites were usually performed early in the morning.

The use of the green, leafy branchlet is not clearly explained in the narrative. It was used as a water-sprinkling agent, the expert dipped it in the water and then flirted drops of water over the assembled people. Some experts baptised the infant in this manner instead of immersing the child in the water. This act of sprinkling is described by the terms tiehu, tauhi, tauwhi and uwhiuwhi.

The formula intoned by the priest just prior to taking the child in his arms is directed to Para-whenuamea and Jo the Parent. The former represents the origin and personified form of water, the latter is the Supreme Being of Maori myth and belief. This recital asks that the child be endowed with desirable qualities.

The casting of the herbage into the water was a divinatory act. According to the manner in which it floated away down stream, or was retained by some swirl or slack water, so were foreshadowed the future abilities, fortune, etc. of the infant.

The act of striking two stones together was a symbolical one, and represented the desired clap of thunder. This magic act of causing thunder to sound was known as the oho rangi rite, and the Maori firmly believed in the alleged powers of the wizards. We are told that it was performed after important rites in order to show the mana or supernormal powers of the performer, and also as an act of divination.

- 255

The act of releasing the bird was an interesting one, and carries the mind back to a similar act performed by priests of India, who despatched bird messengers to the gods. The charm repeated over the bird is not properly explained, but presumably it was employed for some definite purpose, as to bring the creature under subjection to the will of the reciter. The touching of the head of the child with the bird would certainly cause that bird to become, in Maori belief, a mediumistic agent, a link between the child and the purport of the formula repeated, or the gods. The object of this singular act was not explained by the narrator. The only explanation obtained elsewhere was to the effect that the flight of the bird represented the eventual return to the gods of the various qualities bestowed upon the child. The mana, tapu, etc. with which the child was endowed must return at its death, at whatsoever age, to the gods from whom they emanated. This may or may not be the true explanation.

The act of depositing the stones in the earth was another singular act. Apparently it was an early form of birth registration. The stones representing the lunar month in which the child was born could scarcely have served any very useful purpose, inasmuch as the Maori had no tale of years whereby to record the passing of time; his system of time division was that of barbaric man. The depositing of the iho of the infant in the hole would certainly be an act of some importance, and the knowledge of such disposal would be handed down in tradition. Apparently the stake was not left permanently to mark the spot, but the situation of the hole was noted as in regard to surrounding trees or other natural objects.

The preparation of the paparoa at the waterside is a good illustration of a quality common to man in all stages of culture, and our gorgeous altars and thrones are the last word in paparoa.

The laying of the head of the infant on the weapons was a peculiar act, and apparently a symbolical one.

The nest house was pulled down and burned on account of tapu, the very ashes thereof had to be disposed of at a place where there was little danger of their being interfered with.

- 256

The cloaks mentioned as having been spread over the mat of the paparoa are superior dress cloaks and dogskin garments. The uhipuni alluded to probably represents a transposed form of ihupuni; otherwise the former term was employed in some districts to denote a large cloak of inferior finish used as a covering at night.

The miromiro (Petroeca toitoi) and tatahore (Certhiparus albicapillus) are two small forest birds that were frequently employed by the natives in ceremonial performances.

The first, second and eighth of the ritual formulae given are parts of the well-known composition of Tuhotoariki, published in Vol. 16 of this Journal.

Concerning the gifts so frequently referred to in narratives describing Maori life it must be borne in mind that ever the giver reckoned on a return present at some future time. It was accounted bad form not to follow this old custom, and so we have oft heard a person make such a remark as—“My grandfather gave…. a fine cloak, but no return gift was ever made for it”—or the obligation might be such a function as a feast. The following quotation from a Maori narrative explains the above:—“Ka whanau a Hine-i-rawa-te-rangi ka hoatu nga papa pounamu e rua hei tuatanga mona; ko aua papa nei ko Whakarewatutahuna, ko Whakatu-te-waimate. Kaore ano i ea enei papa e rua.” Here two slabs of unworked greenstone (nephrite) were handed over to enhance the renown of a baptismal ceremony, but no return gift was ever received. Such a statement reflects seriously upon the person to whom the gift was made.

- 257
TE WHARE KOWHANGA.

He whakaaturanga tenei naku i nga mahi a oku kauwheke, he mea heke iho i o ratau na whakatipuranga tae mai nei ki a matau e ora nei. Engari kua mana kore aua mahi inaianei i te whakahaere a nga iwi ke, a te Pakeha, me ona tohunga, me ona matauranga huhua e huirapa nei i te aoturoa. Na konei i kahakihaki nga matauranga Maori ki roto i nga waka wai wera; nga tinana, nga kahu, nga upoko, nga wahi tapu takahia iho ki te kai, ki te hipi, ki te poaka, ki te kau, ki te taewa, ki te witi, ki te kaanga, me era atu kai a te Pakeha; kaore he wahi tapu tahi. Ko to te Pakeha tapu kei roto anake kei nga whare kingi, kuini e mau ana, na te moni i kahakihaki. No konei me korero noa ake e au ko nga wahi e aronui ana mai ki nga hiahia o nga tangata ropine i nga ohaohatanga a nga ruanuku kua wehe atu nei ratau i taiao ki taiwhetuki, oti atu. E kore a muri i a ratau e koroutia mai ano; manohi ano he wharangi rau angiangi ta tenei whakareanga hei rauhi ki roto i te putea whakanakonako, hei pupuri mai i te taonga i korou nuitia e Nehe ma, i takoto toitu ai i roto i te rahu whakaepa i nga waitau a ratau ma. He waimarie tenei, to tenei whakatipuranga i a koutou. Kua mamao te reo atua hei whakamahara mai i a tatau i te wai wera, nana i tute ki tawhiti ngaro whakaaitu. Ka okioki te whakaaro ki te putea hopara makaurangi waituhi e rauhi nei koutou, e ropine nei kia whaiti mai ki roto i te putea rauroha; kati ake enei kupu aku i konei ki a koutou.

I te mea he wahine ariki, he tane ariki raua tokorua, he mea ata whakamoe na o raua matua, me o raua tipuna, me o raua hapu hoki, tae atu ki te iwi nui tonu; koia tenei ahua ka whakaaria ake nei e au.

Ka tae ki te whitu o nga kaupeka o te tau te hapū o te wahine, ka whakahau nga matua, nga tipuna ranei o te tane kia whakaarahia he whare kowhanga mo te wahine nona ra te hapū. Ka tirohia te wahi pai hei tunga mo taua whare kowhanga, ka mahia, ka oti. He whare noa iho nei, he rangiura totara, he rangiura kahikatoa ranei, he nikau ranei, he rau ponga ranei, he harakeke mata ranei, he toi ranei, he raupo mata ranei, ka mutu nga rau tika mo roto o taua to whare; mo waho ake he kiri totara, kahikatoa ranei. Ki te kore enei rau i kiia ake nei, ka tangohia mai - 258 i te harakeke mata, ka whatua kia rua nga aho whatu, kia kotahi kia tata tonu ki nga pukaha o nga harakeke, o nga aho whatu; kia kotahi te hau mai i tetahi o nga whatunga ka whakamau i tetahi o nga ara whatunga, kia kotahi whanganga te whanui, ka mutu. Kia pera katoa te whanunui, kia māmā ai te hapahapai. Ko nga take ki raro o nga uhi harakeke. Ki te kore he harakeke, me toi, me pera ano me whatu, ko nga take ano ki raro. Ki te kore he toi, me rau kauka, ti whanake nei, me pera ano me whatu ano, kia rua tonu nga ara whatu. Kia pera ano mo te raupo, me te whatu kia pera ano te mahi; ko nga take ano ki raro ina uhia te whare. Ko te koropihanga kia puare tonu ki te tuarongo tetahi, ki raro iho o te tahu o te whare, kia kotahi ki te whatitoka, pera ano me to te tuarongo koropihanga. Kaua he matapihi ki taua tu whare, ko te take koi haere te anu waitao [? waitau] i te papa o te whare, ka pangia te whaea, te tamaiti ranei e te kotaotao hauwai, e te winiwini hau ranei. No reira ka pokaia nga koropihanga ki raro tonu iho o te tahu o taua whare kowhanga.

Ko te roa o te whare kowhanga kia kotahi whanganga me te hau, ka mutu. Ko te tiketike o nga pakitara kia kotahi te whanganga; ko te whanui kia kotahi te whanganga me te tuke ringa, ka mutu. I pera ai te tiketike kia tarewa ai te hau kotao ki runga, ka puta ki waho o te whare. Ko te mahau kia kotahi te hau te whanui hei nohoanga mo te hapū. Ko te whatitoka kia kotahi te whanganga te tiketike, kia haere tu ai te hapū ki waho, ki roto ranei. He tuwhara te tatau tutaki, kia māmā te papare ake a te ringa o te hapū ina puta ki waho, haere ranei ki roto i te whare. Ko te ahi me tupopoto anake, he mea takai ki te aka, a kia takoto te papakiri mata o te kahikatea hei taupoki mo te ahi tupopoto ina hiahiatia kia mahaki te mahana o roto o taua whare kowhanga.

Ko te waro he mea kari na nga tapuhi ki te tuarongo o te whare, hei te tuke ringa te roa, te whanui, te hohonu hoki o taua waro, ka hanga ai he pae tauarai kia kotahi ano te tuke ringa te tiketike ake i te whenua o te pae o te waro. Ko taua waro hei waro mianga mo te hapū, no te mea ko tera tu wahine he mimi putuputu tana mahi, na reira ka peneitia te ahua. Ko te kainga o te hapu kei te mahau i waho o te whatitoka, i te taha maui taua kainga. Ko te taha katau o te whare kowhanga te wahi e takoto ai ia.

- 259

Kaore e haere te hapu ki roto i taua whare, kia whakamamae ra ano taua hapu katahi ka haere te hapu me ona tapuhi e rua. Ko aua tapuhi e rua, tetahi ranei, hei te whanaunga tata ki a ia i te taha ki tona whaea, ki tona papa ranei, kia kore ai e whakaetieti ki nga kino o te hapu, kia mahi tupato ai hoki i te hapu, kia manawanui ai ina kaha te auta o te hapu i te mamae. Pai rawa me he mea raua e rua, nga tapuhi, he whanaunga anake no te wahine hapu.

Na, ko nga wahine mo te ahi o te kauta taka kai, kaore he tikanga mo era kia korerotia ake i konei, engari nga tapuhi e rua nei, e kore raua e watea i te wahine hapu nei.

Ki te whanau te hapu nei, ka tae ki te ra e makere ai te iho o te tamaiti, ko te ra tena e puta ai te wahine hapu ki waho i te whare kowhanga, ka haere ki te wai matua, ki reira tohi ai i te tamaiti.

Ka moe te tane i roto i te whare kowhanga hei rauhi i te hapu, he wa ano o te hapu ka hiahia te ngakau kia noho tonu mai tana tane i tana aroaro, kia kite tonu atu ia, a hei awhina i a ia, a he wa ano te hiahia o te hapu ko tona whaea ake nana ia kia noho tonu i tona taha.

Na, me hoki atu taku korero ki te wa e whakamamae ana te wahine e hapu ana. Ki te whakamamae te wahine ka uru ki roto i te whare kowhanga. Ka haere tena rongo “Ko Mea te hapu kei roto i te whare kowhanga e whakamamae ana.” Ka mohio katoa nga tipuna o te wahine, me ona matua, me ona hapu, tae noa ki nga matua o te tane, me nga tipuna, me ona hapu, me te iwi nui tonu. Ka timata te whakawhaiti i te taonga, i te kai i tena wa, te take mo taua whanautanga o te kopu o te wahine, me te tohinga, me te hakari kai, hakari taonga mo te tamaiti. Ahakoa he tane te tamaiti, he wahine ranei, he rite tonu te nui o taua whakanui.

Na, ki te pahure nga ra o te wahine e hapu ana ki tua o te wha o nga ra, ka nui te uaua o tena hapu. Ko te take i uaua ai he raruraru kei te wahine, kei te tane ranei; kati, ma te tohunga e wetewete nga raruraru pera, ara e uiui me he aha o raua raruraru. Katahi ano ka karakia te tohunga i tenei karakia na:—

“Naumai, e tama! Kia mihi atu au
I haramai ra koe i te kunenga mai o te tangata i roto te ahuru mowai
Ka taka te pae o Huaki-pouri
Ko te whare hangahanga tena a Tane-nui-a-rangi i te One i Kurawaka
- 260
I tataia ai te puhi ariki, te hiringa matua, te hiringa tipua, te hiringa tawhito rangi
Ka karapinepine te pu toto i a ia ki roto te whare wahi awa
Ka whakawhetu tama i a ia, ka riro mai a Rua-i-te-pukenga, a Ruai-te-horahora
Ka hokai tama i a ia, koia hokai rauru nui, hokai rauru whiwhia, hokai rauru maruaitu
Ka māro tama i te ara namunamu ki taiao
Ka kokiri tama i a ia ki te aoturoa. E tama … e … i!”

Na, ka mutu tenei karakia, ka pakia te matenga o te wahine e hapu ana e te tohunga ki tona ringa katau, ka puta te tamaiti. Ki te kore e puta te tamaiti, ka mauria ki te tuahu te wahine, me nga tapuhi tokorua, me nga matua o te wahine e hapu ana, me nga matua o te tane, me o raua tipuna. Ka tae ki te tuahu ka whakaritea i reira ko wai hei hirinakitanga mo te wahine hapu; ka rite, ka noho tuturi te hapu, ko te poho ki runga i nga turi o te mea i rite hei awhi mai i te tinana o te hapu. Katahi ka karakiatia tenei karakia e te tohunga o te tuahu—koia tenei:—

“Haramai, e tama! Whakaputa i a koe ki runga i te turanga matua
Marama te ata i Ururangi, marama te ata i Taketake nui o Rangi
Ka whakawhenua nga hiringa i konei, e tama!
Haramai, e mau to ringa ki te kete tuauri, ki te kete tuatea, ki te kete aronui
I pikitia e Tane-nui-a-rangi i te ara tauwhaiti ki te pumotomoto o Tikitiki-o-rangi
I karangatia e Tane-nui-a-Rangi ki a Huru-te-arangi
I noho i a Tonganui-kaea, nana ko Pārāweranui
Ka noho i a Tawhiri-matea, ka tukua mai tana whanau, Titi-parauri, Titi-matangi-nui, Titi-matakaka
Ka tangi mai te hau mapu, ka tangi mai te roro hau
Ka eketia nga rangi ngahuru ma rua i konei, e tama … e … i!”

I konei ka pa te papaki o te ringa katau o te tohunga ki te tipuaki o te hapu. Ka u te pehi mai o nga ringa o te wahine whakawhanau, me te aki atu ona turi ki te morenga o te poho o te hapu. Kaore e kore te whanau taua hapu i konei, ahakoa mate te tamaiti, ora ranei, e kore rawa ia e kore te puta mai o taua tamaiti i tona whaea. I muri o tenei mahi ka whakahokia te wahine kua whanau nei, me tona tamaiti ki roto i te whare kowhanga noho ai. Ka tapukea te whenua me te iho o te tamaiti ki reira, me nga parapara o te wahine hapu ki te tuahu tonu ake. No konei ki te taka te ra whanautanga o te hapu o tetahi wahine ki tua o te ra wha he raruraru kei te whaea, a ki te kore he - 261 raruraru o te whaea hapu, kei te tane whakaipo te raruraru, a, ki te watea enei e rua i nga raruraru, kaore he mea ke hei arai i te whanau mai o taua tamaiti.

Na, ka hoki nei te wahine kua whanau nei ki roto i tona whare kowhanga noho ai, tatari ai ki te ra e taka ai te iho o te tamaiti, a me he mea kua mate te tamaiti ka hoki tonu te wahine whanau me ana tapuhi ki te whare kowhanga noho ai, me te tamaiti mate. Ka hui mai nga tangihanga katoa ki reira tangi ai, a kia nehua ra ano taua tamaiti katahi ano te wahine whanau ka puta ki waho o te whare kowhanga.

Ka haria te wahine ki te roro o te whare whakanoho o tena kainga noho ai. Ka timata te manaaki a nga tangata i te wahine me te tane whakaipo. Ka mutu, ka takoto nga taonga kakahu maori ki te aroaro o te wahine me tana tane piripoho, me o raua matua, me o raua tipuna. Ko aua taonga nga taonga i whakaminea mai mo te tamaiti ina kawea ia ki te wai matua tohi ai, me i ora ia. Me nga taonga mo te hakari ka oti te whakapukai atu ki te aroaro o te wahine i whanau nei te tamaiti mate nei. I muri o tenei ka whakawhaitia aua taonga, ka mutu, ka takoto te hakari kai. Ma te hui katoa tenei hakari, engari ka wehe ano ma te tane whakaipo me te wahine piripoho, me o raua matua, me o raua tipuna, ka wehe ma te iwi nui tonu.

Na, me he mea ia kei te ora te tamaiti a te wahine o te whare kowhanga, na ka penei te whakahaere a nga tohunga tokorua, tokomaha ake ranei, engari kaore e iti iho i te tokorua tohunga. I te mea e hapu ana te wahine ariki a te tane ariki, ka paoho te rongo “Ko Mea kua hapu.” Ka timata te whakamine i te taonga, ahakoa kah u maori, ahakoa pounamu, ahakoa iwi pakake, niho makomako ranei, nga to taonga katoa e taea te whakawhaiti mo taua rongo hapu. Ka pae enei ka tahuri te iwi ki te whakawhaiti i te kai mo taua ra e tohia ai te tamaiti ariki. Na, ko nga tohunga ka haere ki te mataki i te wai matua hei tohinga i te tamaiti ariki. Ka kitea taua wahi, hei te wahi e kore e pai hei mahinga kai a ona wa e te tangata. Ka tatu te whakaaro o te tohunga mataki, koia tera te wahi tino pai hei tohinga ariki; ka tatu tenei ka waiho.

Na, i te wa ano kaore ano i whanau noa te tamaiti ka tirohia te ahua o te tarewa o te takapu o te wahine hapu. - 262 Kopa ana te taha maui o te hapu, a e para nui ana nga u o te hapu, he tamaiti wahine. Me he mea e kopa ana te taha katau o te hapu, e whaiti ana te para o nga u o te hapu ki te take tonu o te toi o te u te para u, he tamaiti tane tenei. Rereke etahi wahine ona tohu, kei te ahua o te tipu o te wahine te tikanga. Ka ruhi te tipu ka takapoto, ka uaua te waitohu i tena kano a wahine. Ka kokau te tipu, ka rahirahi, ka ngawari te waitohu o tena wahine hapu. Ka takapu te tipu o te wahine, ka whakahara, ka uaua ano tena ahua wahine ki te waitohu. No reira te karakia a te tohunga; ki te whakaarotia he tane te tamaiti ka mea ia:—

“Haramai, e tama!”

A, ki te whakaarotia he wahine te tamaiti:—

“Haramai, e hine!”

A, ki te kore rawa e mohiotia te ahua, he tamaiti tane ranei, he tamaiti wahine ranei, ka penei te whakahua a te tohunga i tona karakia:—

“Haramai! Whakaputa i a koe he toitu, he toiora ki te aoturoa
Awhai nuku, awhai rangi nau, e Io-matua!
Tenei to pia, tenei to aro, he aro nui, he aro tamaua take ki a koe, e Io-te-waiora!
Tenei ka takoto i a koe te ara
He ara tangata, he ara ariki ki te whai ao, ki te ao marama nau, e Io-mata-ngaro … e … i!
Ki tenei pia ariki nau e, tukua mai to aro, he aro atua, he aro tipua, he aro nou … e … i
Huakina, huakina i te mata ngaro; uea i te ara whaiti ki taiao
To pia ki tenei mauri ora, ki tenei mauri ka nguha ki a koe
Tukua, tukua mai he mauri ora ki taiao nei.”

Ka mutu tenei karakia ka pera ano te ringa katau o te tohunga, ka pakia ano te tipuaki o te wahine e hapu ana, a ka puta mai te tamaiti ki waho. Ko te kowhatu māna e tapahi te pito o te tamaiti ina whanau, he rehu tetahi, ara he mătā, he kowhatu kărā, he ma taua kowhatu, he hukaatai te ingoa, me to ko te mea rahirahi te mata, ka oro ki te hoanga kia tino ratarata rawa te mătă hei tapahi i te iho tamariki.

Na, i te wa i taka ai te pito waihoto o te tamaiti ariki, ka mea te tohunga tohi ki te tohunga tarahau:—“Ko koe ki mua.” Ko te wahine nana te tamaiti ki muri mai, me te tane. Muri mai ko nga matua wahine, o te wahine, o te tane; i muri mai ko nga tapuhi e rua, wahine; i muri mai ko nga matua tane, ka mutu te hunga e tika ana kia haere - 263 ki te wai tohi. Na, ko te tohunga tohi kei muri o nga tangata katoa e whanatu ana. Ka katohia atu e te tohunga tohi tetahi rau rakau, he rau tawhiri, he mapou ranei; ki te kore enei rakau ko te rakau tonu e hiahia ai te tohunga wai matua, ara tohi, i whakaaro ai he pai. Ko te tohunga taurewa tetahi ingoa, tarahau tetahi ingoa, tuakoi tetahi ingoa, ka mutu nga ingoa e marama ake ana i ahau. Ko te tohunga waitohi tetahi o ona ingoa, ko te tohunga tuahu tetahi o ona ingoa, kei te ahua o nga mahi i mau ki taua tohunga te ritenga, ka waiho tonu atu hei ingoa mona.

Ka tae te tohunga tarahau ki te wahi i rite i a ia hei tohinga i te tamaiti ka tu nga tangata. Ka haere atu nga tapuhi tauarua ki te taha o te tohunga tarahau tu tahi ai ratau. Ka mau te ringa o te tohunga tarahau ki te whariki, ka horahia, ko te whiri o te whariki ki te tapa o te wai, o te tahataha ranei. Ka oti te whariki, ka mau ki nga kahu maori, ka horahia, ko nga ua ki te tapa o te wai. Ki te mea he korowai, tetahi tu kakahu ranei i ko atu i te korowai, ka wharikitia ano ki runga ake i te whariki, he paepaeroa ki runga ake, a he uhipuni ranei, he mahiti ranei. Me he mea he patu pounamu, paraoa ranei, he taiaha ranei, na me whakatakoto e te tohunga ko nga reke o nga patu ki a raua, ko te rau o tetahi ki tetahi taha, ko te rau o tetahi ki tetahi taha, pera te ahua. Katahi ka whakatakoto te maipi [taiaha] ki raro hei huapae ake i nga patu, i te patu ranei.

Ka noho te wahine me tona tamaiti i te taha maui o te tane. Ko nga matua wahine me nga matua tane ki muri tu mai ai. Ko te tamaiti me takoto i runga i te ringa katau o te whaea te upoko, ko nga waewae ki te taha maui. Ko nga tohunga kei te taha katau e tu ana raua, me te tapuhi rauhi. Ko tetahi o nga tapuhi kei muri i tetahi e tu ana i tetahi wa. I konei ka maunu nga kahu o te tino tohunga māna e tohi te tamaiti, ka rere ki roto i te wai, to nga hope te wai, kei te pito ka mutu. Ka hoatu te rau rakau i maua mai ra e ia, ka mau ki tona ringa katau taua rau rakau; ka ehua e te tohunga nei te wai ki tona ringa maui ki runga, ka mea ia:—

“Tenei au he tawhito, he tipua, he tauira
Ka tau ki mua, ka tau ki roto i a koe, e Para-whenua-mea!
He uhenga a nuku, he uhenga a rangi ki tenei pia, ki tenei tauira
Ka tau ki to pia he piere nuku, he piere rangi ki a koe, e Io-matua!
He ihenga nui, he ihenga tauira ka tau, ka tau ki tenei aro nou, ki tenei tauira
He tauira na nga tipua, he tauira na nga atua tenei aro ki a koe.”

- 264

Ka mutu, ka ehua mai e ia te wai ki te rau rakau ra, ka mutu ka totoro mai tona ringa ki te tamaiti, ka hoatu e te whaea. Ko te mahunga o te tamaiti ki te ringa katau, ko nga waewae ki te taha maui. Ka huri te aroaro o te tamaiti, me te tohunga, ki te aronga atu ki te ra; ka mea te tohunga:

“Tenei to aro he aro tama.”

Me he mea he wahine, ka mea:—

“Tenei to aro he aro wahine.”

Na, me ki ake he tane te tamaiti nei, ka mea te tohunga:—

“Tenei to aro he tamāroa, he tama tane
Ka tautu, ka tauhinga atu ki a koe ki nga rangi tuhaha
Ka tautika, ka tau nguha ki a koe ki tenei wai matua
Ko te wai na wai? Ko te wai na Tawhirimatea (Winds)
Ko te wai na wai? Ko te wai na Te Ihorangi (Rain)
Ko te wai na wai. Ko te wai na Papa-tuanuku (Earth)
Ko te wai na wai? Ko te wai na Para-whenuamea (Water)
Tenei ka tau ki tenei aro ki a … (Ko te ingoa ka huaina i konei)
Tenei to aro a …….
Ka urutu atu ki a koe ki tenei wai matua.”

Ka whakatotohu te tohunga i a ia, ka rere te ringa o te tohunga ki te waha popoki ai. Ka ea ake ki runga, ka hurihia e ia tetahi taha o te tamaiti kia heke te wai o te taringa ki waho, pera ano tetahi taringa ka hurihia, ka mutu ka hoatu ki te papa, ma te papa e hoatu ki te whaea. Ka tu tonu te tohunga i roto i te wai, ka hutihutia nga pihipihi otaota ruarua nei, ka hoatu e te tohunga taurewa ki te tohunga tohi. Ka mau ki roto i te ringa o te tohunga tohi, ka mea ia:—

“Tenei to pia, he pia nau, e Io-matua!
Ka tukua ki a koe kia tipu, kia rea, kia tamatane ki a koe
Nau hoki tenei tama, tenei pia, he pia uri, he pia aro nou … e … i.”

I konei ka tukua nga otaota ra kia tere i te wai. Kaore e ngaro te tamaiti totika, ka tere tika tonu te haere i te ia, a ngaro noa atu i a koe. I konei ka mea te tohunga:—

“Tenei au he kau tu, he kau noho, he kau aro ki a koe, e Tawhirimatea i runga nei!
Păpā, papa tahi nuku, papa tahi rangi nau, e Whaitiri!
He murimuri aroha ki tenei tama nau, e Tama-te-uira!
Taua i te itu, taua i te mauri, taua i te iho o to tama ariki
Ki tenei pia, ki tenei aro nou, e Tawhirimatea … e … i.”

- 265

Ka kurua nga kowhatu e rua kia raua, ka makaia ki runga. Ka tangi te whaitiri i konei, a ki te whakahoro te tangi a te whaitiri ki te rawhiti, ki te marangai, he tamaiti waimarie; ki te whakahoro ki te tonga, ki te mauru ranei, he tamaiti puhore, he tamaiti aitua ka rua.

Katahi te tohunga tohi ka tiehu mai i te wai ki runga ki nga tangata e noho ana, tane me te wahine, me nga mea e tu ana, koia nei tana kupu atu i a ia e tiehu ana:—

“He uenga nui, he uenga tauhinga, tau tu ki enei tama
He toitu, he toi ora, he toi matua ki a koe, e tama … e … i!”

Ka mutu i konei, ka piki ake te tohunga i te wai; kaua ia hei uhu i te wai o tona tinana. Ka tu ia ki te taha o te tohunga tarahau, ka homai te manu ki a ia, he miromiro, he tatahore ranei. Ka karakiatia e ia te manu, ka mutu ka whakapatia ki te upoko o te tamaiti, ka tukua e ia kia rere taua manu; koia tenei te karakia:—

“Haramai, e tama! E mau to ringa ki te aka matua
Kia whiti rere ake ko te kauwae runga, ko te kauwae raro
Kia tawhia, kia tamaua, kia ita
I roto a Rua-i-te-pukenga, a Rua-i-te-horahora, a Rua-i-te-wanawana, taketake o Tane
Naumai e …., kia areare o taringa ki te whakarongo
Ko nga taringa o Rongomai-tahanui, o Rongomai-taharangi, o Tupaiwhakarongo-wananga
Ka taketake i konei ki tipuaki o Rangi
Ka rere mai a Poutu-i-te-rangi, ka whakaawhi i a Puke-hauone
Ko hoka a Hine-rau-wharangi i a ia i konei kia takes mai ahuahu
Ahua te puke nui, ahua te puke whakaki nau, e Rongo-maraeroa!
Koia te ngahuru tikotiko iere, te Maruaroa o te Matahi o te tau
Te putunga o te hinu, e tama … e … i!”

I konei ka tukua te manu kia rere, ka mutu katahi ka poua te you uekaha e te tohunga ki muri o te remu o nga kahu o te paparoa, kia hohonu, kia to nga turi te hohonu. Ka pera te hohonu ka mau te tohunga waitohi ki nga kowhatu e rite ana ki nga ra i whakamamae ai te wahine ariki nana te tamaiti ariki i kiia ake ra, ka whakatakaia ki roto i te rua ra. Ka tae ki te po i whanau ai ka mutu, ka whakatakotoria ki runga te iho o te tamaiti i konei. Ka ringitia iho he kirikiri tuatara ki runga, ka ki te rua ka mutu, ka tu te rekereke o te waewae o te tohunga tarahau ki runga takahi ai kia u. Na, ko tenei wahi hei te taha o tetahi rakau e tu mai ana i tahaki atu hei tohu.

- 266

Katahi ano ka tuku te wahine ariki, te tane ariki me te tamaiti ariki ki raro o te paparoa, ka whakarewaia mai te ua o nga kahu o te paparoa, ka mauria e nga matua tane ranei, e nga tipuna tane ranei, ka timata te hoki ki te kainga. Ka tata atu ki te whare kowhanga, ka timata te tohunga tarahau te whakaaraara haere atu. Ka mohio katoa nga tangata kua mutu te tohi i te tamaiti ariki. Ka tu katoa mai te iwi ki te powhiri i te ope wai matua i konei. Ka tae atu ki te roro o te whare whakanoho o te marae ka tika tonu te haere ki te whatitoka, ka tu i waho o te paepaekai-awha o te whare. Ka wharikitia e te tohunga tarahau te whariki, me nga taonga; ko nga ua o nga kahu ki raro iho i te matapihi o te whare; ko nga remu o nga kahu ki te taha mai ki te paepae-kai-awha. Ka whakatakoto i nga patu ki raro iho i te matapihi, ki runga i nga ua o nga kahu o te paparoa, ka mutu ka whakatakoto atu ai te tamaiti ariki ki runga, ko te mahunga ki runga i nga patu ra takoto ai. I konei kua tu te tohunga tarahau ki te take o te pou o nga maihi o te whare, ko tona tuara ki te whare, ko te aroaro ka hangai atu ki te iwi e tangi mai ra ki te tamaiti. Katahi ka karakiatia tenei wahi o te karakia:—

“Tenei tauira ka turuki rangi kia haohao nui
Kia haohao tipua, kia haohao i nga apa rangi
Kia tau tika, kia tau aro mai ki tenei pia
He pia, he pia no nga tipua, he pia no nga kahurangi
He pia no nga ariki, he pia no nga apa a rangi
Ki tenei pia ka turuki atu nei
Hou tina, houere tu ki te pu
Kia tamaua taketia ki hou tina
He rongo taketake ki tenei tama ariki, ki tenei tama tipua ariki
He toi nui, he toi roa, he toi whakaputa ki toi ora ki taiao, e tama … e … i!”

Ka mea mai te nuinga katoa:—

“Taiki e ki taiao … e … i!”

Ka mutu, katahi ka mutu te tangi, ka tu mai nga tangata ki te mihi mai ki te tamaiti, ki te whaea, ki te papa, ki nga tipuna, ki nga tohunga. Ka mutu, ka mahora te hakari taonga; ka mutu tera mahi ka tangohia nga taonga ki te taha o te wahi i takoto ai te tamaiti ariki pukai ai. Ka takoto te hakari kai i konei, ka wehe te takotoranga kai ma te tane ariki, me te wahine ariki, me nga matua, me nga tipuna, kia wehe ma te iwi nui tonu.

- 267

Na, i muri o tenei ka tukitukia te whare kowhanga, ka mauria nga mea katoa, ahakoa he aha te otaota, ka kawea ki te taha o te turuma tahu ai ki te ahi. Ka mutu, ka kokoa nga ngarehu, nga pungarehu ki tua o te paepae o te turuma, tetahi ingoa, o te whakaheke tetahi ingoa, o te paepae tautara tetahi ingoa, ka mutu nga ingoa totika o taua taonga o te paepae tutae e kiia nei.

Enei mahi katoa me oti katoa i te rangi i tohia ai te tamaiti ariki i kiia ake nei. Heoi enei whakamarama.

Na, ko tenei tu o te tohi tamariki ariki i kiia ake nei e au, ahakoa tane, wahine ranei, koia nei te whakahaere i tuhia ake nei. Kotahi rawa te wahi e rereke i to te tane, ko te karanga:—“Naumai, e tama!”—penei ke “Naumai, e hine!”—a me he mea kua tohia te ingoa na ka maiohatia i runga i te ingoa. Heoi tenei whakamarama ake.

Na, he iwi ano rereke ta ratau na tohi i ta Ngati-Kahungunu i kiia ake nei. Ki te mea he tamaiti rangatira ka kawea te tamaiti tohi ai e te tohunga, ko te paparoa he whariki noa iho nei. Ko te manu ra tetahi, engari ko nga karakia ka rereke ano a etahi tohunga o etahi iwi i a etahi iwi. Na, ko etahi iwi ka patua he tangata mo te hakari o te tūātanga o te tamaiti ariki ra. Ko etahi iwi e kore rawa e tuatia i te makeretanga o te iho, engari kia pae ra ano he taonga ka tua ai; he whakama te take i pera ai. Na, ko nga iwi e patu ana i te tangata hei kai hakari mo te tuatanga o tetahi tamaiti ariki, he whakaaro whakakake tera take. Ko nga hapu kore kaha me nga tangata i riro herehere mai o etahi iwi nga tangata e patua ana mo nga hakari pera me enei i kiia ake nei e au.

Ko nga tua a nga tangata rawakore ma te tohunga me nga matua o te tamaiti e kawe ki te wai matua, a tupono atu ki te wai tai, koia tera, ka tohia tonutia. Engari kaore e hapa te manu tohi te mahi e te tohunga; kaore he hakari tahi. Tetahi, kaore nga karakia e whakapaua ana ki nga tohi tamariki a nga tutua, ka mutu tonu ko te karakia a te tohunga i whakatotohu ra i a is raua ko te tamaiti, me te karakia e tukua ai te manu, ka mutu. Me te rua i whakatakotoria ai nga kowhatu waitohu i nga po, i nga ra i whakamamae ai te hapu, me nga kowhatu waitohu i te kaupeka o te tau i whanau ai te tamaiti. Ka mutu tenei whakamarama ake aku i konei.

- 268
HE ORIORI MO TE RANGI-TUMOMOTU.
“E tama tipu ake nei, e tama i ahu ake nei
E tama whakakukune mai nei, puta mai ki waho
E tama, ka kino te whenua i a Tarawehi
Ka po te whenua i a Tarawawana nei
Ka tatau te po nui a te kore na … i.
Naumai, e tama, kaua hei numinumia to haere i te ao
Ehara i a koe nana i ako te kai whanaunga
Na Rangi ano ratau ko tana whanau i tahuri ake ra
Ko te aitanga a Tane hoatu ma pi koko, ma pi kopara
Koia te aitanga a Tute i te ata hapara, ka raunui Kopu i te ata
Ka rere te tama whangai a Hineoi ki te ahi
Ka hinga tana patunga ko te Hurunui parawera
Ka hinga te maota, ka hinga te wawa
Ka hinga te wao nui a Tane i konei
Ka eke ki tona taumata i te Kohurau … e, ka eke ki tuara nui o Rangi
Ka toro te pitau, ka ruia ki raro ra, na Pani, na Hunga 2 i tawhi mai
Koia te aruhe, koia te kumara, te o whatu kura
I haere ai i Takapau nui o Henga
Koia te whitiki o Tumatauenga i te Kaharoa
Ka kai ki te wao, ka kai ki te aitanga a Tane
Ka kai ki te aitanga a Tiki-nui
Ka whakapau nga tapu i konei, e tama … e … i.
Naumai, e tama, ka hoake taua ka haere i te one
I taia ai Mokonui, Mokoroa ki te puke i te Ahumairangi
Na to tipuna na Kahu i waiho i roto o Turanga
Kia tataritia mai ko te tamahine a Te Waoku, a Tahatahanui
He mea whangai na Para-whenuamea
Kia kawea ki te tamahine a Matikotai hei waniwani ka tau raia
Hei whakarore noa ake ma Kuha-roa, ma Kuha-taepa
Koia Miromiro-nui ka whakamaua ki a Poutiri, ki a Pouhokai
Koia Haupa-nui, koia Tawake ahuru, ka rawe taua i konei … e … i.
E tama e! E ara ki runga ra, e mau ki to tipuna
Ki a Te Ake-tuangiangi, ki te whatu kura a Tangaroa, ki a Poutini
Ka tiki ki waho ra ki a Wehi-nui-o-mamao
Ki te kauwae o to tipuna o Muri-rangawhenua i hiia ai te Ika a Maui
Koia taitai nui, koia taitai wawa
Ka pipiha ki uta ra, ka roto [?] to tini o Ponaua
Ka tu Huruwao ka whakapaea ki a Paewai na raua ko Rakahore i patupatu
Na te whakarauoratanga a Te Ahi-turama, a Komako-nui i whakapiki
Koia Apunui, koia Tino i roto ra, e tama e!
Te hia ki te waha, e tama … e … i.”
- 269
HE KARAKIA WHANAUTANGA TAMARIKI.

He mea kauwhau mai e Mohi Ruatapu i Tokomaru, 4/1/1882.

“Manawa mai hoki te putanga o te uru ariki ki te aoturoa
Manawa mai hoki te putanga o te uru tauira ki te aoturoa
Manawa mai hoki koe, e rangi! ki te uru ora ki te whaiao, ki te ao marama ki te aoturoa
Naumai, e tama! ki te whaiao, ki te kauru ora o Tuanuku, ki te whaiao, ki te uru ora
He ao marama ki te kaukau nui, ki te kaukau ora
Haramai i to ara ngatata, ngatoro to ara
He ara ariki rangi, he ara kahurangi nou, e tama!
Tenei haruru te rangi, ngatata te rangi i runga nei
Haramai, e tama ariki! e ara ki runga
He nuku te rangi ki runga, na Paia i tamau ki te Toi o nga rangi
Haramai, e tama ariki! ki taku aro, he nuku ki Rarohenga
Whiroa mai to ara he ara atua, he ara tipua, he ara nohou, he ariki, he kahurangi ki au
Te rukutia, te tamaua to ara, he ara taetae nui, he ara taetae roa nou ki te aoturoa, e rangi aku … e … i!
Tenei tarawa, tenei matuaiwi te moea, te parangia kia toka, kia mahaki
He piere nuku, he piere rangi, e hua to ara he ara uru ora
He ara uru matua ki te aoturoa, ki te whaiao, e rangi aku e i.”

1   The principal officiating expert was so called.
2   Hunga= ? Hurunga.