Volume 15 1906 > Volume 15, No. 2 > Incidents in the history of Horehore Pa, Te Takapau, by Tanguru Tuhua, p 69-93
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ON the occasion of a visit paid by Major H. P. Tu-nui-a-rangi and the writer to the native village of Te Takapau, situated on the railway line, 55 miles south of Napier, and just on the edge of what was formerly the Seventy-mile Bush, we induced Tanguru, the principal man of the tribe there living, to write the history of the occupation of Horehore pa, which has been connected with his tribe—the Ngai-Tahu—and had been their headquarters for a great many generations, indeed, until the Pax Britanica spread peace over the land, when the pa was finally abandoned, and the land sold to the Government. It is to be hoped that this old historic pa will be reserved for all time, and towards that end the Scenery Preservation Commission has made a recommendation. The pa is situated on a high ridge, about three-quarters of a mile east of Takapau Railway Station, from which it is a prominent object. Compared with many others this old pa does not present such high ramparts and deep ditches as in most cases, but the position is a fine one, on a peak of the limestone range called Nga-kai-hinaki-a-Tarawhata, which, sloping easily up from the west, falls off precipitately to the east; and is divided from the rest of the range by two coombs, or passes, in the range, in both of which are streams from whence the former inhabitants drew their supply of water. There are several lines of defence still visible, and on top is a large group of limestone rocks called Te-toi-a-Uru, which was the tihi or toi of the pa, where the old chiefs assembled to discuss questions of importance to the tribe. A few remains of the old totara palisades are also still to be seen. Tanguru informed us that his people claim to belong to the Ngai-Tahu people of the Middle Island—in fact their hapu name is identical. He is - 70 an old man of about 70–75 years of age, and the writing of this history must have been a laborous undertaking for one unaccustomed to the use of the pen. It is lucky our visit to the old man took place when it did, for it has been the means of preserving a sketch—a rough one certainly—of the history of the Seventy Mile Bush and the struggles of the East Coast invaders with the original Rangi-tane inhabitants, which would otherwise have been lost, for Tanguru is the last of the old men of those parts who could recite it correctly.

The country round about the homes of these Ngai-Tahu people, was, until a few years ago, densely covered with magnificent forest, the edge of which was just at Te Takapau village—northwards from there the open plains of Rua-taniwha extend for many miles. Whenua-hou, one of the places mentioned in the story, lies just to the Southeast of Te Takapau; it is now all in grass and stumps, and, on its eastern side the continuation of the limestone ridge before alluded to has afforded the former inhabitants excellent sites for some very strong pas, many of which are still in good preservation. In this picturesque country the Ngai-Tahu people have been settled since about the year 1525 (as deduced from the genealogies), when they first made their appearance, coming from the north, from Poverty Bay, before the time of the migration into Heretaunga of Taraia from the same parts, as related in this Journal, Vol. XIV., p. 93.

Sketch of the History of the First Occupation of Southern Hawkes Bay and Wairarapa.

Before translating Tanguru's story, it may be of interest to a few, to sketch in brief outline the history of southern Hawkes Bay and the Seventy Mile Bush,—Tamaki-nui-a-Rua, as the Maoris name the latter 1—and southern Wairarapa. Many days have been spent in hunting up notes and genealogies in the endeavour to disentangle the conflicting statements, having reference to these parts. The Society possesses two MS. volumes of notes written by Hori Ropiha, of Waipawa, Hawkes Bay, in the nineties, which I have found full of information, albeit of a sketchy nature, and more especially full of genealogies, which, not being made out to support claims to land pending before the Native Land Court, ought to possess a considerable value for historic purposes. Of course we are dependant entirely - 71 upon genealogies for fixing approximate dates in Maori History, and notwithstanding that they differ amongst themselves, as is only natural, if the mean of a great number is taken, and extending back to well-known ancestors, the result cannot be far from the truth. In this way the dates to follow have been calculated back from the year 1900, by allowing four generations to a century.

The genealogies to be found in H. Ropiha's books, certainly accord very well with the large number collected by Coln. Gudgeon on the East Coast, and published in J.P.S., Vol. III. and IV., and as they were collected from different tribes, the correspondence makes them of more value.

Hori Ropiha, who died some six or seven years ago, would not perhaps, in former times have been considered a first-class authority, but unfortunately we are not now in a position to refer to those old tohungas who could, at one time, have given clear and consistant histories of their tribes—they have all departed to the Reinga. Those white people who had the opportunity of gathering in the stores of information the old men possessed, utterly neglected to do so. We who now take up the tale with the view of converting unconnected traditions into something having the semblance of history, can only make use of second rate information. But the means often exists of checking the conflicting data, and that has been done in what follows wherever it has been possible.


The present inhabitants of the large district extending from Napier to Wairarapa, are generally not the descendants of the original people, but are mostly immigrants from that prolific birth place of tribes—Poverty Bay. They are generally known as Ngati-Kahu-ngunu. H. Ropiha says (Vol. II., p. 6) that “the people who originally owned Here-taunga (the country round Hastings) right away to Wairarapa, Whanga-nui-a-Tara (Wellington), Porirua, Otaki, Manawatu, Tamaki (the Seventy Mile Bush), and the Ruahine Mountains, was Rangi-tane;” and (Vol. II., p. 23) that the Mua-upoko, and Ngai-Tara (Vol. II., p. 7) tribes were offshoots from the same people.

The Rangi-tane tribe takes its name from Tane-nui-a-rangi, 2 who, according to the pedigree given (H.R. Vol. I., p. 79) flourished 52 generations ago, and the names on this long line are all tangata-whenua, or aboriginal people, down to 21 generations ago. This seems to contradict a somewhat obscure statement by the same writer, that the ancestors of this tribe came over in the “Taki-tumu” - 72 canoe (in 1350). Another authority says that the tribe takes its name from one Rangi-tane, also said to have come in that canoe. The following is a genealogical table from Rangi-tane, which will also be useful for reference later on.

No. 1.
Family Tree. Tau-toki, 20 Rangi-tane, Kopu-parapara, Kuau-pango, Uhenga-raho-pango, Hamua, Waha-maro, Hine-rau-te-kawa, 19 Whata 16, Whatonga, Rangi-whakawai-nuku, Weka-nui, 15 Tawhaki, Rakai-maro, Pine-nau 10, Tawhiri-rangi, Takerekire, 10 Rua-wharetai, Kau-peka, Te Rua, Heketara, Hika-rere-kau, 5 Tango-pi, Tawhiri-toroa, Te Piha-iti, Kaoho-tuhanga, Te Aro-atua

It will be seen from this that Rangi-tane flourished 20 generations ago, which is two generations short, counting back from 1900, to the date of the heke, of 1350. But this table is longer than the average, for Whata was born about 1500 (16 gens. ago) which would make Rangi-tane to have flourished 17 or 18 generations ago,—and this agrees with other lines; therefore he probably was born about 1450, a hundred years after the arrival of the heke of 1350. Of course his forefathers may have come in “Taki-tumu,” but all the genealogical lines I know make him a direct descendant of Toi-kai-rakau. Moreover when Ngati-Kahu-ngunu and the other northern tribes arrived in the Rangi-tane territories, they found it overspread by a numerous population, many of whom they fought with, expelled, or amalgamated with, thus showing far too large a population to have spring from the crews of the fleet of 1350. Although, as H. Ropiha says, Rangi-tane may have been a general name applied to all the people occupying mid and southern Hawkes Bay, there were many divisions—amongst others Te Tini-o-Awa, Whatu-mamoa, Te Tini-o-Rua-tamore, Te Te-upoko-iri, Ngai-Tara, etc., etc., all believed to be tangata whenua tribes, occupying the district when the fleet from Hawaiki arrived at these shores. At the present day we find Rangi-tane occupying a very small part of the large district accredited to them by H. Ropiha, in former times, e.g., such as the south end of the Seventy Mile Bush, parts of the West Coast, Manawatu, etc., and probably the largest number of them are at the present day to be found at the north end of the Middle Island, at Wairau, Queen Charlottes Sound, etc. Of their struggles against the invading Ngati-Kahu-ngunu, Tanguru's narrative will tell us.

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This tribe—stated by H. Ropiha and others to be an offshoot of Rangi-tane,—is a very ancient one, and as a tribe has probably existed as long under that name as Rangi-tane itself. They take their name from Tara (Table No. 2) who is said to have been a brother of Tau-toki shown in Table No. 1 as the father of Rangi-tane, and both are descended from Whatonga, a grandson of Toi-kai-rakau (circa 1150) the ancestor of a great many aboriginal tribes. Tara must have been a man of importance in his time for the following are called the puna (springs) of Tara: Ahuriri Harbour, Poukawa Lake, Te Roto-a-Tara Lake (near Te Aute), Whatu-ma Lake (near Wai-puku-rau), Wairarapa Lake, and Port Nicholson, which is called Te Whanganui-a-Tara after him (it is also called Te Wheke-nui-a-Tara); and the inference is that he discovered it. It was this people that killed the taniwha, Ngarara-hua-rau, as related in J.P.S. Vol. XIV., p. 202. It is clear they had settlements in the Seventy Mile Bush, for Hone Meihana states, they formerly owned the whole of it and that Rangi-tane drove them out, killing or enslaving them, and then possessed the land. The open lands at Te Hawera and Tutae-karā, not far from the modern town of Eketahuna, are said to have been cleared of forest by Ngai-Tara. Their food is stated to have been birds, wild roots and fruits, the inference being that they had neither the kumara nor the taro.

Ngai-Tara as a tribe, has practically ceased to exist, though there are descendants of Tara still living, as the marginal table shows, where the last on the list is the wife of our Corresponding member, Aporo Te Kumeroa, of Greytown.

    No. 2.
  • 20 Tara
  • Pehunga-i-te-rangi
  • Hine-one
  • Tukapo
  • Turia
  • 15 Te Hapai-o-te-rangi
  • Te Rangi-tuatahi
  • Te Rae-kau-moana
  • Tauiao
  • Te Uri-popo
  • 10 Pa-te-ika
  • Te Uri-popo
  • Tawha-tahi
  • Te Ika-a-mau-wawe
  • Te Whanake (or Huka)
  • 5 Kekerengu (or Taiaha)
  • Te Miha-o-te-rangi
  • Te Ruihi

This line would make the period of Tara to be about the year 1400; another line makes it 1350, so it is clear he flourished about the time of the heke from Hawaiki.

Shorthand says (Southern Dists. of N.Z., p. 98), that Ngai-Tara were living in the Middle Island ten generations back from 1851 (or 300 years from 1900—say A.D. 1600. He says … . . “All that part of the Middle Island which extends from Waipapa, a point about 20 miles south of Cape Campbell (really three to four miles south of the Clarence River; it is now a shipping place for wool) to Raki-ura or Stewart Island, including Foveaux Straits, and probably a great part of the West Coast, was - 74 possessed by one tribe who were called Ngati-Mamoe. Bordering on them to the north was a tribe called Te Huataki, whose ancestors had crossed over from the North Island and settled themselves at Wairau (Marlborough). To the West of them the country about Totara-nui (Cooks Cove, Queen Charlotte Sound) was in possession of the tribe Ngai-Tara, whose ancestors also came from the North Island under a chief named Te Puhi-rere, who, Tu-hawaiki said, was of the same lineage as the Nga-Puhi tribe.” This connection with Nga-Puhi seems doubtful, unless it is through the tangata-whenua ancestors of that tribe, i.e., Toi and others.

Judge Mackay also refers to Ngai-Tara in his “Native Affairs, South Island,” Vol. I., p. 40, where he describes their settling down and intermarriages with their predecessors, the Wai-taha tribe, and their subsequent troubles with Ngati-Kuri. But neither of the above writers indicate any probable date for the migration of Ngai-Tara from the North Island—they were there when the Ngai-Tahu under Tura-kau-tahi invaded the Middle Island, and this was about 1600. Probably Ngai-Tara had crossed the Straits under pressure of the invading tribes from the north—Rangi-tane, Ngati-Ira, Ngati-Kahu-ngunu, etc.


Of this ancient tribe we are never likely to learn its exact origin, for those who ought to have known, and doubtless did know their tribal history, were exterminated by the ruthless invaders under Te Rauparaha and his Nga-Puhi allies when they made their descent on Port Nicholson in 1819-20, and in the subsequent occupation of the same parts by Te Ati-Awa, of Taranaki. For Ngati-Ira was the tribe living there at that time, and had been in occupation for no one knows how long.

Coln. Gudgeon says (J.P.S., Vol. III., p. 215) (writing of the Ngati-Ira, of Anaura Bay) “… . for is it not a fact that the name of Ira was first taken to Wairarapa by the fugitives from Pakau rangi fight; those people fled to their kindred in that place who were known by the same name.” And this is supported by local tradition so far as it has been preserved. The southern Ngati-Ira say, that on their first arrival in the neighbourhood of Port Nicholson, they found the Ngati-Mamoe tribe in occupation—which tribe afterwards migrated to the South Island. And further that their ancestor Ira came to New Zealand in the Horouta canoe, which is perhaps doubtful. Anyone who will refer to the article quoted above will see the uncertainty surrounding the identity of the particular Ira from whom the tribe takes its name. There were two main branches of this tribe, the one inhabiting Port Nicholson and Lower Wairarapa, - 75 the other Anaura Bay and the country inland of Tokomaru Bay—both places some miles north of Poverty Bay. The following descent from their eponymous ancestor was given me by the southern branch of the tribe—it will be observed that the last few names are identical with the Ngai-Tara line (No. 2). It may also be observed that Hine-tauira who married Rakai-werohia, was the sister of Te Rerewa, the Rangi-tane chief who bartered Southern Wairarapa with Rakai-rangi for seven canoes as related J.P.S., Vol. XIII., p. 159. The northern branch of the tribe denies that Tura was their ancestor, and it seems uncertain if his son Ira-tu-roto was the Ira from whom the tribe takes its name. The southern Ngati-Ira, also claim by another line, that Ira was a son of Tahu by his wife Manawatina and this agrees with Coln. Gudgeon's surmise as expressed J.P.S., Vol. III., p. 215. (See Te Kumeroa's MS., p. 4).

No. 3.
Family Tree. 23 Tura, Ira-tu-roto, Ueroa, 20 Tahito-tarere, Rakai-nui, Te Ao-mata-rahi, Rakai-whakairi, Rakai-te-iwi, 15 Pirau-iti, Rakai-werohia=Hine-tauira, Te Rangi-tawhanga, Te Umu-tahi, Te Mahaki-kaea, 10 Te Hiha, Te Werange, Hine-tarewa, Hine-ki-runga, Tarewa, 5 Te Miha, Ratima, Te Ruihi

The date that Tura existed can be fixed very nearly, and in this case we have the great advantage of being able to compare the Raro-tonga genealogies with those of New Zealand to help us. It is well-known from Maori tradition that Tura was a companion voyager of Whiro, or Iro, as the Rarotongans call him (they have lost the “wh” sound in their dialect) and that as a young man Whiro took him to Vavau (or Porapora of the Society Islands) and there he remained until old age. As Whiro was a contemporary of the great Rarotongan Chief and voyager, Tangiia, and as the latter flourished 26 generations back from 1900,—proved by many Rarotongan lines—it follows that Tura flourished 25 generations ago, which agrees within two with the marginal table.

A little bit of Polynesian genealogy is worth recording here, as it is confirmed by Maori lines. On one of my visits to Aitutaki Island, the chief Isaia gave me the following:—

No. 4.
Family Tree. 26 Tangiia (contemporary of Whiro), 25 Motoro (contemporary of Tura), 24 Uenuku-rakeiora =, 23 1 Ruatapu, 2 Taiē, 3 Ina, 4 Paikea, 5 Ira
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All of these latter names except the second and third are also recorded on Maori lines, and it was in the generation following Ruatapu and his brethren that the fleet called in at Rarotonga on its way to New Zealand. So it is quite possible that Ira-tu-roto, may have been a son of Tura's through Ira's mother Takarita, Uenuku's wife—whose origin however is unknown. This of course is only a possibility, not a certainly. It nevertheless seems more than probable that Ngati-Ira was one of the immigrant tribes from Hawaiki, that came with the heke of 1350, and that they are also, like most tribes, much mixed up with the aboriginal people.

But however this may be, it does not affect the question that Ngati-Ira was one of the very early tribes to occupy southern Wai-rarapa, Port Nicholson, etc., where they were joined long after by other migrations of the tribe from Anaura. When the first advance guard of the tribe moved to the south end of the island is uncertain. Ueroa, shown on the marginal line No. 3, lived at or near Poverty Bay, and his son Tahito-tarere is said to have been killed in that district. The son of the latter, Rakai-nui, fled with his people to join their fellow tribesmen at South Wairarapa, after a long series of fights in which he and his people were defeated—for which see J.P.S., Vol. III., p. 214. As Rakai-nui was born about 1450—it would probably be about 1475 to 1500 that his migration took place.

No. 5.
Family Tree. 14 Mahere-tu-ki-te-rangi, Rere-kiokio=Tu-tapora, Tahia-rangi, Te Whakumu, 10 Tahia-rangi, Motu-hia, Te Ahi, Huka (or Whanake = Tamai-rangi, Kekerengu (or Taiaha), 5 Te Miha, Ratima, Te Ruihi

But the wars which lead to the migration just mentioned seem not to have ended then, but continued for some generations, until the times of Te Whakumu, about 10 generations ago (or say 1650 to 1675) when another migration took place under that chief and Mahanga-puhoa who (say the Southern Ngati-Ira) came down in canoes from Anaura Bay and Whangara, a few miles North of Poverty Bay, and first settled near Te Kawakawa (or Cape Palliser) from whence they spread to other places, and grew to be a very numerous people, as the pepeha or saying quoted below shows. That they amalgamated with the incoming Ngati-Kahu-ngunu is certain, and this has produced a fine race of people, for many a great rangatira with the blood of these two tribes flowing in their veins might be mentioned. The Ngati-Kahu-ngunu people have a saying which expresses a - 77 feature characteristic of their tribe—Mata nui a Kahu-ngunu, is the long faces of Kahu-ngunu; whilst the descendants of Taraia who migrated from Poverty Bay to Heretaunga, are known by their dark appearance. Tall portly men are certainly common amongst this tribe at the present day. “Hunu-a-rau” is their tribal motto—“the hundreds of Hunu,” of the descendants of Kahu-hunu (or Kahu-ngunu.

The following incident, as told by Aporo Te Kumeroa, of Greytown (MS. with the Polynesian Society) is interesting in connection with the Ngati-Ira people:—About 1675 (by five lines) was born a chief named Nga-Oko-o-te-rangi, of Ngati-Kahu-ngunu who dwelt in the Seventy Mile Bush; he was of the best blood of the tribe, being a descendant of Te Ao-mata-rahi, one of the leaders of a migration from Poverty Bay, about 1550. As a quite young man he went on a visit to the Ngati-Ira tribe, who lived near Te Kawakawa (Cape Palliser). When these people saw what a fine and accomplished man he was, they insisted on detaining him, and made him chief over their tribe and the Ngati-Rongo-potiki, Ngati-Te-Kauhou, Ngai-Ta-manuhiri and other hapus. When he was quite grown up, they gave him a wife from their own people as a further inducement for him to remain as their chief. Her name was Pokaiuru-kehu a Te Rua-manihi, by whom he had a daughter named Hau-mokai.

When this daughter grew up, and Nga-Oko saw how his people, Ngati-Ira, had increased and multiplied, he thought it was time to return and see his own people, Te Aitanga-a-Tu-mapuhia living in the vale of Kai-hoata. Having decided on this course he uttered words which have become a pepeha or saying, thus:—“Kati au te noho i roto i a koutou, mene koutou e noho nei he upoko tangahangaha anake. Ko tini o te pekeha ki te moana, ko Ngati-Ira ki uta.” “I will cease my residence amongst you, for, when you are all assembled you are as numerous as a shoal of tangahangaha (a small fish). The numbers of the pekeha (a little dark bird that sometimes covers the sea in tens of thousands) at sea alone can equal those of Ngati-Ira ashore.” It was thus with Ngati-Ira, as the pekeha hid the surface of the sea, so Ngati-Ira in those days prevented the surface of the land being seen, nor could their chiefs be seen. Hence he said to them—“Kawea au ki te riu o Kai-hoata. Kia hokowhitu ai ki te nohoanga, heru-turae; putiki makawe tahi anake.” “Take me to the vale of Kai-hoata; let there be seventy men, all with hair-combs, and hair tied up in a single knot.” (The combs were those used by chiefs stuck in the top knot). “The meaning of this is, that there were seventy chiefs of his hapu, who were all circumcised, and they - 78 were all descendants of their ancestor Tama-tea-ure-haea” (Tamatea the circumcised). “When these chiefs were all killed at Ahuriri it was then seen that Nga-Oko's saying truly applied to them, for all were circumcised. In this fight Nga-Oko and all his companion chiefs were killed by the people of Wairarapa, of whom the chiefs were: Te Hika, Te Whakatakahia, Te Ahi-a-te-momo, Whakianga, Marohuru, Te Kakaho, Te Whata-horo, and others. This fight was named Ahuriri (not to be confounded with Port Ahuriri). As the Wairarapa chiefs and their party returned, they were seen by the father of Nga-Oko, who called down to them from the ridge where he was,—“As you have killed your nephew, leave his children to live and become men for you.” Maro-huru, one of the war party replied, “Uri kore; hara kore; ka pa ano tona momo kia kore atu, kia hoki atu tona momo ki Whanga-rā ki te wahi i whanau mai ai!” “No offspring; no future trouble. If his blood ends, let his (other) blood return (for more) to Whangarā, to the place they came from.” The meaning of this is, that if his descendants here were destroyed, others could be found at Whangara.

“The old man Tama-i-tohi-kura (Nga-Oko's father) replied, “It is well, I spoke as I did, because I thought the death of the father was sufficient, and his descendants might be spared to become men for you. But as such is your answer, leave it to me to fetch others from the root that spread hither from Whangara.”

“And then Hikarara, Te Kapa (of Ngati-Porou), Te Ra-ka-to (of Wairoa, Hawke's Bay) were sent for, and in the battle that followed the principal men of Wairarapa were destroyed, and Hika-rara brother of Nga-Oko captured Maro-huru (who spoke about “No offspring, etc.,” above), who begged to be allowed to live. Hika-rara replied “You shall not live!” and immediately drove his weapon into the nose of the petitioner. After this fight the taua of Wairarapa came to Te Kawakawa, where they found Nga-Oko's daughter Hau-mokai, whom they married to Te Ahi-a-te-momo, from whom descended most of the chiefs and warriors of Wairarapa. (See also a reference to these troubles J.P.S., Vol. XIII., p. 162).

It is not at all obvious why Nga-Oko-i-te-rangi was killed by his own tribe.

Most of the place-names about Port Nicholson were given by Ngati-Ira, who occupied all that country, and Porirua also.

At the time of the Ati-Awa and Ngati-Toa invasion and conquest 1819 to 1824, the Ngati-Ira supreme chief was Whanake, also named Huka, said to have been a remarkably fine handsome man. His wife was Tamai-rangi, a lady whose fame is still sung by her descendants. She was a descendant also of Ira, of Te Ao-mata-rahi and of - 79 Mahanga-puhoa, but her parents lived in the Middle Island at Aropaoa Island, Queen Charlotte Sound, they being also connected with the Ngati-Kuia tribe of those parts. When she left Aropaoa to live with her husband at Port Nicholson, the people lamented her in following part of a song that has been preserved:—

Mahue Tawhiti-nui, 3 mo te hika i a Ware, 4
Mahue Aropaoa, 5 mo te hika i a Tamai-rangi,
Koia hoki ra tenei hanga e pohau noa nei
Desolate is left Tawhiti-nui by the marriage of Ware
Disconsolate is Aropaoa through the marriage of Tamai-rangi
Hence is this trouble that overcomes us.

Tamai-rangi is said to have been as great a chieftainess as Hine-matioro, of Tologa Bay whose fame had reached the early missionaries in the north, by whom she was referred to as “a great queen.” Tamai-rangi, in travelling from village to village, was never allowed to walk; she had her male attendants who always carried her. When she appeared before the tribe on public occasions, she was dressed in the finest mats, with plumes of albatross feathers in her hair, and a long and richly carved taiaha in her hand.

At the time the Ati-Awa and Ngati-Toa invaded the district and massacred most of her people she, with the remnant retired, as a last resort, to Tapu-te-ranga, the little islet in Island Bay, near Wellington, and when that place fell, her faithful people carried her off by sea round Cape Te Rawhiti (so called, Te Rimu-rapa is the proper name) to Ohariu, a little bay on Cook's Straits, due west of Wellington, where she was captured by her enemies, who however did not kill her or her children. Dreading that she would be put to death she asked to be allowed to sing her own lament, a request that was acceded to by her captors. This lament, in which she took farewell of her people, and her lands, was of such a pathetic nature that it appealed to Te Rangi-haeata, chief of Ngati-Toa, who begged of Te Ati-Awa—her captors—that she might be given to him, and on this request being complied with, she was taken to Kapiti Island where she and her family stayed some time. Whilst here, her son Kekerengu, who was a full grown man, got into trouble through a liason with Te Rangi-haeata's wife, and fearing the consequences, he, with his mother Tamai-rangi and her other children, escaped by canoe from Kapiti in the night, and braving the terrors of Cook's Straits, crossed over to Aropaoa, Tamai-rangi's old home. Here they all stayed some time, but still fearing the wrath of Te Rangi-haeata, they again fled from there, and eventually reached Kekerengu, a stream, and now a small village, twenty miles south of Cape Campbell. Here, for reasons with - 80 which I am unacquainted, 6 the fugitives were set upon by the Ngai-Tahu tribe, and all killed. From this circumstance the place has since been called Kekerengu, after the son of Tamai-rangi.

Some time after, the news of the death of these people reached Wairarapa, and Tamai-rangi's husband, Huka or Whanake, who had escaped the destruction of his people at Port Nicholson—together with Te Roto, Tiakitai and others, raised a taua-hiku-toto, or party of revenge, and proceeded by canoes to the east coast of the Middle Island, where they attacked Ngai-Tahu at a place my informant could not remember the name of, near Kaiapohia, where they got badly beaten. In fact nearly all Ngati-Kahu-ngunu were killed, including Huka, who was the origin of the affair. Te Roto escaped with a wound, and fled back northwards, but died in a cave where he had taken refuge. This occurred some time before Te Rauparaha's raid on Kaiapohia in 1830.

One of those who afterwards lived with the Ati-Awa, after that tribe had driven out and practically exterminated Ngati-Ira, told me that in those days Ngati-Ira did not cultivate the soil at all, but lived on fern-root, fish, pauas, birds, and the fruits of the forest. There was one kind of plant the root of which they called āka, which was eaten, and furnished a large addition to their daily food. The root was as thick as a man's wrist and about a foot long; its leaves were like the wharawhara (Astelia Banksii); but, my informant says, it is now quite extinct, destroyed by the cattle. The root was dug up with a pointed stick, then roasted, when it was very good.

It is obvious that all the country from Hawke's Bay to Port Nicholson was fairly populated by the tangata-whenua when the descendants of the crews of the fleet from Hawaiki first began to move southwards from the neighbourhood of Poverty Bay. It also seems certain that the superiority of these over-sea immigrants in arms and accomplishments told heavily against the original people wherever they came in contact with them, for in those early days the numbers of the new comers were few.

We now come to the migrations of Hawaikian Maoris into the lands of the original people described above so far as I have been able to ascertain them.

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Migrations of Northern Tribes to Hawke's Bay.

Colonel Gudgeon seems to think (J.P.S., Vol. VI., p. 184), that the first migration of the northern tribes into Hawke's Bay took place in the times of Kahu-ngunu, who had killed Tahito-tarere, when the latter's people migrated to Wai-marama and Porangahau, places some miles south of Napier, on the coast. It is at least clear that the northern chief Ueroa—the murdered man's father, table No. 3—had visited Porangahau at that time, for H. Ropiha says (Vol. II., p. 76), “This man, Ueroa, married the daughter of Porangahau, named Te Whe, and their son was Tahito-tarere, who was tuatia (or named) at Porangahau, and after that Ueroa returned to Turanga” (Poverty Bay). It appears that the chief of these people had the same name as the place, Porangahau. (See the account of his death, J.P.S., Vol. XIV., p. 89. His former name was Rongo-ue-roa; he took the former name to conceal his identity.) In the list of the migrations given by H. Ropiha, which follows, he ignores any one of this period, but the first on his list was that under Rakai-hiku-roa Taraia and Te Ao-mata-rahi.

From carefully working out the dates from the genealogies and testing them by intermarriages, the following dates of birth of the people mentioned above cannot be far out: Ueroa, 1400; Tahito-tarere, 1425; Kahu-ngunu (by 18 lines), 1450.

Colonel Gudgeon also says (J.P.S. Vol. VI., p. 9), that Rakai-nui, the son of Tahito-tarere, migrated with the rest of his tribe to Port Nicholson, and thence to the South Island. But if so he must have left his son, Te Ao-mata-rahi, behind.

Migration of Whata.

I have been unable to fix the date of this properly. Enquiries merely result in saying that it was before that of Taraia. But it was probably about 1525. Tanguru's narrative will tell us of Whata's doings after he reached Te Takapau, near where he and his party settled down.

Migration of Taraia (circa 1550).

H. Ropiha says (Vol. II. p. 6), the first migration of these people—Ngati-Kahu-nguru and Ngai-Tahu—took place in consequence of the death of Tu-purupuru (the details of which are given in J.P.S., Vol. XIV. p. 90). “This was the heke to Here-taunga, where their descendants still live, as well as at Wai-rarapa. On their arrival they fought Rangi-tane and took their land. This was the migration of Taraia and Te Ao-mata-rahi.“ From the J.P.S. quoted above we learn that Taraia's father, Rakai-hiku-roa, also took part in the - 82 migration; they settled near the present town of Hastings, on the Ngaruroro river, after defeating the Tini-o-Awa and Maru-iwi tribes (see J.P.S., Vol. XIII., p. 155). From the dates worked out, this migration must have taken place about 1550.

Migration of Ngarengare (circa 1625.

The second migration, says H. Ropiha, was under Ngarengare and his son Tama-te-ra, and it came from Te Wairoa; the cause was the theft of a celebrated bird belonging to Iwi-ka-tere. In consequence several battles were fought, such as Te Koura-kai-rapaki and Taupara, in which Ngarengare was defeated, and fled to Heretaunga. The following is translated from H. Ropiha's account of the cause of migration (H. Ropiha, Vol. I., p. 65):—

“This man, Iwi-ka-tere, who lived at Te Mahia, was the owner of a tame koko (or tui) bird, which had been taught all the karakias (incantations, etc.), the history, and all kinds of Maori knowledge. Thus he became wonderfully learned, and to him was delegated the repetition of the karakias. When the autumn months of Pou-tu-te-rangi came round, it was his business to pure, or remove the tapu from the kumara cultivations, for great indeed was his knowledge. Now, on a certain occasion Tama-te-ra sent a messenger to Iwa-ka-tere to beg him to lend the bird to say the necessary karakias over the kumaras. When the messenger got to Iwi-ka-tere's village he said, “I have come to fetch your bird to pure our kumara cultivations.” Iwi-ka-tere replied, “Wait a while, my kumaras have not yet been pure; when they are done, then come for the bird.” So the messenger returned and reported to Tama-te-ra, who was very angry at the refusal of his application, and said, “Presently, when it is night and all are overcome with sleep, you return and steal the bird.”

“So it came to pass, when all were asleep, Tama-te-ra's man went back and stealthily entered the pa of Iwi-ka-tere, where he found everybody sound asleep. He went to Iwi-ka-tere's house where the koko bird was kept. As he approached, the bird understood quite well that the thief's object was to steal him; and so he attempted to arouse his master. He called and called; but to no purpose, for Iwi-ka-tere slept on. The bird said, “E Iwi! Ka riro au; E Iwi! Ka riro au te whanako. E Iwi! e ara, ka riro au! “O Iwi! I am taken! O Iwi! I am stolen! O Iwi, arouse! I am taken!” But the thief seized the bird in his hand and made off with it.

“In the morning when Iwi-ka-tere got up, he listened for the voice of his bird, but not a sound was heard. He then went forth to look for it and found it not. For it was the habit of the bird in the morning to call to all the people, who would listen to what it was - 83 saying. And now Iwi-ka-tere lamented the loss of his bird with many tears, for he knew in his heart that it had been stolen by Tama-te-ra.

“A war party was now assembled; and the battle of Te Kourakai-rapaki was fought. This was in revenge for loss of the bird. The war now became constant. Iwa-ka-tere went round with his party to Turanga (Poverty Bay) and from thence came inland following up the enemy. They closed in battle again at Waiau (a branch of the Wairoa River, Hawke's Bay) where the party of Tama-te-ra was defeated. After this was fought the battle of Tauparoa where ‘thousands’ were killed, all on account of Iwi-ka-tere's pet bird.

“Ngarengare, father of Tama-te-ra, fled from the Wairoa district, leaving it to Iwi-ka-tere and his people, whose descendants live there still. Ngarengare and his son Tama-te-ra and the remainder of his people migrated to Heretaunga where they settled down and some of their descendants are there still, some at Wairarapa, whilst some returned to the Wairoa. The chiefs of Heretaunga are descended from the chief above mentioned, and this is a descent from him.” (See margin).

    No. 6.
  • 14 Ngarengare
  • Tama-te-ra
  • Hine-te-moa
  • Te Whatu-i-apiti
  • 10 Te Rangi-wawahia
  • Te Rangi-hirawea
  • Hopara
  • Homata-i-te-rangi
  • Te Kukanga
  • 5 Whakamarino
  • Te Ropiha
  • Hori Ropiha

Coln. Gudgeon describes the above war with more detail (J.P.S., Vol. V., p. 11), and says Iwi-ka tere's tribe was the Ngai-Tauira, a tangata-whenua tribe; and that Ngarengare belonged to some wandering tribe the origin of which is not known. As the mean of many lines fixes the date of birth of Te-whatu-i-apiti at 1650, we may place the date of this migration of Ngarengare at about 1625.

Migrations of Mahanga.

The next migration in the order given by H. Ropiha (Vol. II. p. 10), was that of Mahanga, and as I can find no table of descent from him, the date cannot be fixed. It is possible this is the same Mahanga as the man mentioned in J.P.S., Vol. XIII., p. 163. If so, then what follows is the account of his coming from the Wairoa, Hawkes' Bay, prior to his further migration to mid-Wai-rarapa. Ropiha's account is very short: “The next heke was that of Mahanga from the Wairoa. Before he started he applied to Te Tatu for a canoe to carry him and his people, and the latter gave him one named ‘Te-upoko-o-tutanga-maunga-whenua’ (if Te Tatu had lived in modern times he would, perhaps, have abbreviated this long name). They then started along the coast, but stopped at Whakaari (which, I think, is near Moeangi- - 84 angi Bluff, Hawke's Bay), where Mahanga paid for the canoe by handing over to Te Tatu the following lands: Whakaari, Puke-titiri, Maunga-haruru, Oingo, and Rau-kawa. Mahanga's descendants are to be found at Hawke's Bay and Wairarapa.”

If the above is the same Mahanga, then the date of this heke is probably about 1625. Presumably Mahanga and his people were Ngati-Kahu-ngunu.

Migration of Ngati-Ira.

H. Ropiha mentions as the next migration that of Ngati-Ira from Tokomaru and Uawa (Tologa Bay), which, he says, “was due to war: they went right down to Wairarapa, but some remained behind.” This, no doubt, was the migration under Te Whakumu and Mahangapuhoa, already referred to, and the date approximately fixed at 1650-1675.

The above seems to exhaust the accessions to the population of the district under consideration from outside places. But Ropiha mentions other migrations as originating from Heretaunga, which settled in the southern part of this district, such as that of Nga-Oko-te-rangi, that went to Wai-rarapa after he had eloped with the wife of Te Hau-apu, who followed him up with four different war parties, but failed to regain his wife. 7 Whether this is the same man of the same name who was adopted by Ngati-Ira as a chief, and subsequently killed by the Wairarapa people, I cannot say, but both were born, according to the genealogies, nine generations ago. Incidents in connection with this abduction will be found in “The Monthly Review,” Vol. II., p. 583, Wellington, 1891. The second of these local migrations was that of Ngai-Tahu, who left Here-taunga for Wai-rarapa in consequence of the death of Tama-i-waho, at Maunga-tarata, at the hands of Rangi-tane, because the former had ceded the lands of Tawhao to Te Rehunga and Manawa-kawa—about which Tanguru's narrative will tell us.

Another migration from Heretaunga to Wai-rarapa was that of Te Whatu-i-apiti and his wife Kura-mahi-nono and their people, after the former's defeat at Te Kauhanga, and when he got into trouble at Te Umuumu on account of a woman.

The last movement of these people mentioned by H. Ropiha, was that under Te Hika-o-papauma, who, with his people, departed from - 85 Here-taunga and settled first at Poranga-hau, then moved on to Tau-tane, Matai-kona, and to Rangi-whakaoma (Castle Point), where their descendants remain at this day.

We will now follow Tanguru's narrative:—

The History of Horehore Pa, Te Takapau, Hawkes Bay.

This is an explanation of some old history which my father, Tuhua, told to me in 1865.

THE origin of this ancestor of ours, of Whata, was Pou-heni, who was a son of Paikea. Pou-heni lived all his life at Turanga-nui-a-Rua (Poverty Bay) together with the tribe, and also at other parts on that coast.

From the period in which Pou-heni flourished down to Whata, there are six generations, at which time Whata settled in this country (i.e., near Te Takapau). He first occupied a hill on the range named Rangi-tapu-a-Whata. This was the first place he settled at.

After Whata had settled down permanently in this land, there grew up a quarrel between him and Tongo-whiti (of the Rangi-tane tribe), about the Whatu-ma Lake (close to Wai-puku-rau). Tongo-whiti declared that the range of hills where Whata was living was a bait-procuring ground for the lake. Whata at once understood this meant that Tongo-whiti intended to retain the eel-fishing of the lake for himself alone. [According to the tables Tongo-whiti was born about eighteen generations ago, or in 1450, whilst many lines make Whata's date of birth about the year 1500, see Table No. 1. Probably Whata settled near Te Takapou about 1525 to 1550]. The time for eel-catching was just on at that time; so Tongo-whiti proceeded to lengthen the nights (by incantations), whilst Whata went on preparing the hinakis or eel baskets on the land where he lived. In the end, Whata proceeded to hasten the daylight (by incantation), and so the lake came into the possession of Whata, together with all authority over it. This proceeding has given rise to the “saying,” which descends to us from our ancestors, “Whata's eel-basket making won; whilst Tongo-whiti's were set aside.” Hence Tongo-whiti named his land Paeroa (from pae-a-rau, (?) set aside).

In the days of the generations of Tongo-whiti's grandchildren, Te Awa-riki was murdered by Rua-tamore and his people, which deed was avenged by Ngaro-roa the former's son, in the battle called Ti-kauka-nui, where the tribe of Rua-tamore was defeated with - 86 great slaughter. This land on which Tongo-whiti's descendants lived, was then called Te Wai-kopiro-o-Rua-tamore, which obtains to this day. (This land now known as Wai-kopiro lies on the upper Manawatu river, a few miles south of Te Takapau. Rua-tamore, was, the originator of the tribal name Te Tini-o-Rua-tamore, a tangata-whenua tribe, and a branch of Rangi-tane). 8

At the time that Whata lived on the land which he called his enclosure for his eel-baskets, (Nga-hinaki-a-Whata, the name of the range on which Horehore pa stands) his son Whatonga grew up to manhood, and married Hau-karanga-roa. And from the generation of Whatonga to his descendant Rakai-maro there are five generations. [Rakai-maro, born about 1625. From Whatonga (see Table No. 1) comes the emblematical name of the Seventy Mile Bush, Te-tapere-nui-o-Whatonga, which, says H. Ropiha, refers to the abundance of birds in the forest, and the shelter obtainable from the winds).

Rakai-maro (see Table No. 1) grew up, and married Hine-rau-te-kawa (see Table No. 1) of the Rangi-tane tribe. This was the junction of the lines of Te Aitanga-a-Whata (Whata's descendants) with the Rangi-tane tribe; and they all dwelt permanently on the land, as if they were one people. It was at this time that they gave certain names to the land on which they dwelt, as follows:—Te Pokaka, Horehore (the pa), Puena (the peak south of the pa), Puke-totara and Ruru-whango.

Now, it was during the time that the two tribes lived in peace together they built Horehore pa to live in, and thus they lived all together, but having two distinct tribal names—Te Aitanga-a-Whata and Rangi-tane. Then grew up in their generation, from the marriage of Rakai-maro and Hine-rau-te-kawa, their three children, Piki-hau-ariki, Korako-tai-waha, and Pine-nau (see Table No. 1), they were all males.

After these children had been born the two tribes lived together for a long time, and then Korako-tai-waha and his younger brother removed to Tamaki-nui-a-Rua, (i.e., to about Dannevirke, etc.), and there they and their children and grandchildren dwelt. But their elder brother, Piki-hau-ariki, continued to dwell on the lands which his ancestor, Whata, had named the eel-basket enclosure. Afterwards, in the times of his descendants, Te Ahiahi-a-tau and her younger sister, Hine-auahi, the latter married Ira-kumia, and removed permanently to Tamaki-nui-a-Rua, whilst the elder sister, Te Ahiahi-a-tau remained on the ancestral lands, “Nga-kai-hinaki-a- - 87 Whata.” And these three generations passed, Te Ahiahi-a-tau, Tu-karaerae, and Nehunga, and the latter married Amo-ake-te-rangi, and this was the junction of the Aitanga-a-Whata, the Rangi-tane, and the Ngai-Tahu tribes. Thus there were three tribal divisions amongst them.

And the children of Amo-ake-te-rangi and Nehunga were born—Te Kura-taka-whaki, the elder, and Tu-karangatia, the younger; and from the generations of Te Kura there were five generations to her descendant Hika-rahui, and four generations from her brother Tu-karangatia down to his descendant Te Mahanga. For a long time they dwelt in peace on the land, until the times of Hika-rahui and Te Rangi-tataia, when they gave up their lands to Te Rehunga and Manawa-kawa in payment for the kai-hau-kai, or feast at Te Takapau, which feast was named Nga-tau-tuku-roa. This was the final alienation of their lands to the above chiefs and their people. (Te Rehunga, Manawa-kawa, and Te Whatu-i-apiti were contemporaries, and all born circa 1650, the feast would be about 1675 to 1700.)

This was the period that the tribe that gave the feast called Nga-tau-tuku-roa occupied this country, under Te Rehunga and Manawa-kawa, as payment for their feast, and it was a long time they dwelt in the land thus acquired.

(I break off Tanguru's narrative here to quote from Hori Ropiha an account of some feasts, or kai-hau-kai, that were given at this period. The tribes seem to have emulated one another in the extent and magnificence of the feasts given. All the surrounding people would assemble, and all kinds of amusements be indulged in, whilst the quantity of food wasted was enormous. The chiefs vied with one another in liberality as to food and presents, often leaving themselves and their tribes destitute. Ropiha says: “There was a great hai-hau-kai (called in other districts a hakari) given in Here-taunga by Te Whatu-i-apiti to Te Angiangi and his people. It consisted principally in calabashes of huahua, or preserved birds, and the feast was named ‘Tikitiki-o-te-whatu.’ The return feast at Pari-māhu, given by Te Angiangi, was named ‘Pokai-takataka.’ Again Te Whatu-i-apiti, not to be outdone, gave a second feast named ‘Te Uaua-tamariki,’ in which he had to obtain the assistance of Hika-rere-pari and his people, and in return for such assistance they were given the lands named Te Umu-o-pua, Rae-katia, Paeroa, and Tutu-rewa, and these lands remain in their possession to this day. Such assistance is called whakatihi. But Te Angiangi and his people had exhausted their food, and shame obliged them to make some return, so they gave to Te Whatu-i-apiti the following lands: Tawa-pu-tahi, Rae-katia, Te Umu-o-pua, Rua-hine, Tutu-rewa O-Porae, - 88 Akitio, Mutua, Te Poroporo, and Te Upoko-o-te-Haemata, most of which Te Whatu-i-apiti distributed to Kai-tahi, and to Te Huinga-i-waho. To Taurito, who had also helped Te Whatu, the latter gave Porangahau and Tawa-pu-tahi, which remain to his descendants.” Such is H. Ropiha's account of these extravagant proceedings—for many of the lands named were vast areas, and at the present day are worth millions.)

To return to Tanguru's narrative: Some time after Te Rehunga had settled on the lands acquired as above, he demanded the hand of Te Hore, a lady of Rangi-tane tribe, in marriage, and the marriage feast (pakuha) was carried out. This was the cause of Te Rehunga going to Tamaki (about Dannevirke) to live with his Rangi-tane people (a proceeding he must subsequently have repented of). After a time many of Te Rehunga's tribe followed him to Tamaki and dwelt there amongst this stranger tribe. Soon after their arrival Te Rehunga pointed out to his tribe various lands which were in use by Rangi-tane as places for them to settle on. Now, when the Rangi-tane tribe began to understand what this meant—that they were being robbed of their lands (Tamaki-nui-a-Rua) by Te Rehunga and his people—they set up a rahui (or post, making the place sacred to them), at Tuhi-mata, in order to tapu their lands of Tamaki, and named the post “Puaki-te-ao.” When the people of Te Rehunga and Manawa-kawa heard of this rahui they sent and cut it down. Rangi-tane proceeded forth-to re-erect the post.

And now commenced the trouble between the two peoples, for directly after re-erecting the post the Rangi-tane prepared for war, and commenced by gaining the battle of Paka-roa; then followed another, Kota-tai-whetu, which last is not far from Te Takapau. Not long after Rangi-tane assaulted and took the Nga-hore pa and Te Moana-i-rokia pa, in which latter place was killed Kahu-torua, mother of Rangi-te-kahutia. After this pa had fallen the Rangi-tane went after Tama-i-waho, whom they killed at Manga-tarata. (H. Ropiha says that he was killed because he was one of those who gave the land, Tawhao, to Te Rehunga and others as payment for the feast). Directly after this Te Rehunga and one section of his tribe withdrew from Tamaki and occupied the Horehore pa.

Some time after this Te Rehunga and his people removed to Pou-kawa lake (a few miles north of Te Aute), and took up their abode in Wheao pa. And from there he made war on the Here-taunga people (why the author does not say, they were of the same tribe). Again, some time after this, he met Rangi-tane in battle at Te Piripiri (near Dannevirke), and he and Manawa-kawa suffered a severe defeat at the hands of Rangi-tane; a very great many were - 89 killed of their war party, amongst them the following chiefs:—Tu-taua, Te Kiri-pu-noa, Tawa-rora, Tau-hinu, Te Rangi-hou-tihi, Te Ara-tahi, and others. From this battlefield Te Rehunga, Manawa-kawa, and the remains of their party, fled for their lives and took refuge at Hiku-rangi, in the Tawhao country, and from there, after a time, continued their retreat to Whatu-ma lake, near Wai-puku-rau.

After remaining for a long time at this lake, Te Rehunga decided to remove with his people to Here-taunga. When there he said to Tawhiri-toroa, Nga-mahuia-o-te-rangi, Te Ope-kai, and Te Marunga-o-te-rangi, “You had better return to our lands at Tawhao and Whenua-hou, to the lands that have been paid for by men.” (These lands are both close to Te Takapau, and had been given to Te Rehunga's tribe in payment for the feast.—See ante.) These high-born ladies were of the Ngai-Tahu tribe, and prior to the cession of Tawhao and Whenua-hou by Tama-i-waho and others to Te Rehunga, they had married chiefs of Te Rehunga's and Manawa-kawa's tribe. Afterwards Te Rehunga gave directions to Te Haemata and his nephew, Nga-Oko-i-te-rangi, saying, “You two had better return to the lands that have been paid for by our people.” After this Te Rehunga and his people arranged to return to Heretaunga, and on their arrival, they dwelt at Te Manga-roa, near Rau-kawa Mountain, on the east side, where they built Te Manga-roa pa.

Subsequent to the departure of Te Rehunga and his party from Whatu-ma lake, Te Hae-mata, Nga-Oko, Nga-Mahiwa, Te Ope-kai, Te Marunga and Tawhiri-toroa including the ladies before mentioned, removed from Whatu-ma and took up their permanent residence at Tawhao and Whenua-hou, and other parts of those districts including the “eel-enclosures” of Whata; and Horehore pa was also finally occupied at that time.

Whilst they all dwelt together at Horehore pa, the news came, that Te Rehunga had been killed at his pa Te Manga-roa. Te Hae-mata at once called on the neighbouring tribes to assemble and proceed to avenge Te Rehunga's death, i.e., Ngai-Tahu, Ngai-Toro-i-waho, Ngati-Hine-iri and others. When they arrived at the pa Te Manga-roa they commenced the assault, when the grandson of Te Te Rehunga named Te Kikiri-o-te-rangi, came forth, and concluded a peace with Te Hae-mata, Nga-Oko and their people; then they entered the pa and were kindly received by Te Kikiri and the people, as if they had been one single tribe. After a time Te Hae-mata and his people returned to their homes at Whenua-hou, bringing with them Te Kikiri, Te Ahi-kauri and her younger sister Te Rua-poupou and their mother Te Hore. This was Te Rehunga's wife whose marriage with him brought on the first war with Rangi-tane.

- 90

After a time Te Hore requested Te Hae-mata to allow her to visit her people, the Rangi-tane tribe, at Tamaki. On consent being given, she went and took with her her young daughter, Te Rua-poupou leaving the elder behind her; and never returned. For a long time after the above event, Te Kikiri, Te Hae-mata, Nga-Oko, Nga-Rangi-ka-hi-wera, Te Awhenga, Rangi-ka-taepa, and their people dwelt on their lands at Tawhao, Whenua-hou and in their pa, Horehore; and then Te Kikiri originated the idea of going to war again with Rangi-tane. This was agreed to by the chiefs and people, so Te Kikiri sent off messengers to Heretaunga to Nga-Rangi-ka-unuhia and his fellow chiefs to join him, which they agreed to do and at once marched to Te Takapau, where a council was held with Te Hae-mata and others as to their future proceedings. Whilst they where considering these matters, Rangi-totohu and his people joined them, in order that he might avenge the death of his father, Tu-taua, killed by Rangi-tane at the battle of Te Piripiri.

So Te Kikiri commenced the campaign against Rangi-tane, and the Rai-kapua pa was taken, Pohutu-wai battle was won, and Nga-toto pa also taken. The war-party then climbed over Te Ahu-o-Turanga 9 (which is the name of the old Maori track starting from near Woodville, that passed over the spurs of the Rua-hine Mountains, about a mile north of Manawatu Gorge, and came down on the west side and crossed the Pohangina River a little above the present Railway bridge) and on the other (west side of the range) gained the battle of Te Wai-whakatahe-o-Ngati-Kahu-ngunu (the stream where Ngati-Kahu-ngunu blood flowed—in the days of the mana-Maori time was an unknown quantity and long names did not require writing down). At this pa, one of the chiefs, named Matuku, came outside and asked, “Who is the head of this war-party?” Te Rangi-totohu called out in reply, “Te Kikiri-o-te-rangi!” Matuku then returned within the pa and afterwards came forth Te Tunga-o-te-rangi; and he made a lasting peace with the people of the war-party.

The war-party then returned to the east side of Te Ahu-o-Turanga from the district of Rangi-tikei, and went back to their homes at Tawhao and Whenua-hou. Whilst all the people were living in their pas at Horehore and Korako, further strife occurred with the Rangi-tane, of Tamaki, through Para-kiore and Tahiwa having killed, near his pa, Te Upoko-o-Hine-tu, two chiefs named Mapuna and - 91 Whakaero, belonging to the Ngai-Tahu and Ngai-Toro-i-waho tribes (of Horehore pa). These murders were avenged shortly after in the battle of Wai-kari, when the Rangi-tane were defeated, and Tahiwa and Para-kiore fled.

Enough, this was the end of the war carried on by the grand-children of Te Whatu-i-apiti and Te Rehunga and their people; and Nga-rangi-ka-unuhia, together with his chiefs and people, returned to their own homes at Here-taunga.

This is the summation of the revenge taken by Te Kikiri, Nga-Oko, Te Hae-mata, and Te Awhenga for their defeat at the hands of Rangi-tane in the battles gained and pas taken at Te Paka-roa, Kota-tai-whetu, Nga-hore, Te Moana-i-rokia, Manga-tarata, and Te Piripiri, which last place is within the district of Tamaki-nui-a-Rua, near the town of Dannevirke:—Te Kikiri, Te Hae-mata, and their allied chiefs and people gained the following battles and took the following pas from Rangi-tane: Rai-kapua, Pohutu-wai, Nga-toto, Te Wai-whaka-tahe, Te Wai-kari, and Tirau-mea.

After the defeat of Rangi-tane in the places named, the descendants of Te Kikiri, Te Hae-mata, Nga-Oko-i-te-rangi, Nga-Rangi-ka-hi-wera, and Te Rangi-ka-taepa remained in peace on their lands at Tawhao and Whenua-hou and other places, all the time occupying their famous pa of Horehore, right down to the days of their descendants—thus:—(See the original Maori for the names.)

The names of the hapus (sub-tribes) who owned the pa Horehore were Ngai-Tahu, who lived permanently in the pa, that is, the descendants of Nga-Mahiwa, Te Ope-kai, Tawhiri-toroa, together with the Ngai-Toro-i-waho hapu, with the Ngati-Te-Kikiri hapu. Their tribal name is Ngati-Kahu-ngunu.


(Tanguru then relates the two following incidents in the history of the Horehore pa, which occurred in 1820, and which properly belongs to the narrative of the Amio-whenua expedition of Nga-Puhi, Ngati-whatua (of Kaipara), and Ngati-Maru (of the Thames), as related in J.P.S., Vol. IX., p. 88 (p. 96 of the reprint), and comes in after the end of the first paragraph on those pages. Notwithstanding many enquiries I have not been able to find out who Tangi-te-ruru. mentioned by Tanguru and others, was; but I think he commanded another division of the Amio-whenua expedition, and probably was of the Ngati-Maru tribe.)

Tanguru says: This is an account of some fighting that took place at Horehore pa: The first war-party from the northern coast that attacked the pa was the Amio-whenua expedition, composed of Ngati-Paoa, Ngati- - 92 Maru (both from the Thames), and Nga-Puhi, besides other tribes of the northern coast. They were a long time besieging this pa, but it was not taken, nor was one man of the pa killed, and, indeed, none of the war-party either. So they gave it up and returned to their own country by way of Te Ahu-o-Turanga and the west coast, afterwards to Waikato and Wai-te-mata. (Sitting on the toi or summit of Horehore pa—which is called Te-toi-a-Uru—with old Tanguru, in April, 1904, the old man told us particulars of this siege, and named the chiefs who defended the pa, who were Te Kiri-o-Hawea, Toa-tau, Nga-Oko-i-te-rangi, Nga-Rangi-ka-hiwera, and Tuhua, Tanguru's father.)

The War-Party of Tangi-te-ruru.

Very soon after the departure of the Amio-whenua party came the war-party of Tangi-te-ruru; they came by way of the east-coast, killing people as they advanced whom they found along the coast, and at Heretaunga, and assaulting the pas of these parts. But they took no pas—merely the people whom they found living in scattered places did they succeed in killing.

Then they come on and attacked the Horehore pa. They surrounded it, and after a time rushed it attempting to take it by assault. After they had fired a volley at the pa, some of the braves of the pa rushed out—Wi Te-Rurunga, Paora Te-Ngaero and others—and they succeeded in killing and bringing into the pa one of the enemy, whilst another was carried off by the war-party. The enemy now moved across the coomb on the south side of the pa and occupied the heights called Puena (about 200 yards from the pa) and from there kept up a constant fire on the pa.

Two days afterwards, seeing they could not take the pa, the war-party withdrew, and proceeded south along the main ridge to Waha-tuara and eventually came out to the coast at the mouth of Akitio River, and thence along the coast and inland along the ridge to Maunga-rake (near Masterton). When Tangi-te-ruru's party reached this end (north?) of Maunga-rake, his party were stricken with fear, because of the strength of the fires raging there, which commenced at the pa named Te Iringa, and extended to Haki-kino pa near Tupapaku-rua close to Whare-ama river. Enough, the war-party fled, fleeing along the ridge by way of Te Kotukutuku, and thence by the Kauhanga track (over Tararua Mountains) and came out to the west coast at Rangi-tikei, thence went on to Whanga-nui and finally to Waikato.

This ends the story of the war-parties of Amio-whenua, and of Tangi-te-ruru.

- 93

As a great deal of trouble has been taken in ascertaining the probable dates of events alluded to in the foregoing paper, they are here summarised in tabular form for ease of reference. I need hardly repeat, that they can only be considered as rough approximations, but we are never likely to get much better information. In process of time when the Native History of New Zealand comes to be written as a whole, this information will be of use.

Pou-heni, the son of Pai-kea, born about A.D. 1300
Arrival of “the Fleet” in New Zealand from Hawaiki 1350
Porou and Tahu, ancestors of Ngati-Porou and Ngai-Tahu born about 1350
Tara of Ngai-Tara born about 1375
Ueroa born about 1400
Rakai-nui and Rangi-tane born about 1450
Kuhu-ngunu, born about 1450
Te Ao-mata-rahi, born about 1475
Rakai-hiku-roa, Rakai-paka and Whata born about 1500
Rakai-nui migrates to Port Nicholson 1500
Tu-puru-puru and Taraia born 1525
Rakai-hiku-roa, Taraia and Te Ao-mata-rahi migrate to Heretaunga 1550
Whata, settles at Taka-pau 1525 to 1550
Rakai-rangi and Te Rerewa born 1575
Rakai-rangi migrates from Heretaunga to South Wairarapa 1625
Rakai-maro born 1625, marries Hine-rau 1675
Ngarengare, migrates from Wairoa to Heretaunga 1625
Mahanga's migrates from Wairoa to Heretaunga —?
Te Whakumu's migration from Tokomaru to South Wairarapa 1650
Te Whatu-i-Apiti of Te Roto-a-Tara born 1650
Te Rehunga of Te Roto-a-Tara born (killed 1745) 1675
Nga-Oko-i-te-rangi, chief of Ngati-Ira born 1675
Cession of Whenua-hou and Tawhao to Te Rehunga and others—the feast 1700
And first war with Rangi-tane 1700
Te Hae-mata and others re-occupy Whenua-hou, etc. 1725
Te Kikiri-o-te-rangi makes war (2nd) on Rangitane 1730
Te Kikiri-o-te-rangi war ends, and peace prevails 1750
Te Amio-whenua attacks Horehore pa 1820
1   So named after Rua-rangi, a descendant of Rangi-tane,—his great-great-grandson.
2   Probably the god Tane.
3   Tennyson's Inlet.
4   Ware also married a North Island chief.
5   The island east of Queen Charlotte Sound.
6   In Tare W. Te Kahu's account of the wars of the South Island Ngai-Tahu with Te Rauparaha, J.P.S., Vol. X., p. 95, will be found a probable reason. It is there stated that the first attack of Te Rauparaha on the Ngai-Tahu was due to Te Kekereugu's action in debauching Rangi-haeata's wife, and that in consequence Te Rauparaha attacked Ngai-Tahu at Omihi, south of Kaikoura, when Te Kekerengu and his party fled. The latter was thus the cause of the Ngai-Tahu being attacked and losing many tribesmen. In retaliation probably Te Kekerengu was followed up and killed.
7   See the song, J.P.S., Vol. XIII., p. 159.—
“Ko Te Rau-pare, Kirikiri-a-Kai-paua,
Ka riro i a Nga-Oko-i-te-rangi
Tapapa noa a Te Hau-apu
E wha taua ki Tuinga-ra; kore noa iho.”
8   I have since learned that this was the tribe from which Rangi-tane originally sprung; but it is doubtful. At any rate, it was a very ancient tribe.
9   Te Ahu-o-Turanga is interesting historically from the fact that it was here that Turanga-i-mua, son of Turi (Captain of the “Aotea” canoe of 1350) was killed in battle with the tangata-whenua and the place named after him—The Altar of Turanga.