Volume 21 1912 > Volume 21, No. 4 > The history of Horouta Canoe and the introduction of the kumara into New Zealand, by Mohi Turei, p 152-163
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- 152
THE HISTORY OF ‘HOROUTA’ CANOE AND THE INTRODUCTION OF THE KUMARA INTO NEW ZEALAND.

THE following is one of the papers that were collected by the late Samuel Locke some years ago, and no doubt intended by him for publication in continuation of others that appeared in the “Transactions of the New Zealand Institute.” The MS. book in which this and other papers are contained has the following note in he beginning: “This book belongs to Mr. Locke, and was written by me, Mohi Turei Tongaroapeau, of Waiapu.” Mr. Locke has added, “The matter written in this book was at the dictation of an old Tohunga, Pita Kapiti.”

With regard to this account of ‘Horouta,’ it differs a good deal from others that have appeared, notably in Mr. John White's “Ancient History of the Maori.” This is the first time a local origin is assigned to this canoe, and we shall see in the papers about to be published relating to the coming of ‘Takitimu’ canoe, that ‘Horouta’ accompanied that vessel on her voyage to New Zealand, and the inference to be drawn from the narrative is that the latter was built in Tahiti at the same time as ‘Takitimu.’ There is, perhaps, some little doubt about the matter, and it may be that ‘Horouta’ was really built in New Zealand; then made the voyage to Hawaiki (Tahiti), and returned with the fleet when the six canoes came here in the middle of the fourteenth century. There are difficulties about this view however, and we must for the present be content to get Mohi Turei's account on record, so that anyone having more time (and sufficient interest) than the writer hereof, will be able to take the question up.

The chief, interest in this story is the introduction of the kumara into New Zealand, whether it really took place in the times of Toi-te-huatahi, or, as seems to the writer most probable, in those of Tama-ki-Hikurangi, who flourished some seven or eight generations after Toi. It is to be remembered that Toi came to New Zealand himself from Tahiti, and it is most unlikely that he should have been so surprised at the kumara when it was shown to him by Kahukura, for he must have seen and eaten it before he came here.

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With regard to Kahukura, we may possibly venture to identify him with one of the Rarotonga ancestors who flourished just twenty-eight generations back from the year 1900 (for which see the table at the end of “Hawaiki,” 3rd edition, 1910). We shall there see him under the Rarotongan form of Kaukura, and he is known to have been a great navigator, so may have visited New Zealand.

The story of Kahukura partakes very much of the marvellous, and may be, whilst embodying a real historical fact, has interwoven with it a true myth. For instance, Kahukura is one of the names for the rainbow, and the arch that he made extending from Hawaiki to New Zealand is possibly a reference to the rainbow. It also may possibly be that the whole story does not in reality refer to the introduction of the kumara to New Zealand, but to some far more ancient episode.

We may now follow Mohi Turei's narrative:—

TRANSLATION.

It is said that ‘Horouta’ was from this island, and belonged to Toi-te-huatahi and his family. The reason why Toi came to settle in this island was on account of the ‘Fishing of Maui,’ that is, of Maui-potiki, who fished up this land, which is still called ‘Te Ika-a-Maui’ (or Maui's fish).

Hema was a descendant of Maui, and from him the descent is as follows:—

  • Hema
  • 35 Ruatanga-nuku
  • Ruatanga-rangi
  • Tongaroa-a-whatu
  • 31 Toi-te-huatahi 1

This is Toi who owned the canoe ‘Horouta.’ It is said that Toi lived at Whitianga (Mercury Bay) with his offspring, and that the name of his house was Hui-te-rangiora. 2

Kahukura was from the other side, from Hawaiki, and was a son of Rongomai and his wife Hine-te-wai. Kahukura had an extensive knowledge of all the islands of the world, he was indeed a god, but became a man. He had a friend named Rongo-i-amo, to whom he suggested that they should come to this island (New Zealand). They then filled a belt with kao (dried kumara), which Kahukura fastened round his friend. The name of this belt was ‘Whetonga.’ Then Rongo-i-amo asked the other by what means they could reach there, to which Kahukura replied, “Leave that to me, I will lay down a way for us two.” And so Kahukura took his mother, Hine-te-wai, - 154 and bent her (in form of an arch), inserting her legs in the ground at Hawaiki, and her arms in this island, and so she formed an arch in the sky. Then Kahukura took his father, Rongomai, and performed the same operation on him, and thus Rongomai sprawled on the back of Hine-te-wai. After that Kahukura ordered Te Paoka-o-te-rangi to lie on top of Rongomai, which he did. Above the last laid Totoe-rangi, above him was Kahukura himself, and then came Taha-wai, Kau-rukiruki, and finally Here-umu. Then Kahukura told Rongo-i-amo to place himself on top of Here-umu; and that was the road by which Rongo-i-amo crossed over. As he did so, Kahukura made a spring and crossed at the same time to this island.

On their arrival at the home of Toi, his children, grand-children, and their tribe, they were received as guests and made welcome. When the food was placed before them, Rongo-i-amo saw that the hosts were bringing out some Ti for them in a bowl. So he said to Kahukura, “That is perhaps the food that we brought, now being prepared?” Kahukura replied, “Wait awhile, if it is so we shall soon know.”

It was not very long before the food was placed in front of them, and then they saw it consisted of Ti, Mamaku and Aruhe (Cordyline roots, the heads of the black tree-fern, and bracken roots). So they tasted the food in the bowl, and found it was not Kao 3 (preserved kumara), nor did they approve of the foods offered them.

Kahukura now said to Toi and his people that he wished them to bring him a bowl with some water in it, and when several were brought, Rongo-i-amo poured out part of the contents of his belt into the bowls, of which there were seventy. After all the bowls had been mixed, Rongo-i-amo took them to Toi and his family, where, as soon as the sweet scent of the kumara reached him, he proceeded to taste the food. Kahukura said unto him, “O Toi! Do not put all your fingers into the bowl, but first use your fore-finger to place it in your mouth.” So Toi did as Kahukura told him; that is, he licked his fore-finger; and as he did so Kahukura recited the following karakia:

Ko miti, ko para, ko pau rawa,
Ko miti, ko para, ko pau rawa,
Ko reka i tua, ka reka i waho,
Ka reka i nga marua-tapu o Hawaiki.
By sucking the grains, all will be consumed,
By sucking the grains, all will be eaten,
'Twill be sweet beyond and away;
Sweet as if from the sacred hollows 4 in Hawaiki.

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Then Kahukura called on Toi,“ Now put all your fingers into the bowl, and eat.” Then Toi ate his fill, and as he did so, the sweetness of the food tickled his throat, and tasted delicious in his mouth. Toi exclaimed to Kahukura, “Now, indeed, for the first time do I taste a really delicious food! What is the name of the food?” Kahukura replied, “It is the kumara.” “Where is it to be obtained?” said Toi. “In Hawaiki,” replied Kahukura. Then said Toi, “Probably it would not be possible to fetch some from there?” “It could be easily obtained,” said Kahukura. “By what means could it be got?” asked Toi. Kahukura then turned to the canoe belonging to Toi that was lying in its shed, i.e. to ‘Horouta,’ and said, “What is that which lies there?” Toi replied, “It is a canoe, ‘Horouta’!” “Then,” said Kahukura, “Enough; by that means can the kumara be obtained.”

In that same night Kahukura assembled all the Tohungas into the house, into ‘Hui-te-rangiora’; and there they demanded of the gods that the ‘sounding waves,’ the ‘breaking waves,’ of the ocean and of the great gales, should be calmed; that the gods should cause the canoe to be light in order that it might be swift.

In the morning the canoe was dragged down to the water. It is said that there were seventy people went in her as crew. And before starting, the ‘Kawa’ was recited by the priest Rangi-tu-roua—that is, the appropriate prayer for a safe passage, which is as follows:—

Hau toto, hau toto,
Ko Tu, hekea ana,
Ko Rongo, hekea ana,
Ko te ngahau o Tu,
Utaina taku kawa nei,
He kawa tua-maunga,
Ka wiwini, ka wawana,
Tara pata tu ki te rangi,
Au e ki,
Whano, whana,
Hara mai te toki,
Hauma, Hui e, Taiki e. 5

After the ‘Kawa-moana,’ of Rangi-tu-roua, the ‘Mapou-kawa’ (or mapou-wood rod used in the karakia) was stuck into the bows of the canoe, in the ‘Parata,’ or figure-head; and then it was decided that Tai-pupuni should use the paddle called ‘akau’; Tai-wawana, the ‘piripiri’ paddle, and Tai-aro-paki, the ‘tapaki’ paddle. After this was recited by Rangi-tu-roua the karakia to define the course of ‘Horouta’ across the ocean, as follows:—

Tura mai te tura
Kakapa te manu i uta, he paki hau,
Tauranga ko tawhiti nuku,
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Te whakamakautia he ariki tapu,
Kia inu ia i te wai o Whakatau,
Mate toka i mua, mate toka i roto,
Tu whanawhana, tu maihi, tu makaro,
Tu te Whairamu,
E ai hoki te hirihiri,
Kei te kohukohu i runga,
Koi rangi tukua, koi rangi horoa,
Tāne tukua, Tāne takoto,
E ai hoki tenei mata tohu.
Uru whakapupu ake te uru o te whenua,
Te tau arohakina ki waho,
Ki te uraura o te ra,
Ki te werawera o te ra,
Whakarere ki tai marehua ki waho,
Taku hoe nei, ko ‘Rapanga-te-ati-nuku’,
Ko ‘Rapanga-te-ati-rangi’;
Na Tai-pupuni, na Tai-wawana, na Tai-aro-puke,
Hua taku hoe nei, he hoe tahurihuri,
He hoe karaparapa
Ki taha tu o te rangi,
Aue ki; Whano, Whana. 6
Hara mai te toki, Hauma,
Hui e, Taiki e.

It is said that no sooner was this karakia ended, than Hawaiki was sighted; and then Rangi-tu-roua recited the second of his karakias, as follows:—

Mano ki te Hawaiki,
Ka tu hakehakea,
Mai te kowiwini, mai te kowawa,
He toki minamina, he toki mai anarea,
Ka hirahira,
Ko aitu mai o tangata,
Ki te pu o te rakau,
Ka ui iho ka ui ake,
Ka ui tua te kaha o Tangaroa,
Ko au matakaka, ki tua o Hawaiki,
Katea te rawaka mai
Ko Tāne ka haruru rutu,
Whano, Whana, Hara mai te toki,
Hauma, Hui e, Taiki e.

It is said that on the completion of this incantation, the canoe had arrived at Hawaiki. It was during the night they reached there. On their arrival they found that the kumara harvest was over, and all the crop safely stored away in the ‘ruas’ in the pa named Hui-a-kama. Here they heard a man named Kanoa reciting the ‘whakaaraara’ (or sentinal song) which is as follows:—

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Titi mai te marama,
Titi mai te marama,
Na Taratutu, na Tarawehi,
Na Tara-hokaia.
Kihai au i panapana
Kihai koe i panapana,
Ka taka mai whitohi,
Ka tu kapiti-nuku,
Ka tu kapiti-rangi,
Waiho te tae o Matuku,
Ka moe te mata o te tipua,
Ka ara te mata hi taua,
E ia e te ika e takoto nei.

The strangers to that plant, the kumara, secured some taro roots, and then asked Kahukura,“Perhaps these are the kumaras?” He replied, “Those are not kumaras, but taros, that are planted on the edge of the kumara plantations.” After that they found some dried kumara tops, and Kahukura pointed out, “Behold, the roots have been harvested, and are now in the ruas.

All this time they could hear the voice of Kanoa reciting his ‘whakaara’ (or sentinal song) within his pa of Hui-a-kama:—

E kore koe e tai mai i te ra takitahi,
Me tuku ki te karere,
Kia tae mai te wiwini,
Kia tae mai te wawana.
Kia tae mai te Ariki-korongata,
Ki to whenua nei.
Tenei hoki au te kekeho atu nei,
Kei runga o Awarua—
Awarua e ia,
E te ika e takoto nei, e ia.

On hearing this song, Kahukura said to his companions, “The people of the pa are dwelling in a state of fear of me.” His friends asked, “How do you know that?” He replied,“Behold! Do you not hear them mention my name, ‘Ariki-korongata,’ in the ‘Koko’ of my friend Kanoa? He thinks perhaps that my absence is due to a desire on my part to raise a war-party.”

Kahukura now said to the crew of ‘Horouta’ that the canoe must be poled to the side of a cliff at Hawaiki, where the kumara grew in abundance. When the canoe reached there, she was laid along side the base of the cliff, and Kahukura taking a ‘ko’ (or Maori spade) named ‘Penu,’ he pierced the cliff of Hawaiki, at the same time repeating his karakia thus:—

Te ko, te ua nuku, te ua tara,
Te ua patapata i awha,
Te whererei iho ai tae o Matuku,
Te whererei iho ai tae o Pani,
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He tapu taku kiri nei,
Te ripiripi o te rangi,
Té whakarangona atu te Ati-tipua,
Té whakarangona atu te Ati-tawhito.

And then, behold! Down fell the cliff of Hawaiki, that is, the kumara, and ‘Horouta’ was filled. Kahukura then withdrew his spade, and, holding it horizontally, said another karakia:

Tina! Toka!
Rarau te wheke-nui—
A-Mutu-rangi,
Tina! Toka!
Te pari ki Hawaiki.

At this the cliff at Hawaiki ceased to fall; the cliff again became secure, whilst the hold of ‘Horouta’ was full of kumaras.

It is said that at the time the cliff fell at Hawaiki, and ‘Horouta’ was laden, rats fell into the canoe at the same time, as well as the Pakura bird.

When ‘Horouta’ had been laden with its valuable freight, Kahukura then decided on the preparations for their return to this island. His directions to the crew were, “Go, but be careful not to allow ‘Rongo-marae-roa’ (the honorific name for the kumara) to become mixed with ‘Ariki-noanoa’” (the honorific name for that staple article of Maori food in former days, the fern-root). ‘Rongo-marae-roa’ is the special food of Kahukura (? in his god-form), and hence is it tapu, and, moreover, the kumara itself is a god, i.e., food, or an offering to the gods, and, hence of all foods, it is the most tapu.

But ‘Ariki-moana’ is also a god, for, behold! If any man has a headache, or influenza (rewharewha), or other illness, he breaks up a piece of fern-root and suspends it round his neck, and in such case it is called a ‘pitopito’ and is to ward off diseases. But in no case must the kumara be allowed to lie alongside the fern-root, or there will be trouble. The great objection to the fern-root is its bitterness beyond all other things, and hence is the ‘saying,’ “Te kawa i te titohea o te aruhe.”

After this, ‘Horouta’ was sent away on her return; Pawa embarking as captain of her. There also came Awapaka, Tara-hirihiri, Hau-taketake, Tāne-hereti, Koneke, Te Paki and others. The ko or spade, named ‘Penu,’ was also brought, as well as the mapou to be used in the ceremonies connected with the planting of the kumara, when it is called a ‘toko’; the mapou was named ‘Ateate-a-henga.’ Also were brought some Hutukawa trees as a guide to the seasons. They were called ‘Te Rohutu-mai-tawhiti’ and ‘Oteko-mai-tawhiti.’

There also came on board a woman named Kanawa. The canoe came away on her voyage and made the land (of New Zealand) at - 159 Ahuahu (Great Mercury Island, Bay of Plenty), where Kanawa saw some fern-root, which she stole and brought on board ‘Horouta.’ From there they sailed, but had barely got into the offing, when ‘ Rongo-marae-roa’ (the kumara) became furious at the fern-root the woman had brought on board. None of the men on board knew of the fern-root being there. They learnt the fact through the priests, who declared that the stormy weather they now encountered—the winds named Haunui,Hauroa,Tu-awhio-rangi and Te-Uruhanga was due to it. Then the tohungas felt sure that some sin had been committed by some of them. When they arrived off Whakatāne, that is, on this side near O-hiwa, the woman was thrown overboard, and when she came to the surface she held on to the bow of the canoe. The men called to her to let go lest the canoe should turn over, but she would not listen, she held on. And thus it was that ‘Horouta’ was capsized, the woman dying there, and thus was the name of that place called Tukarae-o-Kanawa. After the capsize of ‘Horouta,’ she drifted ashore at Whakatāne, where part of her load of kumaras was put ashore.

The chief Tohunga, Rangi-tu-roua, advised that the canoe should be turned over, for she was lying bottom up. They fetched a titoki limb to raise her, which was stuck in the ground under one of the gunwales, whilst all hands got hold of a lever, during which the priest recited the following karakia:

E iki, e iki, te tura uro whiti,
E iki, e iki, te tura uro whiti,
Hiki nuku e, hiki rangi e,
Hiki nuku e, hiki rangi e,
Ha ha, ka hikitia tona ure,
la ia iaia, Ha i i i.

Now was the canoe raised up, and then were twisted the ropes to haul her inland, on the completion of which, Rangi-tu-roua commenced another karakia:

Paneke i a wai?
Paneke i a Tu-te-rangi-aitu,
Hauhau te toki,
Matapo ia, matapo ia,
Huri te po, moi marire mai,
Moi marire mai, E tua ure,
Moi marire mai, E tua ure.

When ‘Horouta’ was well ashore, the chiefs proceeded to discuss the question of how they were to obtain a top-side for the canoe. Some of the seventy men were told off, as assistants to Pawa (the captain), to make one. Others were appointed to help Awapaka in catching birds as food for the workmen at the repairs to ‘Horouta.’ Those who went with him were Tāne-hereti, Koneke and Te Pakai. (Mohi says here, ‘refer to page one for the various karakias used in - 160 bird-catching,’ where he has described many of the ceremonies connected with the art of ‘tahere manu.’ It would almost appear as if the men whose names are mentioned above were subsequently deified as the local gods or guardians of the ‘Pua-manu’—bird preserves.)

Rangi-tu-roua and some of the others remained by the side of their canoe. The company of Awapaka proceeded to the forests at Te Pua-o-te-roku, where they caught many birds, cooked them, and then placed them in calabashes, all these various works being accompanied by the appropriate karakias (as detailed in a previous part, referred to in note above).

Pawa's party proceeded on their way to dub out a haumi, or end-piece, and on arrival at a certain mountain they found a suitable tree, from which event that mountain was named Maungahaumi. (It is situated thirty-four miles north-west of Gisborne.)

Now Pawa, finding the rivers that descended from that mountain were not large enough to float his haumi after it had been dubbed out, by aid of the following incantation he caused an abundant flow:—

Tawhai mimi,
Tawhai roro,
Tawhai mimi,
Tawhai roro.

The water formed the following rivers: Waioeka, which runs into the sea at O-Potiki; Wai-kohu, a branch of the Wai-paoa, the mouth of which is at Kopu-tutea, in Poverty Bay; and Motu, that falls into the sea twenty miles north-east of O-Potiki in the Bay of Plenty, at Marae-nui.

Another of the men on board the ‘Horouta’ was Rongo-kako, who was sent as a messenger to inform all the people of this island that ‘Horouta’ had arrived. 7

After Pawa and Awapaka had left on the errands described above, Rongo-kako was sent by Rangi-tu-roua and his companions to take charge of ‘Horouta,’ which canoe, after Pawa and Awapaka had left, had been repaired by Rangi-tu-roua. And then Rongo-kako was despatched after them to tell them to return. Before the haumi prepared by Pawa was finished, the canoe had been repaired.

The birds prepared by Awapaka at Te Pua-a-te-roku, when the party arrived at the brow (? above where the canoe had been left) were eaten by them, and hence is that place named ‘Taumata-kai-hinu.’ When they arrived at the beach at Tai-harakeke it was daybreak, and there they left the (empty) calabashes, and they are to be seen to this day; whilst the place was named ‘Te-kai-taha-a-Awapaka.’ There was only one calabash brought on to Te Awanui (twelve miles south of - 161 the East Cape), which was brought by Toetoe; but when they arrived there, the ‘Horouta’ had passed on south. At Waiapu are to be seen the bailer, the anchor, and the kumaras which were left at that place, as also the mapou-tapu, named ‘Atiati-a-henga’ [sic]. So the calabash was left at Te Awanui and is to be seen there still; it is called ‘Toetoe.’

As has been said, after the departure of Pawa and Awapaka, the canoe was repaired by Rangi-tu-roua, and on completion, the kumaras were put on board with all the ceremonies that had been used at Hawaiki, and hence was the successful accomplishment of the voyage.

Pawa and his companions were left behind, and ‘Horouta’ went on her way, distributing the kumaras to various places right away to Waiapu, where the hold of ‘Horouta’ was finally emptied, and hence is the ‘saying’ in reference to the abundance of kumaras at that place, ‘Ka mahi te tainga o te riu o Horouta.’ (Behold the greatness of the output of the hold of Horouta.)

Note.—In reference to the descent of Toi-te-huatahi from Hema, no doubt he did descend from that celebrated ancestor, but we have never seen before so short a line from Hema, and cannot help thinking that several names have been omitted. The period of Toi has been fixed, with as great precision as we are ever likely to get in Polynesian history, at thirty-one generations back from the year 1900, and the Executive of the Society intend to make that a fixed date from which to determine others. Now, by referring to Mohi Turei's table on the second page hereof, it will be seen that Hema is thirty-six generations back, which in our opinion is far too small a number, although it agrees with that given in this ‘Journal,’ Vol. XX., p. 155, very nearly, for Hema was the grandfather of the Rătă therein referred to. This question is not yet decided; and we must content ourselves with recording each item as it is received, so that in future some one may take up the matter and settle it. Our members must forgive the constant reference to genealogical matters in the ‘Journal,’ but if ever the history of the Polynesians is to be put on a proper basis, we must look to these pedigrees to furnish us with dates—there are no other means of doing so.

Again, reference must be made to Mohi's table. He gives the father of Toi as Tangaroa-a-whatu, a name that is, we think, unknown to any other authority. But we do not say this is wrong; rather is it probably another name for Toi's father, by the help of which we may yet recognise Toi on some of the Eastern Polynesian pedigrees. This has so far only been done as for one line.

We may learn a little more about ‘Horouta’ from the documents now with the Society, as dictated by Te Matorohanga in the sixties of - 162 last century. It has been said by some writers on this subject that ‘Horouta’ is another name for the ‘Takitimu’ canoe, but the above Ruanuku is very positive that they were distinct vessels. He says, “The ‘Horouta’ was the canoe of Pawa, Taikehu, and Ira, and it was hewn out in the same spot as ‘Takitimu.’ The reason it received that name was this: When the ‘Takitimu’ was first tried in the waters of Pikopiko-i-whiti (which, there is now very little doubt, was the lagoon at Tahiti), the old people assembled on a hill named Puke-hapopo to watch the trial of speed against many other canoes there gathered for that purpose, when it was seen that ‘Takitimu’ easily beat all the others. The trial took place at a part of Pikopiko-i-whiti named Moana-ariki. Rua-wharo was in charge of the steering paddle, the name of which was ‘Tangi- Apakura,’ and Te Rongo-patahi was the fuggle-man in the centre of the canoe. Taikehu said to Pawa, “Now let the name of our canoe be ‘Horouta’ in remembrance of the speed of ‘Takitimu.’”

Now, that canoe did not effect a landing here safely. As she approached the shore she ran into a rock named Tukerae-o-te-Kanawa. Thinking that the canoe was a total wreck, most of the people started to swim ashore; among them Hine-kau-i-rangi, a lady of great rank. When Taikehu and Pawa saw this, they started after her, taking a bundle of calabashes with them as a float, for they thought their ariki might be drowned. But it was Awatope who succeeded in conveying the lady ashore.

Now, Hine-kau-i-rangi was a very high-born lady, and she came hither from Hawaiki, bringing with her all the prestige of a great chieftainess. It was from her that Ngati-Ira derive the light-coloured hair so often seen among them, for her mother Pipi was a korako (light, flaxen-haired), and, hence arises the ‘saying’: He aha te uru o to tamaiti? Ka pa taua he uru korito, he uru ariki no Pipi. (What is the hair of thy child? If it is light, then it is a descendant of Pipi.)

This is the descent of that chieftainess:—

Family Tree. Uenuku = Takarita, Ira-kai-putahi = Pipi, Hine-kau-i-rangi, Kahukura-ao, Te Roku, Tararoa, Koka-te-rangi, Paheke = Wai-rangi

The reciter then goes on to repeat that ‘Horouta’ is quite a different canoe from ‘Takitimu,’ and adds that Ngati-Pawa, Ngati- - 163 Porou, and Ngati-Ira, of the East Coast, are all descended from the crew of ‘Horouta.’ He says that Rua-taumata, his wife Kawerau, their children, Waha-a-paka, Tu-tapakihi and Tāne-here-pi, all came in ‘Horouta.’ Kawerau's father, also named Waha-a-paka, was killed at Pakaroa, Whangarā district, Hawaiki (Tahiti), his wife and children coming here in ‘Horouta.’

The Uenuku shown on the table above, was the celebrated priest who flourished about a generation or so prior to the great migration to New Zealand in the middle of the fourteenth century.

1   See note at end hereof.
2   Whakatane is the home of Toi, as acknowledged by all the learned men of the Bay of Plenty.
3   Mohi says, “After the kumara is scraped it is dried in the sun, and when dry is cooked, then again sun-dried, and is then called kao.
4   Marua-tapu, probably means the “sacred store-houses in which the kumara is stored in far Hawaiki.”
5   I hesitate to translate this, and the others that follow, without the help of some learned man of the Maori race.
6   Mohi says, at these words every one on board the canoe joins in as a chorus.
7   It is also said that this man, who was the father of the celebrated captain of the ‘Takitimu’ canoe, Tamatea-ariki-nui, came here with his son.