Volume 23 1914 > Volume 23, No. 89 > Tuhoe, the children of the mist. III. contd., by Elsdon Best, p 38-54
TUHOE THE CHILDREN OF THE MIST
ORIGIN OF NGA-POTIKI.
In examining the traditions of Nga-potiki, or Tuhoe, one is struck by the absence of clearness in the accounts of the origin of Nga-potiki as Nga-potiki, i.e., as to the origin of Potiki the first, from whom the tribe derived their name. The descent of the people from Potiki I., otherwise known as Potiki-tiketike, is quite clear, but the origin of Potiki I. is wrapped in obscurity. This is a very singular state of things to find in connection with a Maori tribe, and needs some explanation, inasmuch as we know the Maori to be most accomplished and conservative genealogists. The origin usually ascribed to Potiki I. is entirely mythical and, although believed by his descendants, is absurd to us. The descent of the people from Te Tini o Toi, Te Hapu-oneone, and other original tribes, by intermarriage, is clear to all. Their descent from Toroa, and other Matatua migrants, by intermarriage, is plain and indisputable. But the origin of Potiki, the founder of the tribe, is a lost quantity. As all other original tribes in their vicinity, except, perhaps, Te Hapu-oneone, were derived from Toi, it would be thought that Potiki I. would also be a descendant of that well known ancestor. But this is not clear. Connections by intermarriage between Nga-potiki and Te Tini o Toi were numerous since the time of Potiki (see Genealogical Tables, Nos. 3, 6, 7, 8), but Potiki is never given as a descendant of Toi. I say never because no native seems to know it when asked. One man only has given such a descent for Potiki, and I place but little faith in that, as it was given in a Native Land Court in support of a claim for certain lands. False genealogies are not infrequently given by natives for the above purpose. Several glaring cases of this nature have come under my own notice. When Tuhoe claimed a certain block of land before a Native Land Court, they claimed under Toi, i.e., as descendants of Toi, as the land, in ancient times was held by descendants of Toi, and conquered by - 39 Tuhoe, who are also descended from Toi. Nga-potiki of old held no sway over that land, but as Tuhoe are Nga-potiki, as well as Tini o Toi, they wished to prove tkat Potiki I. was a direct descendant of Toi. They therefore handed in the following genealogy:—
Family Tree. Toi-kai-rakau, Hatonga, Hine-ruarangi, Te Maunga, Potiki I., Rauru
Now this illustration will not hold water. In the first place Hatonga (or Whatonga) was a son of Rauru, not of Toi, while Hine-ruarangi was a daughter of Toi. Te Maunga, if not absolutely mythical, cannot be proved to be a member of the genus homo. Observe! I allowed several years to pass, and then asked the native who gave the above to enlighten me as to the descent of Potiki from Toi. He then gave me the following:—
Family Tree. Toi Rauru, Whatonga, Māhu, Māhu-rangi, Māhu-tapoa-nui, Hine-pukohu-rangi, Tukutuku, Hekeheke, Uaua, Hine-ruarangi = Te Maunga, Potiki I.
Note the discrepancy. Observe the different places assigned to Whatonga, Hine-ruarangi and Te Maunga. When I reflect that no other members of the Tuhoe tribe can give the descent of Potiki from Toi, then I must return to my original view, viz., that no such descent can be proved. It may, or may not, be a fact, but there is no proof of it.
We will now look at the origin of Potiki that is given by Tuhoe whenever questioned upon the subject. It is given in Genealogical Table No. 6. We will note its absurdity. The first seven names are purely mythical. The next five, and including Hine-pukohu-rangi are, if not mythical, utterly unknown as those of persons, that is to say no record exists of the whence of such persons, their abiding places, or actions in the world of life. I have but scant faith in them. The concrete fact is that Nga-potiki traditional history begins with Potiki I., who flourished about fifteen or sixteen generations ago, or say four hundred years ago, i.e., about the year 1500. And yet Nga-potiki were according to all traditions, in occupation of Tuhoeland long before Matatua arrived. The date of the latter event is usually placed by writers at about - 40 the year 1350 or five hundred and fifty years ago. Reckoning on the basis of twenty-five years to the generation this would mean twenty-two generations ago, whereas the Tuhoe genealogies from Toroa do not approach that number. I have a great number of such lines from Toroa, given by persons of both the Tuhoe and Ngati-Awa tribes. Of eighteen such lines, just examined, I find the average is sixteen and a half generations from Toroa of Matatua to middle aged persons now living.
The ignorance of Nga-potiki, or Tuhoe, as to the origin of their principal ancestor, is a very strange thing to anyone acquainted with the way in which traditions, history, genealogies, etc., etc., were preserved and orally transmitted from generation to generation by the Polynesians. It may be that the ancient history of the tribe was lost in some great disaster which overtook the people in past times, or possibly the tribe originated with a band of refugees who took possession of these savage wilds wherein to dwell in peace.
So Nga-potiki, or Tuhoe, can give no satisfactory account of the origin of Potiki I., nor of the vessel by which he, or his ancestors, came to this land. The only Potiki I have heard of from other tribes is one Potiki-mai-tawhiti who, so say Te Whakatohea, came to this land from Hawaiki in ancient days. After him was named a spring or pond on a hill above the beach to the east of Wai-o-tahe river. This pond was known as O-potiki-mai-tawhiti (The place of Potiki from afar), and in it were found small fish known as tanahanaha. Subsequently the name was also used to denote adjacent lands, and, when Europeans arrived, it was erroneously applied to the site of the present township of O-potiki, the correct name of which is Pa-kowhai.
If we turn to Genealogical Table No. 6, we will see that, in the Potiki line, Rangi-nui is the first name. From Rangi-nui, twelve generations brings us to Potiki who flourished circa 1500 A.D. But this Rangi-nui was of the period when man was not, when demi-gods and such like eerie creatures held high revel throughout space. Hence we must conclude that man has appeared upon the earth at some date subsequent to, say 1200 A.D., which is quite an alarming statement, and one calculated to disturb our faith in our own history. And there is worse to follow. For, if we turn to the right of Table 6, we observe that Toi, that fine old New Zealand gentleman, lived and had his being before Rangi-nui's time, that is to say before the advent of man upon our earth, which is a paradox, to put it mildly. It is therefore clear that, if we wish to retain William the Conqueror, and Chaucer, and Attila, and Sargon, and Toi the Wood Eater, with a few other worthies, we must begin to cast some doubt upon the origin of Potiki, as given by his descendants.
But we will let Table No. 6 stand, as a proof of the ignorance of the Tuhoe tribe of their origin through Potiki, their principal line of descent.- i - ii
GENEALOGICAL TABLE No. 3.
Showing ancient connection between the Tini-o-Toi and East Coast peoples, as also early intermarriage between the Tini-o-Toi and Nga-potiki.
Family Tree. Toi, Rauru, Tahauri, Tahatiti, Ruatapu, Rakeiora, Tama-ki-te-ra, Tama-ki-hikurangi, Tama-ki-te-hau = Rua-pututu, Tamatea-ure-haea 1, Potiki I., Tu-houhi, Tane-te-kohurangi, Uaua, Rakeiora = Te Rangi-tiriao, Puhou, See Genealogy No. 11. [TUHOE]
GENEALOGICAL TABLE No. 6. Nga-Potiki. The original people of Tuhoeland, or the Urewera Country.- iv - 41
Family Tree. Rangi-nui, Rangi-roa, Rangi-pouri, Rangi-potango, Rangi-whatuma, Rangi-wharo, Rangi-whakere Tahu-nui-o-rangi, Tukutuku, Hekeheke, Uaua, Te Maunga = Hine-pukou-rangi, Potiki I., Tu-houhi, Tane-te-hohu-rangi, Te Rangi-tiri-ao, Puhou, Pou-te-aniwaniwa, Teatea, Romairira 2, Hahore, Hakuarangi, Rau-tawhero, Tu-te-ahunga, Hourea, Kaumata, Taumau-ora, Te Kai-hunahuna, Te Wai-roa, Te Ake, Paerau, Te Wai-roa, Korihi, Tama-urupa, Rangi-monoa, Rangi-takahi-wai I., Whiri-kai, Rangi-takahi-wai II., Kine-kiri, Pou, Rangi-takahi-wai III., Ngarangi-katau, Koko-uri, Parani, Rangi-takahi-wai IV., Tonga-rau-nui = Awatope, Tawhaki, Tutonga, Tu-manawa-pohatu, Taokaki, Te Rangi-tu-ke, Uenuku, Tira-mate, Tama-i-koha, Hakeke, Konoro, Hine-hou, Te Ao-tawhena, Rakei-nui, Rakei-ora, Rakei-hakoa, Rakei-hakeke, Potiki II., Kakepikitua, Tahau-ariki, Te Awa-kari, Haupuku, Ranga-tapu, Te Awa-hou, Mapere, Muriwaka, Tapene, Tama-ruru I., Tararehe, Koau = Taumata, Whakairi, Taumata, Pukeko, Wai-o-tahe, Tu-te-rangi, Te Pairi, Eretini, Rawa, Te Paenga, Moenga, Tama-ruru, Hona, Te Roau, Pouwhare, Te Iki, Māro, Taputu, Puaki, Te Iwa, Moko, Tawera, Tumatawhero 3, Kuri 4, Hatiti, Tama-hua-mako, Tau-koroki, Iki-whenua, Tama-kai-moana, Hine-i-hana, Pu-torino, Te Awhi-ora, Te Ure, Hemi Tuatua, Tuhi-tāre, Toi, Rauru, Tahauru, Tahatiti, Ruatapu, Tama-ki-te-hau, Tama-ki-te-ra, Tama-ki-hikurangi, Manawa-tu, Manawa-rere, Manawa-oho, Manawa-kotokoto, Whare-nui, Taotao-ki-te-kapua, Hana, Tangi-haruru, Tuwhare, Māra-koko, Rangi-nui, Parahaki 5 = Mihi-ki-te-kapua, Te Kiato, Kakahu-tapiki, Te Mātā, Te Ake, Paerau, Te Kiri, Paratene, Whakamoenga-ika, Tuturi, Whaiti, Pareihe, Hana, Taipeti, Te Mataa, Hori, Pineere, Hana Hiwarau, Te Ngaro-ata, Karo, Kapeti, Hariata, Hiria, Paraki, Anania, Te Koari, Tepene, Hiria, Whitiaua = Te Riu, Manunui-tanaki 6, Takataka-putea, Whaiti, Pareihe, etc. See col. to left, Te Manu-kai-miro, Te Wha, Te Puanui, Te Tanuku, Kura-wha, Pinohi, Raha, Te Manihera, Waihui, Marata, Iraia, Ramari, Kareko, Tepene, Pita, Te Ure-mataitai, Te Rua-whakauta, Te Ure, Huriana, Kutu, Te Uru, Kahu-wi, Hine-kiri, Aperahama, Te Aru-mana, Rawiri Rangi-ihu, [TUHOE]
We will now look at the mythical origin of Nga-potiki, as told by their descendants now living. For it is one of those singular folk tales, beloved of primitive man, which I have often listened to in the darkling huts of the Children of the Mist.
A glance at Genealogical Table No. 6, shows us that the parents of Potiki I. were Te Maunga and one Hine-pukohu-rangi. The first of these names means ‘The Mountain,’ the second translates as ‘The Sky Mist Maiden.’ And thereby hangs a tale. Tutakangahau, of Maunga-pohatu, an old man of much knowledge of ancient lore, says that “Te Maungo was a person, he came from Hawaiki, though some state that he descended from the heavens, alighting at Onini.” This latter is the commonly believed version, and here is the story:—
In times long past away, when men held strange powers, and godlike beings dwelt on earth, there lived one Hine-pukohu-rangi. She was the personification of mist and fog, while her younger sister, Hine-wai (the Water Maiden) was the personification of the light, misty rain which descends to earth in foggy weather. One Tairi-a-kohu, another personification of the mist, is said to be the same as Hine-pukohu-rangi. The former is the name by which she is known to the Ngati-Kahungunu people of Te Wairoa, who say that she descended from the sky and abode with one Uenuku, who later became a rainbow god. Hine-pukohu-rangi is said to have lured Te Maunga (the Mountain range) to earth at a place called Onini, which is on the line of road from Galatea to Waikare-moana, at Ruatahuna, on the left bank of the Mana-o-rongo stream, and opposite Te Kau-tawhero and Māna-tēpā. A clump of New Zealand flax, looked upon as being tapu, formerly marked the spot where Te Maunga came to earth.
From the union of the Mountain and the Mist Maiden sprang Potiki the First, who appears to have been an ordinary specimen of the genus homo, and from whom descended the tribe known as Nga-Potiki. Such is the origin of this people who have held the rugged forest wilds of Tuhoeland for many generations. They are the offspring of supernatural beings, of personifications of nature, sayeth the Maori. They have sprung from their own savage ranges, and from the white fog clouds which envelop them. They are begotten of Mother Nature. They are the Children of the Mist.
The late chief Kereru, of Ngati-Rongo, stated that he believed that Toi and Potiki were descended from a common ancestor, and that he thought Toi flourished after the time of Potiki, but that he did not know the genealogy. This may be so, but we have no proof thereof, hence the origin of Potiki must remain a mystery.
Potiki I. (the first) is often called Potiki-tiketike, his direct descendants being known as Nga-Potiki-tiketike. He was also known as Potiki noho pa (fort dwelling Potiki). Potiki the second (Genealogical - 42 Table No. 6) was termed Potiki-hakahaka. He and his people owned the land about Karioi, in the valley of the Whakatane river.
Very little has been preserved of the history of Nga-Potiki prior to the time of Te Rangi-monoa, who flourished about the year 1600. We have traditions of various fights, etc., which occurred about this time, but prior to that period the archives of Nga-Potiki are silent. Now, it was at this time, i.e., in the days of Rangi-monoa, Awatope and Tawhaki, that Nga-Potiki were first brought into direct contact with the descendants of the Matatua migrants by means of Tawhaki's raid on Rua-tahuna, and the proceedings which followed the death of Tahaki-anina. Hence we observe that the tribal history has been preserved only since the time that Nga-Potiki became connected with the migrants through Tuhoe-potiki and other ancestors who were of the Ngati-Awa tribe of the coastal lands, which would lead one to suppose that it was not preserved owing to the fact that the prestige of the mixed people was derived only from the immigrant peoples of Matatua, and so the ancient history of the Potiki aborigines was no longer taught or conserved. And from that time, i.e., for the last nine or ten generations, the people have evidently carefully handed down the tribal history from generation to generation. By tribal history I mean the accounts of the various wars in which the successive generations engaged, for such is ever the history of primitive man.
The direct descendants of Potiki I. always considered themselves superior to those of Potiki II. They were the offspring of the Lofty Potiki, the Fort Dwellers, and took first rank, while those of Potiki II. were termed Potiki tahiti kiore (the Rat Snaring Potiki).
The old time tribe of Nga-Potiki, of whom we write, must not be confused with Nga-Potiki, a sub-tribe of Te Whakatohea, nor with Nga-Potiki of Ngati-Pukeko, nor with Nga-Potiki of Ngai-Te-Rangi of Tauranga, nor yet with Nga-Potiki of Poverty Bay, who lived at Waikohu and are descended from Whakarau, youngest child of Mahaki.
A glance at Genealogical Table No. 7 will show that Wairaka, daughter of Toroa, both of whom came on Matatua, married Te Rangi-ki-tua, of Te Tini o Toi (aborigines), and bore Tamatea, who married Paewhiti, a descendant of Toi, but also a member of Nga-Potiki:—
Missing Image- 43
Family Tree. Potiki I., Tu-houhi, Tane-te-kohurangi, Te Rangi-tiriao, Te Ao-tawhena, Rakei-nui, Tama-ipunoa, Te Atatau, Tane-atua = Hine-ahu-one (or Puha-rau-nui), Paewhiti = Tamatea-ki-te-huatahi, See No. 7.
This Puha-rau-nui is said by some to have been the wife of Toroa, of Matatua.
The above shows that the intermingling of the aborigines with the Matatua migrants commenced in the time of those who came to this isle on that vessel. Genealogical Table No. 3 shows an early connection between Nga-Potiki and Te Tini-o-Toi, Paewhiti's son, Tuhoe-potiki, from whom Tuhoe derive their tribal name, also married into the Tini-o-Toi.
We will now give a list of the principal hapu, or sub-tribes, of Nga-Potiki, together with some account thereof. These are as follows:—
The origin of the Ngati-Rakei, Ngai-Tuahau, Tama-kai-moana and Ngai-Tumata-rakau sub-tribes of Nga-Potiki may be seen in Genealogical Table No. 9. 7 Rakei-auahi, Rakei-hakeke and Rakei-hakoro deserted their ancestral home in the Rua-tahuna district when Tahaki-anina was slain by Hape of Ngati-Manawa, and accompanied the latter back to Whirinaki. The reason of their going to live among the tribal enemies of Nga-Potiki is not clear. Probably some of their people accompanied them. They lived for some time at the O-tu-takahi-ao pa, above the junction of the O-kahu and O-tu-takahi-ao streams, on the Whirinaki block, and also at Para-kakariki. Ngati-Manawa say that it was Tai-whati who settled Ngati-Rakei at - 44 O-tu-takahi-ao. It is said that Patu-heuheu also lived at those two places, at one time. Ngati-Rakei cannot have had any right to those lands. Afterwards these people moved down to the Wai-o-hau district, where they lived at the Tauheke pa (fort), on the right bank of the Rangi-taiki river, and also at Hauraki, on the Mata-hina block, on the left bank of the river, where the earthworks of their old fort may be seen on a spur of the hill just above the alluvial flat on which some willow trees stand. The Tau-heke pa is on the range above the road. Ngati-Rakei claimed an interest in the Mata-hina block. They do not appear to have been awarded shares therein as Ngati-Rakei, but they would probably get in as members of Ngati-Haka and Patu-heuheu, to whom 2,000 acres were awarded, and among whom Ngati-Rakei have practically lost their own identity. Patu-heuheu and Ngati-Haka may now be said to be one and the same people, and both these hapu are descendants of the Rakei family. The claim of Ngati-Rakei for a portion of the Hikurangi-Horomanga block, known as Horo-kărā, was disallowed.
Ngati-Rakei originally lived at O-haua-te-rangi, in the Rua-tahuna district, and at Te Wai-iti, at the base of the Huia-rau range. Their pa at the latter place was named O-tuhuhu, or Kotuhuhu. The former place was named after a woman, one Haua-te-rangi, wife of Rakei-nui (see Gen. No. 9). The Rakei family had a fortified village at Toke-riki, on the Tuku-roa block.
About six generations ago (say the year 1750), in the time of Tama-pango (Gen. No. 9) there was much fighting among the various divisions of Nga-Potiki living in the O-haua-te-rangi district. These divisions were the sub-tribes of Rakei, Ha, Papa, Rongo-tauaroa, Tuahau and Tumata-rakau. Rakei attacked Ngati-Papa at O-haua, and the latter seem to have got the worst of the encounter. They were also defeated in a subsequent fight, known as Upoko-rau, the survivors fleeing to the Toke-riki pa, where they claimed the protection of the Rongo-taua-roa people, who were residing at that place.
The Ngati-Ha hapu were attacked by Ngati-Rongo, and defeated. They sent Hitia, a relative of Tama-pango to appeal to Ngati-Rakei for help, and Tama-pango joined them in an attack on Ngati-Rongo, who were defeated. Then Tama-pango returned to his own place at the Opeke pa, on the O-haua-te-rangi block, which afterwards fell to Ngati-Rakei.
We have seen that the hapu name of Ngati-Rakei is now practically lost, the descendants of the Rakei family now being found principally among Ngati-Haka and Patu-heuheu, of Te Hongi. The origin of the tribal name of Ngati-Haka was a singular one, and here is the story thereof:—
In the time of Pukeko, of Ngati-Rakei, who, with his people, was then living at O-haua-te-rangi, the thought came to Karia and Te- v
GENEALOGICAL TABLE No. 7.
This Table shows the position of the ancestors Toi, Hape, Potiki, Turanga, Apa, Tangi-haruru, Tuhoe, Whare-pakau and Toroa, in regard to each other, also inter-marriages between the various lines.
Family Tree. (Ngati-Apa), Apa, Tama-apa, Tama-aia, Tama-ariki, Tama-tutonga, Tuaha-taua, Takapu-manuka, Tapairu-o-te-ao = Tutonga, Tu-manawa-pohatu, Te Whatu-pe, Te Rahui, Hau-ki-waho, Tapui, Rangi-au-kume, Pihopa, Te Tuhi, Kohu, Tapui, (Tini-o-Toi), Toi, Rauru, Tahauri, Tahatiti, Ruatapu, Rakei-ora I., Tama-ki-te-ra, Tama-ki-hikurangi, Rakei-ora II. = Rangi-tiri-ao, Puhou, Pou-te-aniwaniwa, Tama-urupa, (Nga-potiki), Potiki, Tuhouhi, Tane-te-kohu-rangi, Uaua, (Ngata-Awa of Matatua), Toroa, Ruaihonga, Tahinga-o-te-ra, Awa-nui-a-rangi, Rongo-tangi-awa, Ira-peke Tonga-ran-nui = Awatope, Tawhaki, Wairaka = Te Rangī-ki-tua, (Te Hapu-oneone), Hape, Tamarau, Te Pipi, (Tini o-Toi and Ngai-Turanga), Toi, Rauru, Tai-peha, Tai-wananga, Kahukura, Te Whare-patahi, Ruru-kino = Ruarera, Turanga-pikitoi Te Koata = Nukutere, Huepu, Poupa, (Tini-o-Toi), Toi, Rauru, Tahauri, Tahatiti, Ruatapu, Tama-ki-te-ra, Tama-ki-hikurangi, Tarawhata, Te Ripoi, Tamatea-ki-te-huatahi = Paewhiti, Ue-imua Tane-moe-ahi, Tama = hautu, Tu-te-aweawe, Tane-kino, Te Ko-manawa, Houpupu, Uru-kakenga-rangi, Kaiapari, Tu-te-huinga, Whakangau, Reinga-kura, Kiriwera, Hika-kino, Rangi-kamaua, Te Pou, Tuhoe-potiki = Pare-tara-nui, Mura-kareke, Karetehe = Te whinga (of N.-Apa), Te Rangi-warakihi, Tara-rehe, Rakautawhia, Rangi-kawhaki, Te Oina, Toana, Te Opena, Hine-iko, Te Hei-raukawa, Paerata, Te Whetu, Hera, Tangi-haruru, (Tini-o-Toi and N.-Manawa), Toi, Rauru, Tahauri, Tahatiti, Ruatapu, Manawa-uha, Manawa-toa, Manawa-kotokoto, Whare-nui, Whare-roa, Hana = Whare-manahanaha, Whare-pakau, Te Iwikoru, Tamatea-kai-taharua, Hine-nuka, Te Whatae, Rangi-mai-tawhiti, Mata-wha, Marie, Te Kokau, Rawiri, Rangi-ihu, (N.-Tawhaki hapu, of Tuhoe, and N.-Whare of Te Whaiti), [TUHOE]
GENEALOGICAL TABLE No. 9. Showing the origin of Ngati-Rakei hapu of Nga-Potiki.- 45
Family Tree. Potiki-tiketike, Tane-te-kohu-rangi, Tu-houhi, Te Rangi-tiri-ao, Te Ao-tawhena, Rakei-nui = Haua-te-rangi F 8, Te Rangi-tuku (see also Gen. No. 10), Tu-mariu 9, Rangi-ohungia, Whare-pu-mauri, Tu-tahi-ki-te-wa, Hine-koro = Te Hiko-o-te-rangi, Te Manu, Tamatua, Moko-nui, Tapui, Tutakangahau, Ripine, s.p., Tau-koroki, Tahaki-anina 10, Iki-whenua = Rongo-tauaha, Tama-kai-moana I. 11, Tumatawha, Te Uoro, Te Rua-o-kahu-kura, Rangi-etahu, Hiki, Rangi-heke, Te Taiepa, Te Ohanga, Tai-turakina, Kauae-nui, Kai-mamaku, Taumutu, Te Umu-ariki, Te Au-ki-Hingarae, Paora Kingi, Te Tawai, Rake-hakoa 12, Rakei-auahi, Whare-hau, Tuahau 13, Tumata-rakau 14, Whare-rangi = Hine-horo, Tama-pango 15, Te Whanana, Hikihiki, Taiturakina, Te Kotuku, Te Purewa, Matioro, Tātā Te Hata, Mihi, Toko Tarakawa, Te Kaiapera, Hairuha, Te Iwikino, s.p., Wi Taikete, Peka-hinau, Rakei-hakeke, Rakei-hakoro, Potiki II., See Table No. 6, [TUHOE]
Onewa-tahi, of the Ngati-Whare tribe of Te Whaiti that it would be well to attack Pukeko, and have a pleasant time within the secluded gorges of Ohaua.
Family Tree. Pukeko (see Gen. No. 6), Wai-o-tahe, Tu-terangi, Te Pairi, Eretini, Tuahiwi, Te Onewa-tahi, No living issue, Toru-tahi, Matiu, Te Whata-nui, Whare-papa, Wero, Karia, Te-Waikura, Meremere-tahi, Te Ata-iti
Karia and his friend were, perhaps, doubtful of their ability to defeat the O-haua section of Ngati-Rakei, or feared that they might rouse the hornets nest of Tuhoe at Rua-tahuna, a few miles to the south, anyhow they applied to the Arawa tribe for assistance. This was accorded them, and Moko-nui-a-rangi marched a force across the Kainga-roa Plains and joined forces with Ngati-Whare. The combined parties, while advancing across the Wai-o-hau block, captured an old woman named Whioi. Some proposed to slay her, but others objected, saying that she should be sent to ask Pukeko to come and visit them. It was intended to use treachery, and so throw him off his guard. So Whioi was despatched on her errand.
Now, that night as Pukeko lay asleep, he dreamed that he saw Te Onewa-tahi approaching him and, when they met, made to salute him after the manner of the Maori, that is to say, by pressing noses together. Instead, however, of doing so, Te Onewa bit the nose of Pukeko, who at once awoke. Calling his people around him, he explained to them his singular dream, saying that it was an omen of impending trouble, and urging caution.
Not long afterwards, Whioi arrived and delivered her message to Pukeko, who said—“This is my dream. We will go!” And they went. But they did not go even as Karia and his friends had hoped, with peaceful thoughts in their hearts. They went to give Karia and his merry men a surprise party. And it came off.
There marched forth of Ngati-Rakei, a hokowhitu. 16 They were not armed, apparently, no man carried club or spear, or trailed the pliant huata along the rugged trail. But each fighting man carried his short weapon concealed beneath his garments. Pukeko alone bore a spear, a tokotoko. And Pukeko said, “We will greet over our dear friends when we meet, we will weep over and salute them.” Then - 46 Whioi was sent forward to inform the invaders that the guileless Children of the Mist would salute them according to ancient custom. And Whioi went. She said—““Ko koutou ka tangihia e te ope” (you will be wailed over by the party). As the Rakei party approached, the invaders ranged themselves in a row, facing them. Ngati-Rakei halted within a short distance of the opposing rank, and the tangi (wailing greeting of the Maori) commenced. Pukeko advanced to pikari, holding his spear horizontally, with extended arms grasping either end thereof, he advanced to the rank of men, bounding from side to side and grimacing after the manner Maori. Gradually he advanced, dancing along the rank, until he came to the end where Te Onewa-tahi stood, and wailing as he moved. When opposite his enemy he gave a sudden thrust and plunged his spear into the body of Te Onewa. Then the warriors of Pukeko drew their weapons, bounded forward—and the surprise party of the Sons of Rakei was an accomplished fact.
Hence that division of Ngati-Rakei assumed the name of Ngati-haka—descendants of the Dance, or Dancer. They have passed through many dangers, and have seen stirring times since that surprise party, and you may now find them in camp by the rushing Rangi-taiki, where those troubled waters surge round the bluff front of Rae-pohatu.
In regard to the above story, Paitini, of Ngati-Tawhaki, states that Pukeko was living at Wai-o-hau at the time, and that he killed Karia and Te Onewa-tahi at Manga-a-mako, a stream about a mile north of Arorangi hill, right bank of the Rangi-taiki river. Long afterwards, after the Mission Station had been established at Te Whaiti (1847), Ngati-Whare determined to avenge the deaths of their two chiefs. They made six canoes and stated that they were going to take them down the Rangi-taiki river and sell them to Ngati-Awa of Te Teko district. These canoes were manned with armed fighting men, and taken down the Whirinaki river into the Rangi-taiki, thence down to Te Houhi, where they fired on some of Ngati-Haka whom they found there, and chased Kai-kino, father of Te Waka-unua, who escaped. These people warned Ngati-Haka at Wai-o-hau of the approach of an enemy.
The Ngati-Whare force went on down the Rangi-taiki, beaching their canoes above the falls and hauling them round the hillsides, to lower them into the river below. Having cleared these obstructions they continued on down the river until they reached O-kahu, at the rock bluff just north of Aro-rangi. Here they found Ngati-Haka assembled in battle array to receive them. Fighting would have commenced at once, Ngati-Haka were about to fire on the canoes, when Ruru, of Ngati-Tawhaki, arrived and persuaded both sides to refrain from fighting, in obedience to the teachings of Christianity, which was at that time generally accepted.- 47
Ngati-Rakei evidently had a rough time in the Ohaua district during the inter-hapu fighting which occurred at that place, and it is said that some of them moved out to Wai-o-hau, while others lived for some time at Te Wai-iti, near Huia-rau, which lands are now held by Ngati-Kuri. But gradually they appear to have moved out to Wai-o-hau.
The Ngati-Ha hapu (sub-tribe, or family group) of Nga-Potiki dwelt in the upper part of the Whakatane Valley. Their lands extended from Matai-rangi, at O-haua-te-rangi, up the valley, including the Rua-tahuna district as far as Parahaki. on the Wai-au river, and westward to the peak of Tara-pounamu. At the latter place lived a chief of these people, named Tamatea-Kai-taharua, about the year 1730. He was apparently of an eccentric disposition, and is said to have been a most impartial gentleman, more especially in his diet. Being a member of both Ngati-Ha and Ngati-whare (of Te Whaiti), he would sometimes slay a Rua-tahuna person in order to stock his larder, at others he would raid Te Whaiti and there lay in a stock of provisions in a similar manner. Thus he acted in a perfectly fair manner to his relatives, and obtained his name as Kai-taha-rua (eater of both sides).
It was this same man who is said to have given the name of Tara-pounamu, to that storm lashed peak. For Tamatea was a fowler of high renown, and wielded a bird spear full craftily, I ween. The barbed point of his spear was not formed of a human bone, as was customary in the good old days, but was of greenstone, most prized of stones in Maoriland. It fell upon a certain fine day that our hero ascended the peak in order to spear pigeons, but alack! one illbred bird struggled so fiercely when transfixed on the spear point, that the barbed point became detached, the bird flying away with the point fixed in its body. Tamatea was sore dismayed at the mishap, and resolved to follow the bird, in the hope of recovering his prized greenstone point. He pursued the bird to Putauaki (Mount Edge-cumbe, only about fifty miles away), and there, to his great joy, recovered his tara pounamu (barbed greenstone spear head). And that is how the hill received its present name. This tradition must be true, because the hill is still there, as I myself have seen.
One of the fortified villages of Ngati-Ha was Pa-kakaho, at Te Ranga-a-ruanuku.
Below will be seen a much curtailed genealogy of Ngati-Ha.
The line of descent from Ha, marked (1), was given by Numia, Te Puia, and Te Iwi-kino, before the Native Land Commission, and each stated that Rangi-pio was a child of Ha. However, in the line marked (2) we see that Tu-takanga-hau, a learned genealogist, inserts - 48 Rua-ngarahu between Ha and Rangi-pio. This Ha, or Ha-nuku, was a descendant of Tane-atua, while Papa was a member of Nga-Potiki.
Family Tree. (1), Ha, Rangi-pio, Tee-huna, Rangi-kawhaki, Te Oina, Nga-umu-erua, Rangi-ruru, Te Pu-iti, Te Ara-aka, Ruhia = Te Puia, Hiki, Papa-kura, Nga-rangi, Hitia, Taupahi, Eru, Pera, Te Kura-hapainga, Te Whatu-pe, Te Rahui, Hau-ki-waho = Moko-nui, Te Kura = Tai-turakina, Hairuha, Te Iwi-kino, s.p.
Family Tree. (2), Potiki, Rahiri-te-rangi, Hitia-te-rangi, Papa = Ha-nuku (a descendant of Tane-atua), Rua-ngarahu, Rangi-pio, Tee-huna, Rangi-kawhaki = Te Whatu-kauae-nui, Te Oina = Tapapatu, Whiri-kai = Nga-umu-erua, Te Hina-kai-ora = Tira-haere, Tuau = Whakaanina, Te Ohu = Hine-iko, Te Hei-raukawa, Paerata, Te Whetu, Hera, Huka, Te Tuhi, Kohu, Te Amo, Te Paea, Turei, Korihi, Rawiri, Marie
Ngati-Makarehe were a sub-division of Ngati-Ha. A few survivors of these people are now living among other hapu in the valley of the Tauranga (Wai-mana) river.
NGAI-TUA-HAU AND NGAI-TUMATA-RAKAU.
These names were applied to the descendants of Rakei-au-ahi, through his elder son, Whare-hau, whose sons, Tua-hau and Tumata-rakau, were the heads of two small family groups. They cannot, presumably, have numbered more than a few families when driven from the Ohaua district by Tama-pango, for he was a first cousin of Tua-hau and his brother (see Genealogical Table No. 9).
Ngai-Tua-hau occupied lands on the Manana-a-Tiuhi stream, a small tributary of the Whaka-tane river, and which flows into the latter at O-haua (-te-rangi). Tama-pango was of Ngati-Rakei also, as the Table No. 9 shows, and he and others attacked Ngai-Tua-hau and expelled them from the district, and seized their lands. Nga-rapu was a Ngai-Tua-hau pa, or fortified village, as also was Te Maire, on the Iere-nui block. The former pa is further up the stream. Tama-pango first attacked Te Maire pa and drove out the people thereof, who fled further up the Manana-a-Tiuhi stream to Nga-rapu and Nga-haua, whither they were followed and again defeated by Tama-pango's force. The survivors fled northwards to Tauwhare where they were attacked and dispersed by Te Arohana.
Ngai-Tumata-rakau seem to have been driven away, at the same time, by Tama-pango. They are said to have fled to O-hio-rangi, where Te Arohana found them and moved them on in the gentle manner he was so noted for. If any of these two hapu survived, they must have been incorporated with other peoples, for their tribal names became lost to the world. These events occurred about the same time as the other fights among Ngati-Rakei, already related. Very little is known of these lost families now. I have heard them described by natives as belonging to Ngati-Karetehe, which is absurd. Also, I have heard them confused with Ngai-Tumata-wera, a division of Ngati-Pukeko, who are, however, related to Tuhoe, as the following Table shows:—
Family Tree. Tane-moe-ahi (brother of Tuhoe-potiki, see Table No. 7), Rakai-papa, Kahu-moeangiangi, Kahura-pare, Tapui-ariki, Tumata-wera = Te Rangi-tupu-ki-waho (of Ngati-Awa), Paraheka 17
Family Tree. Rere-kai, Te Paana-i-waho, Te Hou-ka-mau, Hine-wai, Tutukangahau, Pinohi, Raha
I am not sure about the movements of the Tumata-rakan people, as to how long they remained at O-hio-rangi, but the late chief Tama-rau, of Ngati-koura, told me that a people of that name, who were a division of the Whakatohea tribe, migrated from O-potiki and settled at Heke-turi, below Te Pa-wairoto, in the valley of the Waikare stream (and near O-hio-rangi), where they were attacked and defeated by Te Arohana and Tahuna. The survivors fled to the valley of the Whakatane, below Hanga-mahihi, where they were again defeated by the descendants of Tane-moe-ahi. Tama-rau also stated that the troubles of these peoples were avenged by Te Whakatohea at the fight of O-tai-roa, at Rua-toki, but that was long after, and is quite another story.
Ngati-Rautao were a division of Nga-Potiki who occupied the valley of the Pu-kareao stream, a tributary of the Whakatane river, near O-haua. Up this stream runs an old native trail from Rua-tahuna to Galatea, crossing the watershed at Tutae-pukepuke, and descending the Horomanga-a-Pou stream to the Kuha-waea plain. It was by this trail that Major Mair returned with a portion of the Government forces from Rua-tahuna, after the raid of 1869.
Family Tree. Te Arohana, Te Matau, Te Aihn-rangi, Hine-ataru, Te Ara-he, Matika, Mihaka, Rangi-tere-mauri
Ngati-Rautao seem to have been a sub-division of Ngati-Ha. They were attacked and defeated by Tawhaki's party during that worthy's raid on his relatives of Nga-Potiki. 18 Te Kereru-pirau, chief of Ngati-Rautao, who was slain by Tai-wera at that time, seems to have given his name to a small family group. I insert a genealogy of one Rautao of this district, but do not think that he can be the man after whom these people were named, or he would be further up the line.- 51
Family Tree. Potiki, Tu-houhi, Tane-te-kohu-rangi, Te Rangi-tiri-ao, Puhou, Pou-roa, Pou-te-aniwaniwa, Moe-tara, Te Kahu, Tane-te-hoka, Whakarotu = Tahaka-anina, Rautao, Matakai, Niho, Ngahoro, Wai-raka, Tangaroa, Kai-hapuku, Hoera, Wiripo, Te Ara-he, Te Rahui, Ripeka, Matika, Hariata, Haki
Moreover, this line was given in order to sustain a claim to those lands, in a native Land Court, hence it may be viewed with suspicion.
The origin of the name Rautao, as applied to these people, seem to be that, during some old time inter-hapu fighting, a few children were captured, their hands tied, and then they were suspended by their arms to trees. Their arms were tied with leaves which had been used as rautao (leaves used to cover food in a steam oven), and were probably those of the Cordyline Banksii (ti-kapu).
Another people known as Ngati-Rautao are said (one authority) to have dwelt at Te Whaiti in times past away but, if so, nothing seems to be known concerning them.
Te Kotore, or Ngati-Kotore, were a sub-tribe of Nga-Potiki who are said to have lived in the lower part of the Pu-kareao Valley, above Matai-rangi. Pa-umauma, an old pa just above Hauwai, is said to have belonged to Te Kotore people. These people must not be confused with Te Kotore-o-hua, an old time people of the coast, or with Ngati-Kotore of Te Papuni, who were an East Coast people.
In the time of Te Iwi-koru, son of Whare-pakau, some of Ngati-Whare intermarried with Nga-Potiki, and other such cases occurred in later times. Such was the origin of a hapu named Ngati-Whare-ki-Nga-Potiki, who dwelt at Te Whaiti, but the name is seldom heard now.- 52
NGAI-TUMATA-WHERO AND NGATI-KURI.
In Genealogical Table No. 6, we note that the two younger children of Kake-piki-tua (daughter of Potiki II.) were Tumata-whero and Kuri. Both of these men gave their names to sub-tribes. Ngati-Kuri are owners of the lands at Te Wai-iti, at Rua-tahuna, formerly occupied by Ngati-Rakei.
The Maunga-pohatu people, known as Tama-kai-moana, or Ngati-Huri, are principally of Nga-Potiki origin, as also are the sub-tribes of Ngati-Tawhaki and Ngai-Te-Riu, of whom more anon. Ngai-Tatua, of Maunga-pohatu and Te Wai-mana, are also Nga-Potiki, and are also descendants of Tane-moe-ahi. They likewise come under the name of Ngai-Tama in regard to lands at Te Wai-mana, as also do Ngai-Turanga.
Although we only give here those sub-tribes who are most closely allied to, and principally descend from, Nga-Potiki, yet the whole of the Tuhoe, or Ure-wera tribe, are descended from that people. All of Tuhoe are descendants of Potiki I.
The name of Ngai-Tatua is modern, although those people are Nga-Potiki. They are a division of the Tama-kai-moana sub-tribe.
Family Tree. Tama-kai-moana I. = Tatua F. Tumata-wha, Hine-i-hanga, Te Ohanga, Takoto-mai, Te Uoro, Hui-kaura, Kaua-nui, Tama-kai-moana II, Rua-kahu-kura, Rua-haere-wa, Kai-mamaku, Rangi-ahua, Rangi-etahu, Te Hina, Tau-mutu, Raro-pua, Hiki, Remu-whakairo, Te Umu-ariki, Tama-taranui, Rangi-heheu-rangi, Ruta, Te Au-ki-Hingarae, Tarei, Taepa, Te Hiko, Paora Kingi, Te Ua-a-te-rangi, Huka = Horohau, Akuhata, Moata, Te Huri-nui, Ameria, Hine-pau, s.p.
Genealogical Table No. 30 explains the position of Tama-kai-moana. Taua, who is a descendant of Tama-kia-moana:—
Family Tree. Tama-kai-moana II. = Te Whakakahu, Rangi-ahua, Rehua, Rakuraku, Taua
states that Tahuri (Genealogical Table No. 30), Te Wai-whero and Hikihiki were all children of Tai-turakina.- vii
GENEALOGICAL TABLE No. 30. Tama-kai-moana (Ngati-Huri).- 53
Family Tree. Toroa, Rua-ihonga, Tahinga-o-te-ra, Awa-nui-a-rangi, Rongo-tangi-awa, Ira-peke, Tamatea-rehe, Tai-whakaea, Awa-kanoi, Huri-papa, Maru-papa-nui, Takapu-wai, Ta-mata-nui, Kapuru, Rotari, Tawha-rangi, Potiki I., Tu-houhi, Tane-te-kohu-rangi, Te Rangi-tiri-ao, Te Ao-tawhena, Potiki II., Hatiti, Tama-hua-mako, Tau-koroki, Rongo-tauaha = Iki-whenua, Te Au-tui-rangi = Tama-kai-moana I. = Tatua = Whakatau, (1), Te Ohanga, Tai-turakina, Hikihiki, Tapui, Tai-turakina II., Tangi-kura, Te Rihi, Te Wāka, s.p., Taikete, Peka-hinau, s.p., Rauae-nui, Kai-mamaku, Tau-mutu, Te Umu-ariki, Te Au, Paora Kingi, Te Tawai, Maraea, Tiaki, (2), Tu-matawha, Te Uoro, Rua-kahukura, Rangi-etahu, Hiki, Rangi-heheurangi, Taiepa, Huka, Te Kokoti, Heke, Pau-kuri, Nga-hiwi, Rua, Te Whatu, Hine-i-hana, (3), Takoto-mai, Tama-kai-moana II., Tahuri, Te Ika-poto, Tiwha, Kura-wha, Pinohi, Raha, (Ngai-Te Au), (Ngai-Tu-matawha), (Ngai-Tatua), Shows descent of Tama-kai-moana hapu from Toroa Ngati-Maru and Nga-Potiki., The lines of descent from Tama-kai-moana are numerous., Awa-kanoi was a descendant of Ue-imua also., For descent of Tama-kai-moana from Tane-atua see Genealogical Table No. 11., [TUHOE]
About the year 1675 it was that Tatua abode beneath the rocky front of the Enchanted Mountain.
About the year 1600 there dwelt in the forest gorges of the Whakatane River, a chief of Nga-Potiki known to fame as Romai-rira (sometimes as Rongo-mai-rira). His line of descent is given in Genealogical Table No. 6. From this man sprang a sub-tribe known by the startling name of Te Hokowhitu pakira a Romairira, which name appears to have been abbreviated to Te Upoko-pakira (the Bald Head). Hahore, son of Romai-rira, was a contemporary of Awa-tope, of Ngati-Awa, who married the sister of Te Rangi-monoa (Genealogical Table No. 6). This Hahore has left a reputation as having been a fierce, turbulent and somewhat truculent character. He and his people occupied the lower tuku (terrace) of the Hui-tieke pa, on the Karioi block. The upper terraces of the fortified village were occupied by other family groups of Nga-Potiki.
One fair morn, somewhere about the time of the Thirty Years' War, or when Richelieu was schooling the Huguenots, one Hakua-rangi, and her sister Mamae-rangi, daughters of Hahore, went forth from the sheltering walls of Hui-tieke and fared onward through the forest of Tane, in search of the picturesque. In the depths of the forest primeval they came upon a party of another division of Nga-Potiki, known as Te Tini o Te Kohiti-kareao, or Te Pona-kareao, who also lived at Hui-tieke, but at that time were encamped in the bush for the purpose of making a canoe. They were working under their chief, Kahu-rapaki. When these people ceased work, in order to partake of a meal, they did not give the girls any food, but, in merry jest, smeared their lips with fat from some preserved birds. When the girls returned home, their father (Hahore) noticed the traces of fat on their lips, and said, “You have been eating huahua.” “Not so,” said they, “But our lips were smeared with fat by Kahu-rapaki's people.” “Enough said. This little pleasantry must be repaid”—quoth Hahore. He at once set about raising a force to attack the jesters of the Supple-jack clan. He marched his men to within a short distance of the enemy's camp, and told them to remain there until they heard the notes of his koauau (flute), when they were to deliver an attack. He then stole forward to observe the enemy, waiting until they were all asleep, when he tootled his gentle warning to his warriors. In the scene that ensued, Te Taioio, a chief of Te Kohiti-kareao, was slain, together with others. Te Kahu-rapaki, and others, escaped into the depths of the forest. After some time had elapsed these people returned to Hui-tieke, and again dwelt with Hahore, probably in a state of semi-vassalage. But the genial Hahore had not forgotten his children's discomfiture, and was not yet satisfied. At a certain time he led forth his people, together with the returned fugitives, in order to - 54 dig the toothsome fern root. Together they laboured for some time, until Hahore rose, and remarked—“Kari tu, kari noho, te uri o Hahore.” Instantly Hahore's men turned upon the hapless fugitives and slew them. The matter had probably been pre-arranged. The meaning of the above remark was an appreciation of the adaptability of Hahore's people, nothing comes amiss to them, however sudden the call to action—from sitting digging, the offspring of Hahore rise to fight. The natives squatted down, when digging fern root with sharp pointed sticks. This saying became a sort of tribal aphorism, and is still heard among the descendants of Hahore. Another saying attributed to that old-time savage is—“Ma hea mai to ara i te wehi o Hahore” (How can you prevail against the terrible Hahore). Evidently the old cannibal thought no small beer of himself.
Thus it was that the insult to Haku-a-rangi and her sister was avenged, Kahu-rapaki and his jesting followers going down to Hades, to square the account.
Our friend Hahore was mixed up in another little affair in which treachery played an important part. After the events recorded above, Awa-tope, who had married Tonga-rau-nui, a cousin of Hahore's father, and whose own sister, Hau-ruia, had married Tama-rakai-ora, of the Whakatohea tribe, went to O-potiki to visit his relatives there, and effect another object apparently. On arriving at his sister's home, he found that all the men were absent from the village, being engaged at some task. The women in the village were preparing food for the workers, and one asked—“Who will carry the food to the working party?” Awa-tope said, “I will take it, and my slave will assist me.” The food was placed in baskets, and a pole was thrust through the handles thereof, for the purpose of carrying. Each man placed an end of the pole on his shoulder, and so they set forth, carrying the baskets. Awa-tope was leading at first, but after a while he made his slave change places with him, so that Awa was then at the rear end of the pole. Awa then proceeded to eat the food contained in the baskets, and made a serious inroad into those viands. His slave, being in front, did not notice this performance. When they arrived at the place where Awa-tope's brother-in-law, Tama-rakai-ora, was working with his companions, that chief was angry at the food having been tampered with. Awa explained that his slave must have devoured it, as he had been at the rear end of the carrying pole.
When Awa-tope returned home, he invited Tama-rakai-ora to visit him in a few weeks time. Awa returned to Hui-tieke and arranged with Hahore that they should slaughter the visitors on their arrival. This plan was carried out, and it is said that not one of the party escaped.
The Hui-tieke pa is situated at Tuna-nui, just inland of Nga-mahanga.
(To be continued.)
1 Tamatea-ure-haea was a prominent ancestor of the East Coast natives from Wai-rarapa northwards.
2 From this man sprang Te Hokowhitu pakira a Romairira, a sub-tribe of Nga-Potili.
3 Origin of Ngai-Tumata-whero clan.
4 Origin of Ngati-Kuri, of Te Wai-iti.
5 Paitini states that Parahaki was a descendant, not son, of Potiki II.
6 See Table No. 25.
7 See also Genealogical Table No. 10, for descendants of Rakei-nui.
8 Haua-te-rangi, a woman after whom Ohaua-te-rangi, in the Whakatane Valley, was named.
9 Tu-mariu, after him was named Te Peke a Tu-mariu, a high peak of the Huiarau range.
10 Tahaki-anina was slain by Hape at Rua-tahuna.
11 The Tama-kai-moana sub-tribe, of Maunga-pohatu, derive their name from this man.
12 Patu-heuheu, of Te Houhi, are descendants of Rakei-hakoa.
13 Origin of Ngai-Tuahau sub-tribe.
14 Origin of Ngai-Tumata-rakau sub-tribe.
15 It was Tama-pango who drove Ngati-Tuahau from Iere-nui.
16 Hokowhitu—one hundred and forty, but often used for any number of men between one and two hundred.
17 Origin of Ngati-Paraheka division of Ngati-Pukeko.
18 This occurred about A.D. 1620.