Volume 75 1966 > Volume 75, No. 2 > The sources of Sir George Grey's Nga Mahi A Nga Tupuna, by David Simmons, p 177 - 188
THE SOURCES OF SIR GEORGE GREY'S NGA MAHI A NGA TUPUNA
It is now 110 years since Sir George Grey published in “Polynesian Mythology” (1855) a translation of his earlier Maori text “Nga Mahinga a Nga Tupuna Maori” (1854). Since that time both the Maori and English texts have been an important source for knowledge of Maori traditions. In this paper I shall examine the sources for the Maori text.
When Sir George Grey left New Zealand in 1854 he took his Maori manuscript collection with him to his new post at Capetown. It was placed in the Public Library he established there in the hope that he and a noted scholar, Dr. W. H. I. Bleek of Capetown, would be able to work on it. Bleek, with Grey's assistance, compiled a catalogue of all Sir George's library, including his Maori mss., which was published in pamphlet form in 1858. 2 The original manuscripts, in Capetown, were partly collated with Nga Mahinga a Nga Tupuna (1854) by H. W. Williams in 1906. 3 An expanded edition of Grey's Nga Mahinga, 4 edited by H. W. Williams in 1928, was retitled Nga Mahi a Nga Tupuna. 5 The latter was again reproduced by photo offset in 1956. It is this text, the one most readily available, which has been used in this study.
Nga Mahi a Nga Tupuna and the 500 Maori songs published by Grey in 1853 in his “Nga Moteatea” 6 are only a portion of the material contained in Sir George Grey's original collection of Maori manuscripts. - 178 This collection is now housed in Auckland Public Library, together with some additional material collected by Grey after his return to New Zealand in 1858. The total collection exceeds 9,800 pages of manuscript, of which only 196 pages of prose and 500 pages of poetry have been printed. The whole is an invaluable collection of texts mainly written between 1845 and 1854.
Grey's Nga Mahinga a Nga Tupuna (1854), and his own fairly reliable translation in Polynesian Mythology (1855) is one of the earliest published collections of Maori traditional material. As we shall show, it is also the most authoritative.
This raises the question of how we may define authentic or authoritative tradition. To do this some attention must be paid to the recorder and to the informant from whom the information was obtained. In some cases, of course, these two functions are combined, for example in the person of Te Rangikaheke of the Ngati-Rangiwewehi tribe, who recorded his own extensive knowledge of the traditions of his district.
Whether Maori or Pakeha, each informant or recorder needs to be considered from the point of view of his reliability and expertise. Reliability can best be judged in those cases where an informant or recorder has been responsible for a large quantity of material which can be assessed for internal and external consistency. In the case of the recorder, factors such as his training, ability to speak Maori, and freedom from bias, must be considered. For Maori informants, their motivation in providing the material is important. Obviously, information from Maori sources is most likely to be of value when the informant is a person of status 7 relating the traditions of his own tribe, preferably when he has no axe to grind (as would not be the case when submitting a petition to the Governor, or giving evidence on land disputes). Other things being equal, an informant who was born into the pre-contact culture, may be regarded as more reliable than one who knew the unaltered culture only by hearsay. Grey's informants or recorders were often people who had experienced life in a period relatively unaffected by European contact or who had access, in the persons of their fathers, or relatives of the father's generation, to informants who had lived in the pre-European situation.
The methods used to determine whether a record does reflect the views of the tribe on tradition are: (a) comparison with other records of the same tradition from the same area. (b) finding songs concerned with the same people or incidents. (Songs were meant to be sung in public on a marae, thus material in them can be expected to reflect the views of the tribe.) (c) attesting the persistence of the tradition into modern times among the tribal elders.
One difficulty remains. Grey, in compiling Nga Mahinga a Nga Tupuna 8 often drew on a number of sources, for the same tradition. The result in some sections is a patchwork which does not truly represent the traditions of any particular region. As H. W. Williams notes in the preface to the 1928 edition. 9- 179
“The oral transmission of a legend through many generations produced startling results, and thus it comes about that many of these narratives are current in forms which vary widely in detail in different localities. Sir George Grey tells us that he has in some circumstances combined matter collected from different sources. Such combination may prove misleading, for there was generally a reason for the local variation. A comparison of accounts collected from different sources will often suggest interesting problems by both the discrepancies and the close resemblance of the language used. It is not always easy to decide whether we should assume that identical phrases have been incorporated into the descriptions of different incidents, or whether accounts of a single incident travelling down divergent lines have become so transformed that it is difficult, if not impossible, satisfactorily to harmonize them.”
It was obviously desirable to establish the locale, and where possible, the author of each tradition in Nga Mahi a Nga Tupuna, and in those cases where different sources had been combined, to unscramble them. Because almost all of the source manuscripts have been preserved in the Grey Collection at the Auckland Public Library, this has proved possible in nearly every case.
In what follows the results of my research are presented by tribal area.
Te Rangikaheke of Ngati Rangiwewehi, also known as William Marsh, or Wiremu Maihi, was one of Grey's main informants for the Arawa region. Te Rangikeheke was a principal chief of Ngati Rangiwewehi tribe of the Rotorua district, and the son of a celebrated priest. He contributed some 500 pages of manuscript to Grey's collection, all of it written between 1849 and 1853. He died in 1893. Rangikaheke is the author of at least 50 pages out of the 198 in Nga Mahi a Nga Tupuna (1928). His contributions include the following: (Numbers in parentheses refer to pages, and, after a colon, lines.)
Nga Tama a Rangi (1-5) is, except for the last paragraph on (5), derived from Te Rangikaheke's manuscripts GNZMMSS 81 and 43. 10 Nga Mahi (54-57) is the account of Toi-te huatahi ratou ko Tama-te-kapua ko Whakaturia which is by Te Rangikaheke. It was originally printed in Nga Moteatea. 11 The original is in GNZMMSS 81. 12 Except for the short section which mentions the moa at lines 18-21, Te Haerenga mai o Ngahue (58) is also from the same section in Nga Moteatea, 13 probably taken from Te Rangikeheke's manuscript. 14 Te korero mo nga waka (59), except for lines 14-16 is likewise from Nga Moteatea. 15 Te Hekenga mai (60-70) is largely from two manuscripts - 180 by Te Rangikaheke 16 but is interwoven with sections (64 : 15-22 and 64 : 41 to 65 : 14) from another source [GNZMMSS 77 : 11—Ed.]
In Manaia raua ko Ngatoroirangi (7180), a section containing the karakia by Te Rangikaheke has been inserted in a tradition drawn from other sources. Te Rangikaheke's contribution (72 : 37 to 76 : 36) is from GNZMMSS 81 : 61-70. Te Rangikaheke is the sole author of Hatupatu (81-89) which is drawn from GNZMMSS 81. 17 The story was also printed in Nga Moteatea 18 the text edited and reprinted in Nga Mahi.
Part of the story of Hinemoa (106-113) is from Te Rangikaheke. 19 It is interwoven with portions of the manuscript Grey obtained directly from the natives of Mokoia in 1849. 20 Te Rangikaheke's narrative takes over at (109 : 3). The close of the story from (113 : 23) is again by Te Rangikaheke. The first three taniwha stories (126-136) are also reprinted from Cooper's account of Grey's journey to Taranaki and are attributed to Te Rangikaheke. 21
Whakatauihu (174) is drawn from another of Te Rangikaheke's manuscripts 22 as is the story of the burning of the Arawa Te Tahunga o te Arawa (180-181). 23 Te Rangikaheke is also the source for the Manaia story (182-185), 24 except for the first paragraph on (182) which is from another source. 25
Other Arawa Sources
Te Rangikaheke is the main informant and recorder used by Grey, but other less well-known sources from the Arawa area are also used. One of these is Hohepa Paraone of Te Ngae, Rotorua, who may have been important in that area, but of whom no details are known. Hohepa Paraone or Joseph Brown, as a baptismal name, could have been given to Te Haupapa or Hikairo 26 who were both chiefs of Te Ngae. Hohepa was possibly related to Rapata Paraone, a Ngati-Whakaue chief who was alive in 1890. 27 Paraone contributed part of the legend of Tawhaki (39:34 to 40 : 14, to end). 28 This continued and is probably interwoven (40) with a manuscript written by Te Whiwhi. 29 However the whole of (40) has been freely edited and it is difficult to relate more than odd sentences to either manuscript. At (41 : 10-29) Paraone's manuscript takes over. 30 A section by Te Whiwhi is inserted then from (42 : 23) Parone continues until the end of the story.- 181
The natives of Mokoia Island, Rotorua, gave Grey part of the text of Hinemoa (106 : 1-11 and 109 : 4 to 113 : 22). This text was originally printed in Cooper 1851, 32 where it is stated to have been collected on December 26th 1849. The original manuscript 33 is still extant among Grey's manuscripts.
Ngati Toa, Ngati Raukawa and Waikato Sources
In 1820, the Ngati Toa, descendants of the Tainui canoe, migrated from Kawhia to the Horowhenua and Wellington districts. The two leading chiefs in the migration to, and subsequent conquest of, the Wellington region, were Te Rauparaha and his nephew Te Rangihaeata. Grey's main source in the area was the young chief Matene Te Whiwhi (1815-1881), a son of Topeora or Rangi-toperoa, sister of Te Rangihaeata, 34 the old chief from whom Te Whiwhi obtained most of his information. Te Rangihaeata died in 1856, never having become a Christian. Matene Te Whiwhi was a Christian who in 1839 voyaged from Wellington to the Bay of Islands to obtain a missionary for his tribe, much against the wishes of his elder Te Rangihaeata. In 1840 Te Whiwhi signed the Treaty of Waitangi. He undertook a dangerous voyage around the South Island in 1843 to introduce Christianity to the Ngai-Tahu. Te Whiwhi's manuscripts 35 comprise some 78 pages of tradition, genealogy and poems. Thirty-six pages of Nga Mahi can be attributed to Te Whiwhi.
According to H. W. Williams 36 part of the Maui story can be attributed to Te Rangihaeata. These parts are from GNZMMSS 46, 37 written by Te Whiwhi, whose main source of information, as we have noted, was Te Rangihaeata. The bulk of the Maui story (6-19) which, as Williams had noted, 38 was written by Te Rangikaheke, was originally published in Nga Moteatea. 39
Matene Te Whiwhi is the author of the story of the killing of Kae (Te Patunga o Kae) (29-31). Except for short interpolations (29 : 23-25 40 and 30 : 5-20) drawn from another Te Whiwhi manuscript, 41 the rest of the passage is drawn from GNZMMSS 46 42 dated to 1852. Most of the legend of Tawhaki (37-45) is by Te Whiwhi, the remainder is by Hohepa Paraone of Te Ngae. This again is drawn from GNZMMSS 46, 43 but Te Whiwhi's contribution is intermingled with that of Paraone (39-40) and (41 : 1-10) and 41 : 33 to 42 : 22). Rata raua ko Whakatau (46-49) is wholly by Te Whiwhi, being again drawn from - 182 GNZMMSS 46. 44 The same is true of the story of Whakatau raua ko Hine-i-te-iwaiwa (50-53) taken from the same manuscript. 45 Williams remarks on the insertion of a passage concerning the moa in Te Haerenga mai o Ngahue (58 : 18-21), and in Te korero mo nga waka (59 : 14-16). Both of these can be assigned to another Te Whiwhi manuscript GNZMMSS, 77. 46 Likewise paragraphs concerning the Tainui canoe have been inserted in a narrative by Te Rangikaheke in Te Hekenga Mai (64 : 15-22) and (64 : 41-65 : 14). 47
The story of Manaia raua ko Ngatoroirangi (71-80) of Nga Mahi is mainly by Te Whiwhi except for an unidentified paragraph on (71 : 29-36), the karakia by Te Rangikaheke (72 : 37 to 76 : 36), and further paragraphs, whose source is not known, (79 : 31-35) and the last two paragraphs on (80). Apart from these, the text is taken from GNZMMSS 77. 48
Hori Patara is stated in Bleek's Catalogue 49 to be “a native of the Ngati Toa tribe who, in the early part of 1851 took down traditions and songs from the direction of old chiefs at Porirua”. The story of Hine poupou raua ko Te Oriparoa on (188-193) of Nga Mahi is entirely from Patara's manuscript. 50 Grey's manuscript English translation of this story 51 is headed “a legend of the Rangitane tribe”. This attribution is quite likely as Rangitane were at that time (1851) occupying part of the Horowhenua region, where they had lived for a number of generations.
A source among the Ngati Maru tribe of Thames, can be postulated for Hotunui raua ko Maru-tuahu (115-119) but the original manuscript has not been identified.
Similarly, Te Kahu-rere moa (120-125) is concerned with the ancestors of the Ngati-Paoa tribe of Hauraki, and was probably obtained by Grey in 1849. 52 The original manuscript of this story is included in the manuscript for the printer of Nga Mahinga (1854). 53 Tamure the sorcerer, Te Matenga o Kiki, (145-146) resided at Kawhia and is said to be the ancestor of Ngati-Mariu. 54 The original manscript is GNZMMSS 31, 55 but the origin is not given. White 56 gives the tribal source as Ngati Mahuta. The page numbering, 9 to 15, corresponds with the missing pages of the probable Ngati-Paoa manuscript above. The tradition of Paoa 57 (156-173) is titled “The History of Paoa, ancestor of Ngati Paoa tribe,” The original manuscript is contained in the copies made by Grey. 58 It was probably obtained in 1849. 59- 183
The original manuscript for Te Naue raua ko Matatini (194-196) is contained in GNZMMSS 28. 60 This is one of the traditional items included in Grey 1928 by H. W. Williams. GNZMMSS 28 consists of copies made by Sir George and Lady Grey from other manuscripts. A Ngati-Maru or Ngati-Paoa source can be postulated.
A probable Ngati-Maniapoto origiin can be inferred for Te Kitenga a Te Kanawa i te Patupaiarahe (152-153). The original manuscript has not been found, but Te Kanawa occurs on Maniapoto genealogies four generations above Potatau Te Wherowhero, the first Maori king. 61 Te Ponga raua ko Te Puhi-huia (140-144) is probably of Waikato origin also. The tribe at Awhitu, South Manukau Heads, where the hero lived, was said to be Ngati Kahukoka 62 but a Waikato source for the story is more likely.
Ati-Awa and Taranaki sources.
Piri Kawau who died in 1875 was of the Ati-Awa tribe. In 1843 he went to England with Beauchamp Halswell and lived there for some time. He visited Germany before returning to New Zealand where he became secretary-interpreter to Sir George Grey. In 1849 he accompanied Grey on his overland journey to Taranaki. 63 When Grey left New Zealand for England and South Africa, Piri Kawau accompanied him and stayed away 18 months. He returned and edited the Maori Messenger in 1857.
A good part of Te Maunutanga mai o Turi i Hawaiki (90-98) can be assigned to Piri Kawau. However, as Williams rightly remarks 64 he is not the sole author. Kawau's manuscript starts at (90) 65 and continues to (92 : 20). An interpolated section from what is probably a Ngati-Ruanui or Nga-Rauru source completes (92). Kawau's manuscript resumes (93 : 1) and continues to (96 : 34). 66 The genealogy which continues in the manuscript is quite different to the remainder of the printed genealogy on (96 to 97). The remainder of the text on (96-98) is also from the same probable Ngati-Ruanui or Nga Rauru source, on the basis of the genealogy. 67
Wiremu Tako Ngatata, who was one of the Ati-Awa chiefs connected with the conquest of the Wellington area by Ngati-Toa, and later prominent in the Land League at Waitara, North Taranaki, and as a member of the Legislative Council, is the author of GNZMMSS 59 which is undated but was written before 1854. A genealogy given with the manuscript which terminates in Wi Tako, establishes his authorship. To Wi Tako can be attributed part of the story of Maui (19 : 29 to 21 : 44). Except for interpolated lines at 20 : 15-16 and 20 : 34-35 this passage is wholly from GNZMMSS 59. 68 The story of Rupe raua ko Hinauri - 184 (24-28) is likewise from GNZMMSS 59 69 as is the story of Whakatau-potiki (32-36). 70 The latter portion of the text from (35 : 33) to the end is also to be found as a copy in GNZMMSS 112. 71
Ngatata also supplied the text for Takarangi raua ko Raumahora (154-5). The original is to be found in GNZMMSS 113. 72
Ngati Kahungunu and East Coast sources.
Grey included the original of Te Huhuti (138-9) in the printer's manuscriptt for his Nga Mahinga. 73 The original manuscript is thus contained in GNZMMSS 29. It carries no indication of origin but is concerned with Ngati Kahungunu tradition. Te Huhuti is stated to be a female ancestress of Te Hapuku, a prominent chief of Ngati Kahungunu in the middle of last century. S. R. Locke, who collected many East Coast traditions, also said that he sent some traditions to Grey. 74 This is possibly the source of this tradition.
Ngai Tahu and South Island sources.
J. F. H. Wohlers (1811-1883), a German missionary who reached New Zealand in 1843 and established his station at Ruapuke, at the extreme south of the South Island, sent Grey six legends he had collected there. Portion of one is printed as the last paragraph on (5). This paragraph may be found in GNZMMSS 55. 75 The same manuscript can be consulted for the original texts of Tangaroa (175-6), 76 and Tane on 117-9). 77 Unfortunately both texts appear to have been rewritten in more or less standard North Island Maori by Wohlers. 78
Auckland and Northland sources.
Two stories in Nga Mahi, Te Patunga o Kaiwhare on (136-7) and Nga Puhi o Puarata raua ko Tautohito on (147-149) cannot be attributed to any definite manuscript source. Both would appear to derive from the same tribe. The hero is Hakawau, a renowned sorcerer who belonged to the Ngatiteata tribe. 79 Ngatiteata were a small tribe of Tainui descent who lived in the Auckland district.
The tale of Kahukura and of how he learnt to fish with a net is told in Te Kitenga a Kahuhura i te Patupaiarehe on (150-151) of Nga Mahi. The story is set in the Doubtless Bay district. Te Rangi Hiroa was taken by the people of Rangiawhia and Doubtless Bay to be shown the land marks associated with the story. 80 As the author of the story in Nga - 185 Mahi refers to Rangiawhia as kei raro or up North, 81 he was probably further south. Local knowledge of place names would indicate that the source was probably the Aupouri tribe or possibly Te Rarawa.
Stories for which no source has been identified or inferred.
Two stories in Nga Mahi have yet to be considered. He Korero ke mo Maui (186-7), originally a footnote in the 1855 edition, and Te Aohuruhuru (197-8) an extra item included by Wiilliams from the fair copies in GNZMMSS 28. 82 No other source is known. The latter may be of Wanganui or Taranaki origin, and the former may be by Te Whiwhi.
The Value of the Text as Authentic Tradition.
Earlier on some of the criteria for defining authentic tradition were briefly discussed. The criteria of reliability, expertise, and internal and external consistency of information are well satisfied by the majority of the sources from which material has been drawn for the text. However, this paper has demonstrated, that the text, as published, does not satisfy these criteria, in that sources from different tribal areas are often interwoven in a single account. However, once the various contributions have been sorted out, three general points are immediately apparent: 1. All but a small portion of the text has been contributed by recorders or informants who were themselves men of status relating the traditions of their own particular tribal area. 2. Those portions of the text which are not traceable to any named sources nevertheless are consistent with the local area tradition from which they are derived. 3. A wide range of tribal areas is represented.
In general terms and bearing in mind the need to separate passages, it can be concluded that Nga Mahi a Nga Tupuna is the most authoritative and representative collection of Maori tradition which has yet appeared in New Zealand.
SUMMARY OF THE SOURCES OF NGA MAHI A NGA TUPUNA (All references are to Grey 1928)
(a) Published Works.
(b) Maori Manuscripts.
These are all from the Grey collection of Maori manuscripts in the Auckland Public Library. For convenience of reference they are arranged here in order of their accession numbers, as referred to in the text of the paper. References in square brackets are to numbered paragraphs in Bleek 1858, which contains a good deal of detail on almost all of the Maori Manuscripts in the collection.
1 I wish to acknowledge the assistance given by the librarians of the Auckland Public Library, the Alexander Turnbull Library, and the Hocken Library, and I am especially grateful to Miss G. Terry of the Auckland Public Library for checking the list of manuscripts. Dr. Bruce Biggs has been a patient critic, and L. M. Groube and M. G. Hitchings have offered helpful comment.
2 Bleek 1858.
3 Williams 1906.
4 Grey 1854.
5 Grey 1928.
6 Grey 1853.
7 Buck 1926:203.
8 Grey 1854.
9 Grey 1928: vii.
10 The texts of the two manuscripts are interwoven in the published version from GNZMMS 81.53:5 and GNZMMS 43,893.
11 Grey 1853:liii-lvii.
12 GNZMMSS 81:56.
13 Grey 1853:lviii [Grey 1928:58 lines 18-21 are from GNZMMSS 77,10:5-10—Ed.].
14 ? GNZMMSS 81.
15 Grey 1853:lvii [Lines 14-16 are from GNZMMSS 77,10—Ed.].
16 GNZMMSS 81,59:22 to 66 and GNZMMSS 51,64:10 to 67:3.
17 GNZMMSS 81,71:12 to 80:17.
18 Grey 1853:xxii-xxx.
19 GNZMMSS 44.
20 GNZMMSS 60. See Cooper 1851:190.
21 Cooper 1851:129-163.
22 GNZMMSS 51,35:16 to 37:19.
23 Grey 1928:180:1-29 = GNZMMSS 51,63:1 to 64:10; Grey 180:30 to 181:22 = GNZMMSS 61,38:4 to 41:3; Grey 181:23 to end = GNZMMSS 51,68:12.
24 GNZMMSS 51.70:1 to 78:19.
25 Not traced. [All of Manaia was published earlier in Te Pipiwharauroa No. 175, pp. 5 et seq, 1912.—Ed.]
26 Cooper 1851:184.
27 See genealogy in GNZMMSS 13.
28 GNZMMSS 64, 347:2.
29 GNZMMSS 46. See later.
30 GNZMMSS 64, 347:13 to 349:5.
31 GNZMMSS 64, 349:12 to 352:23.
32 Cooper 1851:190-209.
33 GNZMMSS 60, 223:16 to 243:23.
34 Shortland 1851:283.
35 GNZMMSS 46, 54, 77.
36 Williams 1906:17.
37 Grey 1928:12:19-24 = GNZMMS 46, 6 to 7:1; Grey 13:5-9 = GNZMMSS 46, 7:1-5; Grey 16:4-6 = GNZMMSS 46, 8:10-15; Grey 17:24-29 = GNZMMSS 46, 8:19 to 9:6; Grey 18:32-33 = GNZMMSS 46, 10:2-4.
38 Williams 1906:178.
39 Grey 1853: xxxviii - xlix. See GNZMMSS 81,82-87 for a probable source of Grey 1928:6-11.
40 GNZMMSS 54, 57:15-20.
41 GNZMMSS 54, 58:17 to 59:13.
42 GNZMMSS 46, 31:5 to 36:2.
43 GNZMMSS 46, 12:14 to 21:16.
44 GNZMMSS 46, 23:1 to 31:5.
45 GNZMMSS 46, 36:2 to 42:17.
46 GNZMMSS 77, 10:6-10.
47 GNZMMSS 77, 11:15 to 12:14.
48 GNZMMSS 77, 12:5 to 18:12.
49 Bleek 1858, ms No. 138.
50 GNZMMSS 49, 78:19 to 88:40 followed by GNZMMSS 49, 1:1 to 2:34; the return to the beginning of the ms. occurs at Grey 1928:192:25.
51 GNZMMSS 29.
52 See Cooper 1851:36.
53 The pages are numbered 1-9, 15.
54 Grey 1928:146.
55 GNZMMSS 31, 9 to 15.
56 White 1888, vol. 5:58.
57 GNZMMSS 29.
58 GNZMMSS 28, 140-149.
59 See f.n. 52.
60 GNZMMSS 28, 27 to 59. [Te Naue raua ko Matatini was also published in Te Pipiwharauroa, Feb. 1909.—Ed.]
61 The present Ngati-Te Kanawa, of Ngati-Maniapoto are his descendants.
62 White 1888 vol. 5:80.
63 Cooper 1851:1.
64 In Grey 1928:202.
65 GNZMMSS 91, 502:5 to 507:10.
66 GNZMMSS 91, 507:11 to 523:9.
67 Descent is traced from Tonga-awhikau, a prominent Ngati-Ruanui ancestor.
68 GNZMMSS 59, 195:7 to 199:15.
69 GNZMMSS 59, 199:16 to 205:6.
70 GNZMMSS 59, 205:9 to 206:7, also paged as 11:9 to 22:7.
71 GNZMMSS 112, 1138:1 to 1140:2.
72 GNZMMSS 113, 1159:1 to 1161:23.
73 Grey 1854.
74 Locke 1882:433 and a version by Hoeta of Ngati-Rangiita in Fletcher 1926:31-35.
75 GNZMMSS 55, 12:13-17.
76 GNZMMSS 55, 1:1 to 2:17.
77 GNZMMSS 55, 2:19 to 11:35.
78 See Wohler's notes with similar mss. in Hocken as presented to Otago Institute in 1872.
79 White 1888, vol. 5:52,56.
80 Buck 1949:212.
81 Literally “down there” referring to the north of the North Island as the tail of Maui's fish.
82 GNZMMSS 28, 60 to 66. [Te Ao-huruhuru was also published in Te Pipiwharauroa, April 1904.—Ed.]