Volume 20 1911 > Volume 20, No.3 > Extracts from Dr. Wyatt Gill's papers, p 118-151
EXTRACTS FROM DR. WYATT GILL'S PAPERS.
No. 1. E KORERO TUPUNA NO PAPUA. 1
TEIE tetai tuatua enua no Papua. Naau e kiriti atu ki te reo Papaa, ko te tuatua i toku oire ki Kerepunu.
Ko te tangata mua ki Nu Kini o to ratou tupuna, ina ra ka akakite ua au ki a koe: Tera oki te tangata mua i taua enua ra ko Hala-malubu, kua noo raua i te maunga ra i Tau-lama ma te teina. Kare oki e tangata i taua enua ra; e Kanitilu ua e te Puakaoa tera rai, kare e tangata. Kua noo taua tangata ra ma te vaine e te teina i taua maunga ra, ki Tau-lama; kaore oki a ratou āi. Kua arumaki ratou i te Owagi, ko te ingoa ia o te Kani-tilu e Owagi. Kua kimi ratou i te ravenga e ka ei te āi i te tunu. Kua noo ua ratou i taua maunga ra, kua kite ratou i tetai paī te tere ra na tai i te moana. Kua akaau atura a Hala-mabubu i te Puakaaoa i taua paī ra; kua au atura i runga i taua paī ra, kua akara atu ra i te Tuku te tunu ra i te kai. Kua akara a ia i te āi i te tunu i ta ratou kai, kua kei'a mai i te āi no runga i taua paī ra, kua ōua taua Puakaaoa ra ki raro ki te tai, kua kau atura ki uta i tona Pi (? Pu).
Kua akara te Tuku i te āi, kare, kua kei'a ia e taua Puakaaoa ra. Kua kimi a ia i te ravenga—kare, kua ngaro ki uta e taua puke tangata ra, no raro mai raua ki te moana; kare oki ratou kia kite i te ngai i aereia mai e taua nga tangata ra, ina ra kua manako a ia e, no Papauri e Papatea mai raua.
Kare oki to Papua i kite meitaki i to ratou tupuna i te aereanga mai ki Papua, i noo ratou i taua maunga ra. Kua tunu ratou i ta ratou kai i taua aī i kei'a mai e taua Puakaaoa ra. Kua kai ratou, e paia akera, kua tuatua te tuakana ki te teina, “Ka aere au i te tautai ika na tatou.”
Aere atu ra taua tuakana ra, e taoi i ta ratou kupenga i taua po ra; kua noo te teina e te vaine a te tuakana i te are. Aere atu ra a ia ki taua po ra i tetai ika na ratou; kua keia io ra te teina i te vaine a tona tuakana i taua po ra. E oki mai te tane a taua vaine ra, kua pati atu ra ki te pareu, “O mai taku pareu.” Ua manako io ra taua vaine ra, kua ui atu ra, “Ko vai koe?” “Ko au teie, ko Hala-malubu,” na, - 119 kua tuatua atura a ia, “Kua rave mai oki koe ki aku, i teie nei, e rave akaou mai na koe ki aku.” Kua manako iora a ia, e, kua keia te teina i tana vaine, kua tuaru atu ra te tuakana i tona teina i te pae ki raro, i te opunga o te ra, ki Motumotu, kua tuā iora i ta raua kai, te akari, te pia, te uriia e te taro, te kape, te meika.
Kua aere atu ra te teina ma tana kai. Aere atu ra te tuakana ki te pae ki runga i te itinga o te ra; kua aere rava te tuakana i Marō-numa i te maunga kerekere roa ki uta rava. Kua noo a ia ki Marō-numa; e Puakaaoa te manu maata ki reira. Kua rave a ia i tetai Puakaaoa ei vaine nana, kua moe a ia ki taua Puakaaoa ra, ka apu mai ra, ka anau mai e tangata rai te tu; e iku rai to taua tamaiti. Kua nui akaou taua Puakaaoa ra, e maanga ka anau mai, e tamaine, e ofi tetai. Kua moe iora te tungane i te tuaine, anau mai ra e. Kua ki taua maunga ra. Ko te roa o taua tupuna no ratou e ā tapuae te roa.
E taua ngai ra kare e iti mai te ra, e po ua rai, e marama mea ngiti ua. Ka noo rai ki reira e kī takiri taua maunga ra. Kua kimi ratou i tetai ngai marama, kua piki ratou ki tetai rakau roa; te ingoa o taua rakau ra e Ulia. Kua piki ratou, te anau a taua tangata ra, kua pou roa ki te aere ki runga i taua Ulia ra, kua kite ratou i te ngai marama ki tai, kua akara atura kua tapiki iora, e ma'ea te ra, te tuatua ra te metua, “A pou mai ki raro.” Te aere ra te katoatoa o te anau, kua tapiki te metua, “A pou mai ki raro.” Kare i rongo mai. Kua tipu iora te Ulia kua inga ki raro te tumu o taua Ulia ra. Kua eke maira ki raro kua rave ake ra i ta ratou kai, te taro, te au kai katoa. Kua aere atu ra ki Kamari, kua noo iora ki reira, kua anau te tangata, e kī ake ra te enua ki a ratou. Aere atu ra tetai pae ki te itinga o te ra, kua noo aere e kī akera te enua i a ratou e pini ua ake te enua o Kalo, Kerepunu, Hula, Kalava, Keakalo, Pelilubu, Iluone (or Iluene), Kumukolo Tomala, Ulelevai, Mailu-kolo, Paoni, Kevaia, Ponaponalua, Suau, Samalai, Sauisisepe tae atu ra ki te pae apatokerau, Vanuga, Beponu, Kolelaki Anopala Makukuluna, e Neoka.
Teie oki te au mataiapo i anau ia e taua Hala-mabupu (sic, see ante) na; teie to ratou au ingoa:—
Ko te uanga tena o taua tangata ra kua kī te enua i a ratou.- 120
Nga ariki e noo mai nei e toru ia; tera tetai, Ilameha, ko te atua itolo ia, nona oki te marae, ona te ariki maata. Tera oki te rua ko Kalokana, ko tetai ariki ia. Tera oki tetai ko Ulemakule, no ratou te au i tei reira enua ko ratou tei maata i taua anai enua ra.
O te maata o te tuatua enua tei taku puka i vaoo atu i Nu Kini.
Na Maru i kiriti teie nei tuatua enua.
E orometua a ia no Papua.
[Translation of No. 1.]
AN ACCOUNT OF THE ANCESTORS OF PAPUA. (New Guinea.)
THIS is an account of the land of Papua. You (Rev. Wyatt Gill) will translate it into English; it is the account of my village at Kerepunu.
The first man of New Guinea, their ancestor, behold, I will disclose the story to you: The first man (or people) of that land was Hala-malubu (? Hala and Lubu); those two dwelt on the mountain at Taulama 2 with the younger brother. There were no other people in that land (at that time), but a Kanitilu and the Puaka-aoa (dog) were there, but no men. So that man and his wife and younger brother dwelt in the mountain at Taulama; they had no fire. They followed after the Owagi, which was the name of the Kanitalu (sic). They sought for means to light a fire for cooking purposes. Whilst they dwelt at that mountain, they saw a canoe (pāī, large canoe or vessel) sailing along in the ocean. Hala-malubu sent the Puaka-aoa (or dog) to that canoe; he went on board that canoe and saw the Tuku cooking food. He saw the fire with which the food was cooked, and stole some of it from that canoe. Then that Puaka-aoa (or dog) did dive off into the sea and swam ashore to his master.
The Tuku looked for the fire, but it had been stolen by that Puaka-aoa, He sought what he should do, but without avail, for it had been taken ashore by those men, who had gone under the sea, nor did they (the Tuku) find the way (or place) by which those men came. Behold! He came to the conclusion they came by (way of) Papa-uri and Papa-tea. 3- 121
The Papuans have no clear understanding about their first ancestors as to how they came there, when they dwelt on that mountain. So they used the fire stolen by that Puaka-aoa to cook with. They ate and were satisfied; then the elder brother said to the younger, “I will go and catch some fish for us!”
So the elder brother went off that night taking with him their fishing-net, whilst the younger brother and the elder's wife remained at their home. In the absence of the elder brother that night, the younger one took possession of the elder's wife. When the husband returned he asked for his pareu, or kilt, saying, “Give me my kilt.” The woman thought [her husband was suspicious?], so she asked, “Who art thou?” “It is I, Hala-malubu,” and then added, “Thou hast already taken me, and now thou must take me again.” He had come to the conclusion that his younger brother had taken his wife, so he drove him away to the western part, to the sunset, to Motumotu, 4 after dividing out between them their food, consisting of coco-nuts, arrowroot, uriia, taros, kapes (the giant taro), and bananas.
So the younger brother departed with his foods, whilst the elder brother went away to the east towards the rising sun, away as far as Marō-numa, to the very black mountain a long way inland. He settled down at Marō-numa, where there were great numbers of Puaka-aoa and birds (manu, which sometimes means animal). He took one of these Puaka-aoa as a wife, and dwelt with her; she conceived and a man was born, but the child had a tail. 5 The Puaka-aoa was pregnant again, and gave birth to twins—one was a girl, the other an ofi. 6 The brother cohabited with the sister and had offspring; and so that mountain became populated. The height of that ancestor (? Hala-malubu) was four footsteps (i.e., say, ten to eleven feet).
In that place the sun did not shine; it was always dark, the light was very little. They dwelt there until the mountain was quite full of people. They then sought for some place where there was more light, and therefore climbed up a tall tree, the name of which was an Ulia. The whole of the offspring of that man (? Hala-malubu) climbed up the Ulia, from whence they saw a clear (or light) place on the sea-shore; they looked and were deceived, thinking that the sun was up. The parent then said, “The whole of you come down,” but all the family went on; the parent again said, “All come down.” But they would not listen. So the Ulia was felled. When they came down they took their food, taros, and all other kinds, and went off to Kamari and dwelt there, where many were born, and the land was filled by them. From - 122 there some departed to the east, and settled here and there, until all the lands were occupied—Kalo, Kerepunu, Hula, Kalava, Keakalo, Pelilubu, Iluone (or Iluene), Kumukolo, Tomala, Ulelevai, Mailukolo, Paoni, Kevaia, Ponaponalua, Suau, Samalai, Sauisisepe, right away to the north side (of New Guinea) to Vanuga, Beponu, Kolelaki, Anopala, Makukuluna, and Neoka.
Here follow the names of the chiefs born from that Hala-mabupu (sic.); here are their names. [See the original. Apparently these are descendants from father to son; if so, these people count twenty-nine or thirty generations that they think they have dwelt in New Guinea.]
The relatives (descendants) of that man (Hala-mabulu) have filled the land.
The arikis, or chiefs, who dwell there now are three: Ilameha, which is the idol whose is the marae, with many of the arikis; the second is Kalokana; the third is Ulemakulu; and these three form the government and are the great ones of that land.
The greater part of the history is in my book which was left at New Guinea.
It was Maru who obtained this story of the land. He is a missionary of Papua.
No. 2. E TUATUA ENUA TAITO, I Papua.
30th December, 1871.
TERA te reo Rarotonga e tua; Aitutaki e tara-enua; Mangaia e tarana, Papua e kokiri (? koriri).
Tera e, nga tamariki kua mate nga metua; ko Viriki (ko Viri-kuto ainei) to te tuakana ingoa, ko Varakuto te teina. Kua noo vaine a Virikuto, tei te noo ua ra a Varakuto; kia tae i tetai ra kua aere a Virikuto ki te maunga (i te ‘rapana’ i te reo Papua) arumaki puaka, kua noo Varakuto e te vaine a te tuakana ki te ngutuare; kia tunu taua vaine i te kai, kare i angai i to raua teina. Kua pongi taua tamaiti; ei reira kua aere i uru arā i te maunga, kua kite a ia i tetai puruvea, ei reira kua kake a ia i taua pu ara, kua topa tai kaui ki raro, ei reira kua rongo te ovi i te aruru, ei reira kua kake taua ovi ki runga i te pu ara tei runga taua tamaiti ra. Kua kite taua ovi ra i taua tamaiti, kua ataitai taua ovi i taua tamaiti ki runga i taua pu ara.- 123
Kare te tuakana i kite mai. Kia oki te tuakana ki te ngutu-are kua ui, “E! Te ea ta taua teina?” Kua karanga te vaine, “Ka aere koe, ka aru atu i a koe i muri i to tua.” Kua tumatetenga a Virikuto i te teina, ko te maara ko te taia e te Koiari, koia te noo i runga i te au maunga, ko te nonoo (? uouo) ia i te ngangaere. Na ra kia tae a ia ki uta, kua aere a ia i te kimi aere, kia tae a ia i tetai ngai kua rongo a ia i te reo auē ma te pee. Ei reira kua kimi a ia kia vaitata atu, kua rongo tikai a ia i tona reo, kua aru viviki a ia, kua kite tera tei runga i te pu ara, kua tapekaia e te ovi, kua vaitata i te mate. Kua rave a ia, kua akaora i tona teina. Tei toua rima tona toki, kua tipu-pu a ia i taua ovi ra, kua mate te ovi, kua ora a Varakuto.
Kua oki mai raua ki te ngutuare; te noo ra taua vaine. Ei reira kua taia e te tane taua vaine, no te mea kua akakite a Varakuto kare taua vaine ra i angai i a Varakuto. Kua mate. Tera te pee a taua tamaiti:—
Au pē kerekere tori nui,
Ka vīri kutoe ka Varakuto e—
Tera i to tatou reo, kia kiriti io i taua pee ra.
Te rakau ra e ara
Tei reira au i reira
E taku tuakana,
Akaora i a au, akaora i a au,
E taku tuakana—e—
No. 3. NO TE TAENGA O TE ĀI KI PAPUA.
IMUATANGANA kare te aī i kitea ki Papua, ka tauraki ua ta ratou manga ki te ra, e kia maro ei reira ka kai ai ratou. Kia tae ra ki tetai tuatau kua kitea tetai pakau, kia po kua marama te pae rangi, e kia ao kua ngaro. Pera ua rai i te ao ma te po. Te tuatua ua ra te tangata, “E aa ra teia apinga?” Ei reira te tangata ma te manu kua apaoraa (? roa), “Ko ai to tatou ei aere ei kite no tatou e aa ra teia apinga.” Kua karanga te au manu ko ratou te aere; kua aere te puaka; kare i rauka, kua oki ua mai. Kua aru katoa te ovi, kare rai i rauka. Kua aere katoa te moko, te rupe, te makani, ko taua tu rai. Kua karanga te ‘sidia’—koia oki te kuri—ko Pou-varu te ingoa, ko ia tei aere. Kua aere a ia e tae atura a ia, ina! e rakatoi (Lakatoi in the Motu dialect of New Guinea)—koia oki te pai. Kua kite a ia i taua apinga, koia oki te aī; kia kite a ia ina! e pani tei runga i te aī. Kare a ia i kite e aa ra teia apinga, kua manako a ia e toka. Kia rave ra te tamaine i taua apinga ra, kua akapae ki vao, kua akara matariki taua kuri, ina! e kai te raveia mai no roto i taua pani. Kua va (? eva) ua taua kuri i tona kiteanga - 124 i te ravenga o te tunu kai. Kua riro tana i kite ei apii nana i te tangata.
E kia pou te kai, kua oki akaou, kua tunu akaou i taua pani ma te vai e taua kuri ki roto i taua pani. Kua akara tika taua kuri, kua mou rava i roto i tona ngakau. Na ra, kia aere taua tamaine i te pae ai kua tu taua kuri, kua opu i te komotu aī, kua rere ki raro i te tai, kua kau. Kia kite ra taua tamaine kua apanaia te aī, kua kapiki a ia, ki te metua vaine, “Kua peke te ai o te pai i te kuri!” Kua kite taua kuri i te ingoa o taua apinga e aī. Kua oki taua kuri ki uta i te enua ma te aī katoa i te apa katoaanga. Kia tae a ia ki uta kua ta'u i te aī, kua tunu i te kai, kua kai. Kua umere te tangata i taua pakau ra, i te mea kare ratou i kite ana; kua kite ratou i te meitaki o te aī, kua meitaki te kai, kua riro katoa mai te aī ei maanaana no ratou i te po ma te ao. Kia kite ratou i to te aī meitaki kua uipa katoa mai te tangata i te matakitaki i taua apinga ou i tupu i taua tuatau.
E kia tae i tetai popongi te putuputu ra te au manu i te pae aī; tei reira katoa taua kuri i te pae katoa o te aī. Kia kite ra te au manu katoa i te akama o taua uri (kuri) kua vai taakaua, kua maeva te au manu i te kata i te akama o taua uri (? kuri) mei tana moe tei te kata te katoatoa i a ia. Kua ui a ia, “E a'a ta kotou kata?” Kare tetai i aaki. Kia kite ra taua uri (? kuri) e te vai taka ua ra a ia, kua kite a ia e, nona ratou i kata ai. Kua tupu tona riri i a ratou, kua arumaki taua uri (? kuri) i te puaka e te au manu katoatoa. Kua oro te puaka i te maunga; te moko e te ovi kua oro ki roto i te pua-rakau, te au manu peau kua rere ki runga i te rakau. I noo ua ana te au manu katoa i te ngai okotai, kare e kino tetai ki tetai. Kia tupu ra taua kataanga i a te kuri, kua ke tetai ki tetai, mei te tuatua i a Adamu ka arai a ia, kua ke te au manu tetai ki tetai.
[Translation of No. 2.]
AN ANCIENT STORY OF THE LAND OF PAPUA. (New Guinea.)
(Dated 30th December, 1871, but no writer's name.)
[It is evident that this story and the following were collected from the people of New Guinea by one of the Rarotongan missionaries, and sent to Dr. Wyatt Gill. No. 3, below, is evidently a variant of the latter part of No. 1—the account of the origin of fire. There are a few words in these stories that are probably Papuan, and sometimes the writer's u cannot be distinguished from his n.]
IN Rarotongan this (kind of story) is called a tua; in Aitutaki a tara-enua; in Mangaia a tarana (or taraua); in Papua a kokiri (or koriri).- 125
There were two children whose parents were dead; Virikuto was the name of the elder, Varakuto that of the younger. The elder brother had a wife, the younger none. There came a certain day when Virikuto went to the mountains (rapana in the Papuan dialect) to chase animals. Varakuto and the woman remained at home; and when that woman cooked for herself she did not feed their younger brother. That child became very hungry, and then he started off on the way to the mountains; there he saw a puru vea (? some wild beast), so he climbed on to the stem of the pandanus. Then one of the fruit (Kaui? branch) fell to the ground, and a snake, hearing the sound, came and climbed up the tree where the boy was. Seeing the boy, he encircled him with his body on the pandanus tree.
The elder brother did not know of this. When he returned home and did not find the young lad, he asked, “O! Where is our younger brother?” The woman replied, “When you went, he proceeded after you behind your back.” Virikuto was much troubled at this because he thought his brother might be killed by the Koiari people, who live in the mountains and in the forests. When the elder brother reached inland he proceeded to search, and at a certain place he heard someone wailing and singing. He continued his search until he got closer and recognised his brother's voice, and he quickly followed up the sound, and then saw the younger brother up the pandanus tree, wound round by the snake and almost dead. He took him down and resuscitated him. He had in his hand his axe, and with it he slew the snake, which was killed, whilst Varakuto was saved.
They then returned home, where they found the woman. Then the husband killed the woman because Varakuto had told him that she did not give him food. She died. This is the song sung by the lad (see the original).
In our language it is thus translated:—
The tree there is a pandanus
I was there, O my brother,
Come and save me, come and save me,
O my elder brother!”
[The native writer then quotes Luke xix., 10: “For the Son of man came to seek and to save that which was lost.”]
[Translation of No. 3.]
THE ARRIVAL OF FIRE AT PAPUA.
IN former times no fire had been seen in Papua; the food of the people was hung in the sun, and when it was hard (or dry) it was - 126 eaten. At a certain time a pakau 7 came; in the night the edge of the heavens was clear, bright, and was lost as daylight appeared. It was the same both day and night. So men said, “What can this thing be?” Then men and birds consulted together, “Who of us will go and find out for us what this thing is?” The birds said they would go; the animals had gone and returned without success. Then the snake went; he did not succeed. After it the lizard, the dove, the makini, with the same result. Now said the “sidia”—which is the dog—whose name was Pou-varu, he would go. Off he went and arrived. Behold! a Lakatoi (the New Guinea sea-going canoe, three lashed together and decked. Laka=vaka=canoe; toi=toru=three), which means a pāī, or canoe. He there saw that thing which is the fire; and, behold, there was a cover over it, but he thought it was a rock (or stone). The young woman (? who was cooking) then took that thing on one side, and when the dog looked with astonishment, behold! there was food under the cover. The dog was delighted at having found out how to cook food. He took away the knowledge of the thing he had discovered to teach mankind.
After the food was eaten, they returned again and cooked more food in the pani (cover: probably means one of the earthenware pots of Papua), and the dog left some in the pot. The dog looked carefully at the method and stored it in his heart. Now when the young woman went away from the fireside, the dog arose and seized a fire-stick and jumped over into the sea and swam off. When the young woman saw the disturbance of her fire she said to her mother, “The fire of the canoe has fled with the dog!” The dog discovered the name of that thing was fire. So the dog returned ashore with the whole of the fire. When he got ashore he lit a fire, cooked some food and ate it. So all men cheered on account of that pakau, because they did not then know what it was; but now saw how useful was the fire, the food was good, and the fire was often used to warm themselves both day and night. When they had seen how useful the fire was, all men gathered together to admire this new thing discovered at that period.
After a time, at early morning, all the birds gathered at the fire-side; the dog was there by the side of the fire. When all the birds saw the satisfaction he enjoyed from it and his comfortable sleep, they shouted with laughter. The dog asked, “What are you all laughing at?” Not one replied, at which he concluded they were laughing at him. Then he grew very angry and ran after all the animals and the birds. The animals (puaka, a pig; used also for all animals) fled to the mountains; the lizard and the snake to the scrub; the birds of flight - 127 into the tree-tops. Formerly all the birds dwelt in one place and never quarrelled. After the laughter at the dog, each kind was a stranger to the other, “Since the time of Adam all have been strangers to one another.” [This last sentence is evidently added by the missionary.]
No. 4. A FEMALE HERMIT OF THE SOUTH PACIFIC.
THE island Atiu, in the Cook Group, is famous for its caverns, the largest of which is called Anataketake. To enter this vast temple of nature, it is necessary to descend about twenty feet through a chasm in the rocks, at the bottom of which are several majestic openings. Innumerable small birds breed in this cave. With the aid of flambeaux, it is possible to travel a mile underground amid its almost interminable windings. Water continually drips from the arched roof, which is from ten to fifteen feet thick, and is supported by superb columns of stalactite. From the glittering floor, which presents a wavy appearance, rise less attractive stalagmites. The fretwork ceiling sparkling in the light of torches is a sight never to be forgotten. A lake abounding in eels and shrimps occupies the centre.
The story of the discovery of the cave Anataketake is very romantic. A woman named Inutoto, being cruelly beaten by her husband, wished effectually to hide herself away. In looking about for a place of concealment she came upon this wonderful cavern, and lived there in utter solitude for many years. She found no difficulty in sustaining life. Her now repentant husband sought for her in vain, and then mourned for her as dead. Eventually a man in chase of a bird—the woodpecker—discovered the cave and then the hermit, who was thus restored to her husband Paroro. Her song, composed in the cave, has been carefully handed down by tradition, I subjoin:—
SONG OF INUTOTO, THE HERMIT.
No. 5. CONCERNING THE NAME UNGA FOR “SLAVE” AT RAROTONGA, SOUTH PACIFIC.
THE indigenous arrow-root plant (Tacca pinnatifida) of the South Pacific has one or two large tuberous roots, surrounded by many smaller ones. To the highly-imaginative native mind the large tubers symbolize the chief or chiefs; the smaller ones the landed proprietors owning allegiance to, and by blood related to, the chief or chiefs. But besides these, there are a great number of tiny tubers called unga, representing the serfs, or “little people” (tangata rikiriki) as they are often called, i.e., people of no account whatever!
The correctness of this interpretation is evidenced by the Raro-tongan phrase for ‘dust’—ungaungā=one, literally “grains of earth.” Again, in the Rarotongan Bible (Matt. XV., 29, and Mark VII., 28) for ‘crumbs’ we have ungaungā kai, literally “grains of food.” In these phrases the plural is made by repeating the noun unga=grain. The underlying idea is that the slave (unga) is but an insignificant - 129 grain or unit, that in the nature of things can never rise to anything great. And such is really the teaching and condemnation of heathenism—compelling the many to be slaves for ever; whilst the favoured few are to enjoy all good things. And this by a supposed divine appointment! In India this notion has, through the astute intellect of their sages, developed into the iron system of caste.
In the Pacific, as elsewhere, sometimes the offspring of a slave-woman married to a high chief inherits the father's titles and power.
The word unga in Rarotongan also signifies “hermit-crab.” Some of the younger natives imagine when using the word unga in the sense of ‘slave,’ that there is a sly allusion to the well-known habits of the hermit-crab—the slave living in a home belonging to another! But the elder natives were too accurate observers to overlook the important circumstance that the hermit-crab appropriates the forsaken shell of another, whereas the slave enjoys the protection of the land owner, or chief, to whom he consequently owes allegiance and service. I regard this explanation as extremely modern, although very ingenious.
This explanation was many years ago authoritatively given me by Maretu, the clever and much respected pastor of Nga-tangiia, Rarotonga. He observed that the simile equally applies to the Teve plant (Amorphophallus campanulatus) of the islands. The ‘chats’ (karoi) of the Teve plant represent the serfs (unga).
[In Maori, Taro-puia-nui, a many-rooted taro, is applied to the numerous family of two parents, in which is embodied much the same idea as Dr. Gill illustrates. In Niuē Island, unga is also the land crab, and the name was at one time applied to slaves. In Maori, hunga means the people.—Editor.]
No. 6. A SONG FROM MANGAIA ISLAND, COOK GROUP.
A FAREWELL (vee) chanted at a reed-throwing match in memory of Vaiana. Composed by her husband Naupata, in 1824. Women only at this match.
It is pleasing to reflect that the composer of this “farewell” became a devoted disciple of the Lord Jesus, and after many years of consistent profession died in the faith. Her son died about two years ago after a long profession of the name of Christ.
The references to the state of the dead are interesting, and very plain proof that the heathen fully believed in the grand doctrine of the immortality of the soul.
About ninety years ago a grand funereal dramatic representation (eva) was performed for a warrior named Tuapapa, in which an allusion occurs to this tragedy, which took place many generations before.
Pray, have some respect for me,
Oh, Ngauta, make some peaceful settlements.
Warrior Chief Ngauta.
What can I say to please thee?
Say what I may, still thou wilt plot
To cleave this poor skull of mine.
If thou be a mighty warrior,
Be revenged for those miserably buried in yonder taro patch—
Darest thou attempt that?
Tiauru (foaming now with rage).
To me, that were but child's play?
Here am I; here am I;
Who dare stop me? Who shall save thy black skull?
My club shall bespatter thy brains!
Notwithstanding all Tiauru's boastings, he and his clan were miserably slain by Ngauta, and their bodies trampled down in a neighbouring swamp, where excellent eels are caught. This was doubtless an imitation of the prowess of Oue and Pauoko not many years previously.
No. 7. E TUATUA NO TE TUPUANGA O MAUKE. November 4th, 1882.
KO Atea te katiri o te au mea katoatoa. Ko Atea ka noo i te vaine, i a Păpăroa-i-te-itinga; anau ta raua ko Te Tumu:—
E Te Tumu e! neke mai,
Kare au e neke atu,
Ko Te Tumu au no te enua.
Ko Te Tumu ka noo i te vaine i a Păpă-i-te-opunga, anau ta raua ko Tumu-te-nekeneke.
E Papa e! neke mai,
Kare au e neke atu,
E Papa au no te enua.
Uke-umu o te vaarua kino. Kua tae mai ki te ao nei, kua tangata. Kua noo a Uke i te vaine, i a Te Puai-angauta, anau ta raua ko:—
Na raua i katiri te tangata i Mauke e Atiu. E tangata Atiu a Tura, e kua aere mai a ia ki Mauke nei e rave i tetai tamaine a Uke, i a Tara-matie-toro. Anau ta raua ko:—
E toko-ono to te pō mai; e 25 păpă-uki tangata mei i a Uke mai e tae ua mai ki a Pare-pora.
[Translation of No. 7.]
A WORD ABOUT THE GROWTH (HISTORY) OF MAUKE ISLAND. November 4th, 1882.
[We do not know who this brief history was written by, but it is one of the papers in Dr. Wyatt Gill's collection, and was probably due to one of the teachers on the island. Mauke is one of the Cook Group of islands, situated about one hundred and fifty miles N.E. by East from Rarotonga. The following is a brief history, which shows that the island was first occupied by Tara-matie-toro and her husband Tura twenty-six generations ago, or about the year 1250 (i.e., by allowing twenty-five years to a generation). It is, however, scarcely safe to trust to only one line for a date. This was an important period in Polynesian history, for, if the genealogical table is correct, Tura would have been a contemporary of Tangiia-nui and Karika, under whom Rarotonga received large accessions to its population from Samoa and Tahiti; and it was at this time Iro (Whiro in New Zealand Maori) also flourished and made some of his noted voyages in the Pacific, on one of which Tura was his companion to the island of Vavau (either the island of that name in the Tonga Group, or Porapora of the Society Group, the old name of which was Vavau—probably the former). It is not at present certain if this Tura is the same as mentioned in New Zealand and Rarotongan histories, though the period agrees well. It was at this period also that a great unrest appears to have overtaken the Eastern Polynesians, which led them to extend their settlements to many new islands, and a century afterwards brought large accessions to the population of New Zealand.
The dialect in which this short history is expressed is Rarotongan.]
A TEA was the “spreader” (or creator) of all things. Atea dwelt with a woman named Păpăroa-i-te-itinga (Paparoa of the sunrise) and there was born to them Te Tumu; thus:—- 136
“Oh Te Tumu, O! Draw near!
I will not approach thee,
For I am Te Tumu (the origin) of the land.”
Te Tumu dwelt with the woman Păpăroa-i-te-opunga (Paparoa at the sunset), and there was born to them Tumu-te-nekeneke, whose song, or “saying”, is:—
“Oh Papa. O! Draw near!
I will not approach thee,
For I am the Papa (foundation) of the land.”
This was Uke-umu of the “evil pit” (? Hades). He came to this world, and became a man. Uke dwelt with the woman Puai-angauta, and there was born to them:—
It was these two who spread the population of Mauke and Atiu Islands. Tura was a man from Atiu who came to Mauke to take one of Uke's daughters, Tara-matie-toro, as a wife. They had:—
(See the original for their descendants.)
“There are six of these names from the Po (or ages of darkness—ages of the gods), and twenty-five generations from Uke down to Parepora” (to which two are added to bring the table down to the year 1900).
No. 8. E PARAU TUPUNA NO TO MATOU FENUA, NO RURUTU. 9
EIAHA ra oe e inoino mai i a'u aita i hope ia a'u te parau i nia i to matou fenua.
O vau, o Maru, tei iriti i teie nei parau tupuna, no Papatea, o Papa-uri. No Avaii mai raua, i imi mai i to raua teina, Te-Ahiri. Ua rave a'era o Tute i te ra'au faaite-fenua, ua puto ihora i te va'a, Tau-tara, i raro i te tai, e imi ia Te-Ahiri i Aunu'u, i Manureva, e i Aomai-te-ra'i, te imira'a i taua teina ra.
Mai Avai'i mai, haere atu rai ô ia e te va'a mataeinaa ra i Ra'iatea, i te outu ra i Opoa, patu ihora i te marae, mairi ihora i te i'oa o Torea, ua ta'i te manu i te outu, i Torea, e tore tea.- 137
Taparahi ihora i te ari'i e pau a'era, haere atura i Huahine, fa'a-fanau ihora i te tamaiti, vaiho ihora i reira. Patu ihora i te marae, mairi ihora i te i'oa o Mau'a-tapu. Taparahi ihora i te ari'i, e pau a'era, hi'o atu i te rā; a'ita i au te hitira'a mai o te mahana.
Ua haere atura i Tahiti, patu ihora i te marae o Mahai-atea; fa'afanau ihora i te tamaiti, vaiiho ihora i reira. Taparahi ihora i te ari'i e pau a'era. Haere atura ra i Pa'umotu e Ma'areva (Mangareva), Rapa-rahi (Rapa-nui), Rai-vavae, Tama'i. Aita ana'e ia mau fenua i au ia ora.
Haere atura i Rurutu, hi'o atura i tai i te Hau-o-te-matea, ua hiti mai te mahana na tai mau i te ava; itea ihora te teina i reira. Ua patu ihora i te marae, ia Taura'a-arii.
Haere atura oia i ni'a i te mou'a, e mairi ihora i te i'ora o taua mou'a ra, o Manu-reva. Ua parau ihora, “O ta'u fenua teie, ei onei au.” Taparahi ihora i te ari'i, e pau a'era, faaea ihora oia i reira, faafanau ihora i te ta'ata e ī a'era te fenua, ia Amai-te-ra'i. Fa'aea ihora i reira e pohe atura i reira.
Aita atura e parau no to matou fenua, area te rahi o te parau tupuna, te vai atura ia i te feia i ha'api'ihia i te parau tahito.
[In Rarotongan dialect.]Na koe e Gilirua (Dr. Wyatt Gill) e akataka meitaki i tena tuatua o mua, kare oki i taka meitaki ki aku. Me tae au ki te enua ki Rurutu a kiritia e au i tetai tuatua enua mau.
[Translation of No. 8 by Miss Teuira Henry.]
ANCESTRAL RECORDS CONCERNING OUR ISLAND RURUTU.
[Miss Teuira Henry, of Tahiti, has been kind enough to translate the foregoing for us. It is the account of the doings of some people in ancient times, who finally settled in Rurutu Island. Miss Henry justly points out that the boastful alleged conquest of parts of Ra'iata, Huahine, and Tahiti, is unlikely, and not corroborated by the people of those islands. But for all that the story points to a migration from Avai'i (probably Savai'i) to the eastern islands, and their final settlement on Rurutu.
Miss Henry also points out that Mau'a-tapu, at Huahine Island, is not a marae, but a hill—as indeed the name indicates. She says, “Maha'i-atea on the western side of Tahiti, was one of the oldest maraes on the island, the chief corner-stone having been laid, it is said in old traditions, by Rua-hatu, the Tahitian Neptune, just after the flood, and it was dedicated to the god Ta'aroa before Tane and Oro came into power here. . .” Both places are mentioned in the narrative below.
The position of Rurutu island will be seen on our chart. Moerenhout say it is about fifteen miles in circuit, and can be seen at twenty-five miles distant. It is very difficult to land on, and affords no shelter for vessels. The Admiralty chart says it is 1,300 feet in height.]- 138
BUT do not feel vexed with me for not completing the history of our island.
I, Maru (Shade), am compiling this history of our ancestors, concerning Papa-tea (White rock), and Papa-uri (Dark-rock), who came from Avai'i, in search of their younger brother Te-Ahiri (Over-shadowed).
Tute (Push-away) took rollers and launched the canoe, Tau-tara (Enchantments) to go in search of Te-Ahiri. They sought for him at Aunu'u, Manu-reva, and at Ao-mai-te-ra'i.
Hailing from Avai'i, they went to the clans of Ra'iatea, to the point of Opoa, and there they built a marae and named it Torea (Plover). The birds sang at Torea—they had light stripes.
They slew the king, and when that was done, they went to Huahine, and there was born to them a son, whom they left there. They built a marae and named it Maua-tapu (Sacred-mountain). Then they slew the king, and when that was done, they looked towards the east, and found that the sun had not risen to where they wished it.
They went to Tahiti, and built the marae Maha'iatea (Extensive mitigation), and there was born to them a son, whom they left there. They slew the king, and when that was done, they went to the Pa'umotus, to Ma'areva (the Tahitian for Mangareva), to Rapa-rahi (Rapa-nui), and to Ra'ivavae. They fought, and none of those islands were allowed to escape.
Then they went to Rurutu, and looked over the sea, Te-hau-o-te-matea, just as the sun was rising outside of the harbour, and there they found the younger brother; and they built the marae Tauraa-ari'i (Alighting-of-the-king).
They went up on to a mountain, and named it Manu-reva (Bird-of-space); and they exclaimed, “This is my land, I shall stay here.” Then they slew the king, and when that was done, they remained there.
Then were people born, and the land was filled (with inhabitants); and they lived and died there.
There is nothing more to say about our island, but the most of the history of our ancestors remain with those who have been taught ancient history.
No. 9. ATTEMPT OF A TUPUA'I WARRIOR TO CAPTURE RURUTU ISLAND.
“TE Matauira was a warrior of Tupua'i island, and Ututoa was a brave of Rurutu island. Matauira came to Rurutu to have a - 139 look at the kind of men that lived there, but he saw no one who had the appearance of a warrior. He asked, ‘Are all the people of Rurutu now here?’ The people replied, ‘Not so! There is one man named Uturoa who is absent. He is the warrior.’
So Matauira returned home to Tupua'i, where he arranged for a war-party to accompany him, and then returned to Rurutu, with the purpose of making war on the people, his desire being to take possession of the island. On their arrival, and whilst on the beach, the Rurutu warrior heard of their coming, so he seized his weapon and came to meet the foe from Tupua'i. He came on and on until he reached the place where the warrior from Tupua'i stood, out in an open place. As soon as the warrior from Tupua'i saw him he said, ‘E poaraa ra na Te Inauri,’ who was his mother (this is apparently expressed in Tahitian, and seems to mean, ‘He is covered with Hinauris' scales’). 10 He likened that Rurutu warrior to a fish of the sea; it was a deprecatory remark of his.
“They commenced a combat, but the warrior of Tupua'i did not succeed in overcoming his enemy. Ututoa, the Rurutu warrior, then returned to his mother, who asked, ‘Have you overcome that warrior?’ He replied, ‘I was not able to do so.’ So his mother explained to him a method by which the Tupua'i warrior might be conquered. He was to make a pit, and when finished he was to take ropes and make a net like a spider's web, and spread it over the mouth of the pit, then cover the pit with bushes so the warrior should not see it. When this was done, two men were sent to invite the Tupua'i warrior to come inland.
So he came on and on till near the pit where the two men occupied the warrior's attention so that he should not see the pit; then the warrior's legs slipped into the pit, he was caught in the net, and there he died. This man, Te Matauira, was two fathoms high! i.e., twelve feet!”
(Tupua'i island is about 110 miles S.E. of Rurutu island, and forms one of a group of four islands—Tupua'i, Rurutu, Rimatara, and Ravavae (or Vavitao)—forming the Austral Group, south-east of Rarotonga—see chart.)
No. 10. KO TE TERE A UENGA KI TE PA-ENUA.
KO Uenga te tangata i aere na te pa-enua; no Avaiki taua tangata ra; e ariki taua tangata ra. Ko Tauira-ariki-te-aio tona metua.- 140
Tera te tu o tona aerenga na te pa-enua; mei Avaiki atu, ki Tonga; mei Tonga ki Vavau; mei Vavau te oki atu ra ki Avaiki, kare i tae, kua rokoia e te matangi ki te moana; i na raro mai te matangi. Puia atu ra te vaka, kare e enua i kitea.
E, kia akara nga atua i te rangi—a Rongo-ma-Tane—te tangi ra nga atua ki te ariki e te vaka tangata i reira. Kua aere mai a Tonga-iti kua arataki ki te enua. Mei reira kua aere atura ki Tonga-reva; mei Tonga-reva ki Rima-tara; mei Rima-tara ki Otu—koia a Rurutu; mei Otu ki Tupuai. Kua pu te ai ki reira; mei Tupuai ki Akaau ki Te Pau-motu; mei reira ki Tahiti; kua noo ki te tapere ko Puna-āuia, kua anau te pa tangata ki reira.
E, kia noo taua ariki ra, a Uenga, ki Tahiti i Puna-āuia, kua topaia tona ingoa ko Ruatea. Anau ta Ruatea ko Tangiia-ariki, kua aere a ia i nga tamaine a Te Ika-moe-ava. Anau ta Tangiia ko Kau-kura, anau ta Kau-kura ko Pou-vananga-roa, anau ta Pou-vananga-roa ko Tangiia; ko taua Tangiia tei tae mai ki Rarotonga nei. E Tangiia ko Tangiia-a-Ruatea, e ko Tangiia-a-Pou-vananga-roa ko tei tae mai ia ki Rarotonga nei, no te tamaki a raua ko te tuakana, ma Tu-tapu. Ko Tangiia tei mua e tona au tangata ra ki te enua nei. Kua tae mai a Tu-tapu i reira, kua tamaki, ta raua tamakianga kua mate a Tu-tapu i a Tangiia.
E, kia oti taua tamaki ra, kua akatu a Tangiia i te raui, aua ei tamaki; ko te au rai ïa e tae ua mai ki a Runanga; e tama nana a Rongo-oi. I tupu i a ia te tamaki i Rarotonga nei e tae ua mai ki te mataiti 1823, ko te tuatau ïa i peke ei te au o Satani; e mei reira mai te tupuanga o te evangeria o Iesu e teia noa ai.
[Translation of No. 10.]
THE VOYAGE OF UENGA TO SEVERAL ISLANDS.
UENGA was a man who went to many islands; he was from Avaiki (in this case, Savai'i of the Samoan Group); he was a high chief there. Tauira-ariki-te-aio was his father.
The following is the description of his voyages: From Avaiki to Tonga (480 miles 11 S.S.E.), from there to Vavau (in the Tonga Group, 150 miles N.N.E.), from Vavau he was returning to Avaiki, but did not reach there, for he was overtaken by a gale on the ocean, which - 141 blew from the west. The canoe was blown away before it, and they saw no land.
Now when the gods in the heavens—Rongo-ma-Tane and others—saw this, they felt compassion for the chief and the crew of the canoe. Tongaiti came down and led them to the land (probably Savai'i is meant, if so, this would be, say, perhaps, 400 miles). From there he sailed to Tongareva (Penrhyn Island, about 900 miles N.E.); from there he went to Rimatara (780 miles S.S.E.), and from there he sailed to Otu, or Rurutu Island (70 miles E.N.E.); from Otu he went to Tupuai (120 miles S.E.); from Tupuai he sailed to Akaau (or Fakaau, 12 or Niau, or Greig Island of the Paumotu Group, 480 miles N.N.E.); from Akaau to the Paumotu Islands, (as the particular names are not given the distance cannot be stated); from Paumotu he went to Tahiti (the distance from Fakaau to Tahiti is 195 miles W.S.W.); and there he settled in the district of Puna-āuia (on the extreme west side of Tahiti), where many descendants were born to them.
When that chief, Uenga, lived at Puna-āuia in Tahiti, his name was changed to Ruatea. 13 Ruatea's son was Tangiia-ariki, who went (to the Paumotus, to Fakaau) to marry the daughters of Te Ika-moe-ava. 14 Tangiia's son was Kau-kura, whose son was Tangiia-nui. One Tangiia was a son of Ruatea, the other a son of Pou-vananga-roa, and it was the second one who came to Rarotonga on account of the war with his cousin Tu-tapu. Tangiia and his people arrived first to this country, and when Tu-tapu followed him they fought their battles, in which Tu-tapu was killed by Tangiia.
After this war, Tangiia promulgated an edict (against further war); and this peace lasted down to the times of Runanga, whose son was Rongo-oi. Under him wars again commenced in Rarotonga, and continued down to 1823; which was the period that the kingdom of Satan departed, and from then grew the Gospel of Jesus Christ down to the present time.
(It will be seen from our Chart, on which the route is shown, that - 142 the total length of this voyage, or voyages, for probably Uenga stayed at the several islands for some time to refresh himself and crew and make the necessary repairs to the canoe, is 3,575 miles without counting in that part of his voyage through the Paumotu Group, for which there are no particulars. This shows the extent of the voyages made by these able navigators; but it is exceeded by that of Tangiia-nui, who, so far as can be made out, sailed from the Eastern Pacific back to Indonesia, and returned by way of Uea and the Fiji Group. Uenga's voyage occurred in the twelfth, and Tangiia's in the thirteenth century. The descent from Uenga or Ruatea, as given above, does not agree with that of Te Ariki-tara-are's account, though many of the names are found in both histories. Probably the latter is the more correct of the two.
The account given above is addressed to the Rev. Thos. Chalmers—whose Rarotongan name was Tamati, i.e., Thomas—and as he went to New Guinea in 1877, the paper is prior to that date.)
For historical purposes we may as well give another genealogical table relating to Uenga, also to be found in Dr. Wyatt Gill's papers, of which the following is the translation: “This is a genealogical account back from Avaiki (Savai'i Samoa); the first man (of those times) was:—
The latter's home was at Tongareva (Peurhyn Island), where he had a marae named Tuarea, and hence is the name Tuarea in Rarotonga. The meaning of the name Tuarea is from two men, one (the first) of whom made a food-oven, and when he had cooked the food he invited the second man to partake. After this the second man cooked some food and invited the first man to partake of his food, and from that time the name Tuarea originated, in the Rarotonga dialect. (It is not very obvious what the connection is.)
Rira (or Riri)
Tangiia-nui, who settled in Rarotonga.”
(Comparison with the table at the end of “Hawaiki” will show that it agrees very nearly with the above, except that Maono is not - 143 there shown to be the father of Tangiia-nui, whilst Pou-ananga-roa is, or, rather, is his adopted father.)
The following is translated from the same papers in reference to Tangiia-nui's son Motoro, who is an ancestor of the Mangaia people as shown by Dr. Wyatt Gill in his “Savage Life.” 15
“This is the account of Motoro as explained by Te Ariki-tara-are: Motoro was a son of Tangiia-nui, his mother being Moe-tuma, the second wife—the first wife being Aki-tope-ara. The first wife's son was Pou-te-anuanua; the third wife of Tangiia was Puatara, whose son was Te Rei; Tangiia had three wives and three sons.
The first wife, Aki-tope-ara, was from Tahiti; the second, Moe-tuma, was from Mauke Island; and the third, Pua-tara, was the younger sister of Moe-tuma, by the same father. Tangiia came from Tahiti to Mauke and there married Moe-tuma and her sister. He then voyaged to Mangaia Island and stayed there some time with his son Motoro. After a time Tangiia left Mangaia and came to Rarotonga, leaving Motoro at Mangaia. Later on, Tangiia grieved for his son, and he therefore sent messengers to fetch Motoro; one was a pepe,* the other a Mu'u, 16 or a Iriano, according to the Mangaians. The pepe was a real pepe; and those two birds (manu, which also means an insect) brought Motoro to Rarotonga. Hence is the chiefly name of Tinomana, 17 so given on account of the mana (or super-human power) of those two birds (? insects) in bringing Motoro through the space (reva, the atmosphere; space between the sky and the earth). Motoro was not brought here in a canoe, but through the space above.
Motoro's sons were Tama-iva, the eldest; Uanuku, the youngest. Tama-iva had Tupu-ariki, and Uanuku's son was Tino-mana.”
(In all of these ancient traditions we must expect to find them coloured by the marvellous; but generally the true historical part can be separated. We may suggest, perhaps, that the origin of the flight of the Pepe and the Mu'u is that they were blown away from Rarotonga to Mangaia, and being recognised as strangers to Mangaia, their arrival was considered as a message from the father to the son. The belief in the supernatural pervaded all Polynesian life.)- 144
NO. 11. TUANAKI, THE LOST ISLAND.
IN Maretu's autobiography with Dr. Wyatt Gill's papers, is an account by a native named Soma of his visit to the sunken island of Tuanaki.
The first notice of this island in print is, we think, the brief mention in the Rev. Wm. Gill's “Gems of the Coral Islands,” Vol. II., p. 73. Mr. Gill (who is not to be confounded with Dr. Wyatt Gill) says: “Early in 1844, a little schooner came (to Rarotonga) from Rurutu, an island in the Tahitian (read Austral) Group. Under the direction of the Rev. G. Platt, it had been sent in search of an island called Tuanaki, known by tradition in all the islands of our group, but yet undiscovered (by Europeans). It is asserted to be situated not more than two hundred miles to the south or south-west of Rarotonga, and is said to consist of three low islands, within one reef, and to be thickly inhabited. Prior to the arrival of the Rurutu vessel, we had heard much of this island, and had taken a voyage of a week hoping to have seen it. 18 Two native sailors had seen the island at different times, when on board whaling vessels, one of whom had intercourse with the people. He said, that ‘they exactly resembled the Mangaians in person, dress, and customs; that they had heard of the overthrow of idolatry on Rarotonga and Mangaia, and that they were waiting, with expectation, some foreign teachers to visit them.’ That such an island exists, there seems to be no doubt, and that it is comparatively near to the Hervy (now called Cook) Group is confirmed by all reports, but of its exact position we can gain no certain information. The natives are, however, quite sure it will be found, and often pray for means to commence a voyage of discovery.” This was written in 1865.
When at Rarotonga in 1897, we learnt from old Tamarua, of Nga-Tangiia, that in ancient times communication was not infrequent between Rarotonga and Tuanaki. He mentioned in reply to questions that about the time the fleet of canoes called in at Rarotonga on their way to New Zealand (circa 1350), that “A canoe named ‘Raupo’ also left this island, but she went in another direction, (to New Zealand) to Tuanaki. Kaka-tu-ariki was the captain of the ‘Raupo.’ His friend Tiare stole ten bundles of ataroroi (coco-nut, cooked in a certain fashion), and hence he left for Tuanaki”—see ‘Hawaiki,’ 3rd edition, p. 277. Again the old man said to us when asked about the ‘Mamari’ canoe, in which the ancestors of the Nga-Puhi tribe of North New Zealand migrated thither, ‘Yes, I know the name of ‘Mamari’ as that of a canoe which left these shores long, long ago. She went to - 145 some place in the direction of Tuanaki, and did not come back so far as I ever heard. I know nothing more about her.” (Loc. cit., p. 279.) We learnt from Tamarua that Tuanaki was supposed to lie south from Rarotonga, and that their ancestors used to visit the island. It took them two days and a night to reach it. The late Judge J. A. Wilson told the writer that “a trading vessel from Auckland used, at one time in the forties, to visit an island, the exact position of which was kept secret. But on a subsequent visit it had disappeared”—probably this was Tuanaki.
There is no such island anywhere in the localities indicated, so that it is no doubt correct to say that the island has disappeared, due, probably, to some volcanic disturbance; but there is a shoal in latitude 27° 30”, which is about three hundred and sixty miles south of Rarotonga (see our chart), a distance their canoes would sail over in about the time mentioned. Lieut. Coin. Gudgeon, C.M.G., late Government Resident at Rarotonga, tells us that “Old John Mana-a-rangi had seen some of the people of Tuanaki. I do not think it disappeared more than seventy years ago.”
We now come to the translation of part of Maretu's autobiography:—“When the ship of Williams, junior (son of Rev. John Williams), came to Rarotonga, Katuke and Ngatae were appointed to go with the ship to search for Tuanaki Island. I told Messrs. Buzacott and Pitman that I wished to go with them to carry the Gospel to the island. Mr. Bazacott replied, ‘Do not think of it. Go direct to Mangaia, and when you arrive the ship will go on to search for Tuanaki.’
“The ship sailed for Aitutaki, and on our arrival we found there a man named Soma, 19 who had been ashore three months from a ship. He told us he had seen Tuanaki. The Missionaries and the captain were sent for to meet Soma, who said, ‘Two years have passed since I saw that island. We went thither by way of Rurutu Island, and when we found it, our captain searched for the entrance (ava, a channel into the lagoon, or through the reef), and then lowered a boat into which he descended—there were six of us, the captain making seven. When we got ashore we found no one about on the beach, so the captain said to me, ‘Go inland and search for the people. If you find them return here.’ The captain then gave me a sword to take with me. When I reached some way inland, I saw a house which was full of men—it was the house of the ariki, or high chief. The chief asked me, ‘Whence do you come? From Araura?’ 20 I replied, ‘Yes!’ ‘Come inside the house!’ So I went inside; there were none but men there, no women, as they have a separate house. After - 146 I had sat down, the chief asked again, ‘Do you come from Araura,’ to which I replied, ‘I came from Araura’—for that is their name for Aitutaki. ‘A! Where is the captain of your ship?’ I told him he was with the boat. ‘He is afraid, lest you should kill him!’ ‘We do not kill men; we only know how to dance (ura) and sing; we know nothing of war.’
“I then returned to the captain who asked, ‘How is it?’ ‘They are all there in a house.’ ‘Why do they stay there?’ I replied, ‘I do not know.’ The captain now went inland (with me) taking with him some scissors, axes, and head-dresses, and then entered the house, and presented the articles to the chief. The captain asked the chief his name; he replied, ‘Maeva-rua; Tuikura is my name from Raro-tonga.’ The captain and I slept there that night, whilst the boat returned to the ship, taking some food, fowls, pigs, yams and bananas. We were six days ashore there.”
Mr. Gill asked Soma, “What are the people like?” “They are exactly like us (Soma was an Aitutakian). Their water is scraped up in a bowl, or in a leaf of the giant taro. Their dialect is that of Mangaia, and they wear the tiputa (or poncho), and use the same kind of fans as at Mangaia.… It takes only one night (and day) to reach Tuanaki from Mangaia.”
After leaving Aitutaki the vessel of Williams, junr., went to Mangaia, where Maretu was seized with a serious illness, but he persisted in his determination to visit Tuanaki, with the intention of introducing the Gospel to its people. Mr. and Mrs. Gill sailed in the vessel with Maretu towards Tuanaki. Maretu says, “When evening came on the boom of our vessel was broken in two; it was brought in board, and at midnight the after mast broke. During that night my illness much increased, and the next day Mr. Gill said to me, ‘You are indeed very ill! We are now not far from Rarotonga and we will return there.’ But on the following day we made Mangaia, &c., &c.”
Thus their attempt to find Tuanaki failed, through a gale no doubt, though Maretu does not mention the wind. As far as can be made out this voyage in Williams junior's ship was made in 1844. But Maretu, like most Maori writers, is very sparing in his quotation of the years, though the months and days are frequently mentioned—this is a characteristic feature of Polynesian narratives. Trifling as this notice of Tuanaki is, it is the only information we know about the lost island.- 147
NO. 12. KO TE TERE I A TE ERUI E MATAREKA KI TE PA-ENUA I RARO.
TERA tetai tuatua no te kapuaanga ia o Aitutaki e tona uanga tangata, tona tupuna:—
I te tuatau i tae mai ei a Te Erui e Matareka mei Avaiki mai, kua aere raua e tā aere i te pa-enua. E toa raua; kua tā raua i te Atu-Iti e te Atu-Tonga; kua tā raua i Te Tai-kura e Te Tai-toto, kua tā raua i a Puto-kura e Avaava-rāi. Kua aravei raua e to raua atua, e Te Rongo, ki tetai enua; te kapiki aere uara i te moana e, “E Aitutaki! e Araura!” Kia rongo a Te Rongo i te reo kapiki o te enua, kua akakite a ia ki ona taura, “E Te Erui! e Matareka! E enua to tatou, teia e tuoro ua nei te reo.” Kua ui raua ki a ia, “E Akapeea?” Tera ta to raua atua, “E noo korua i konei kia ano au kia akamouia te pito ki Vaerota e Avaiki.” Aere atura a Te Rongo ki Avaiki; e kia mou te pito, kua oki mai a ia; kua tuki te ava; kua ngaa, kua tapā i te ingoa ko Te Avatapu i Rua-kakau i Avaiki.
Kua uru te pāī ki uta, kua ki te enua i te taae a Tangaroa. Te karakia ra a Te Rongo ki a Tangaroa, te akatopa maira a Tangaroa i te ua ei tatai i te taae ki tua. Kia uru maira te pāī, teia mai te taae, te tāia maira e te vai. Kua tā raua, e mata ia; tera tona ingoa ko Mokoroa—e moko ia taae.
Tae atu ki roto teia mai tetai taae, ko Katotiae. Kua mate ia; tae atu ki uta teia a Uika, tetai taae ia, e veritara. Kua mate ia, kua tae ki runga i te enua, kua anga i te kainga noo ko Pariki—tera te aiteanga ko te tupati-ariki mei i a Te Erui mai e tae uaatu ki te au uki ravarai. Kua anga i te vai-inu ko Vai-maru—tera te aiteanga, ko te maru o Te Rongo.
Tera te anauanga mei Avaiki mai e tae ua mai ki Aitutaki e teia noa'i; To Avaiki mai:—
Kua aro ki te ao mei Avaiki:—
Kua tae ki Aitutaki i teia nei.
Anau ta Matareka ko:—
Kua tae ki te oonuanga i te tuatua na Te Atua ki Aitutaki nei, mei te mataiti 1821 e tae ua mai nei ki te 1879 nei i te marama nei ko Julai, i te ra 7, 1879.
Mei a Te Eva mai e tae ki a Tapakau-nui-tuavaru e 33 uki tangata. Mei a Tapakau-nui-tuavaru mai e tae ki a Ekakea e 28 uki tangata, katoatoa e 61 uki. Tera ua ia uanga tangata.
[Translation of No. 12.]
THE VOYAGES OF TE ERUI AND MATAREKA TO THE WESTERN ISLANDS, AND SETTLEMENT ON AITUTAKI ISLAND.
[Dr. Wyatt Gill notes that Rupe was a very intelligent man, who resided at Aitutaki Island in the times when the old “wise men” were alive. He considers this to be an important contribution to the history of Aitutaki Island. We are equally interested in the voyages made by the two brothers, which further illustrates the fact that these ancient Polynesians knew, and were in the habit of visiting, most of the islands of the Pacific south of the line.
A more detailed account of To Erui's settlement on Aitutaki Island will be found in Vol. IV., p. 65, of the ‘Journal of the Polynesian Society,’ where his struggle with the original inhabitants is described. Again, Major J. T. Large, in Vol. XII., p. 144, of the same Journal, gives a fine genealogical table of the original inhabitants, which, however, of course, does not include Te Erui and his migration. If the foregoing table is correct, it makes Te Erui to have settled at Aitutaki about the year 1150, or in the period of Toi-te-huatahi, who came from Tahiti about that time and settled in New Zealand. As is usual, the marvellous enters into this story; as for instance the interview of Te Erui with his god Te Rongo. Vaerotā is some island north-west of the Fiji Group, but which one is not now known. The New Zealand Maoris say it was from here they got the hue, or calabash plant. Tai-toto, Tai-kura (if island names), Puto-kura, and Avaava-rai, are equally not now recognisable as names of islands. No doubt, these are their ancient names now replaced by others. The story seems rather to mix up the doings at Avaiki with the landing on Aitutaki.]
“HERE is a history of Aitutaki, the ancestors of the people and their connection.
At the period at which Te Erui and his brother Matareka came to - 150 Aitutaki from Avaiki (in this case, no doubt, Savai'i of the Samoan Group); they made a warlike expedition against the (western) islands. They were both warriors; they fought against the people of the Atu-Iti (Fiji Group) and the Atu-Tonga (Tonga Group); they also fought against the Tai-toto and the Tai-kura; 21 they also fought against Puto-kura and Avaava-rai. 22
On one of these lands they met their god Te Rongo; they had been speaking as they went along, saying, ‘O Aitutaki! O Araura!’ 23 When Te Rongo heard the spoken language of that land, he proclaimed to his priests, ‘O Te Erui! and Matareka! We have a (common) land; I heard the voices calling out.’ So they asked the god, ‘What shall we do?’ To this their god replied, ‘You two remain here whilst I go to Vaerota and Avaiki to affix (? to deposit) the navel-string.’ 24 So Te Rongo went away to Avaiki, and after he had placed the navel-string he returned and then broke out a passage (through the reef). When it was broken through, he gave the passage the name of Te Ava-tapu; it is at Rua-kakau, at Avaiki.
When the canoe (of the two chiefs) got to the land, they found it full of (or occupied by) the wild one of Tangaroa! Then Te Rongo invoked Tangaroa (the god), who caused a heavy rain to fall and sweep the monster away. As the canoe reached the shore they found the monster being destroyed by the water. They attacked and killed it; its name was Mokoroa; that monster was a moko (lizard—probably an alligator. See the story of Maui and the Mokoroa, Journal Polynesian Society, Vol. VIII., p. 72. Apparently this incident occurred in one of the islands north-west of Fiji, where alligators are found).
When they got to the lake they found another monster, named Katotiae; and inland again was another monster, named Uika, which was a viritara (or the dark-coloured Centipede, said to be venomous). After killing that they went on to the higher land and made a dwelling place, which was named Pariki—the meaning of which is the tupati-ariki (Major J. T. Large says this means the sequence, or order, or succession; it is at Aitutaki Island)—even from Te Erui down to all the succeeding generations. Then a drinking place was made and named Vai-maru—the meaning of which is the shade, or - 151 protection of Te Rongo, the god. (? The protection afforded the voyagers by this god. It is the name of the spring at the back of the Court-house, Aitutaki, says Major Large.) Here is the descent even from Avaiki right down to the occupation of Aitutaki, and since then. There are the Avaiki ancestors:—
(See the original for the succeeding thirteen names down to Tumu-aro, who came forth to the world from Avaiki.) Then follows:
(Then follow twenty-one names, for which see original, down to Erui-o-te-rangi and his brother Matareka, who settled at Aitutaki. The descendants of Matareka are, as shown in the original, twenty-nine in number.) “This brings us to the time of the ‘Word of God’ in Aitutaki, from the year 1821 to the 7th July, 1879.”
(To be continued.)
1 Expressed in the Rarotonga dialect.
2 Taulama, or Taurama, is mentioned several times by Dr. Seligman in his “The Melanesians of British New Guinea,” and apparently the Motu people claim to have come from there. Taurama is somewhere near Kenepuru.
3 See these two names in the story about Rurutu Island infra.
4 Motumotu is about one hundred and forty miles along the coast to the west of Port Morebsy.
5 So it reads in the original, but it is unfortunately obscure,
6 I think Ofi is a snake—it is not a Rarotongan word, probably.
7 I do not know this word, except in the expression, “pakau-Tu, pakau-Rongo”—in Maori it means a wing, but that will not fit the text; it may mean a shade, or perhaps a comet.
8 Descendant of those buried in the taro patch, slain by the uncles, etc., Ngauta.
9 Expressed in Tahitian.
10 Hinauri (Maori), Inauri (Rarotongan) is the lady who swam over the ocean to become Tinirau's wife. See many legends on this subject.
11 All distances are in nautical miles and in direct lines.
12 The Rarotongans do not pronounce the “f,” or the “h,” or “wh.”
13 In all probability this is the same Ruatea that is mentioned in the Maori history of Toi-te-huatahi as having accompanied that chief on his way to New Zealand, but stopped at Rarotonga. According to the genealogical tables of Te Ariki-tara-are (see table at end of “Hawaiki, 3rd edition) Ruatea flourished thirty-two generations ago, whilst Toi lived thirty-one generations back from the year 1900. The Ruatea who came to New Zealand on the second voyage of the “Kurahaupo” canoe is apparently a different man.
14 See the long story of Tangiia-ariki and the hero Ono-kura in the Rarotongan MSS, with the Society; and also the story of Hono-'ura from the Tahitian version, Journal Polynesian Society, Vol. IV., p. 257.
15 At the same time, Dr. Gill, in “Myths and Songs,” says that Motoro was thrown overboard and drowned on the passage from Rarotonga to Mangaia, and subsequently became deified as one of the Mangaian gods.
16 Pepe is a butterfly, but we don't know the meaning of Mu'u.
17 One of the high chief's names of an ariki family in Rarotonga.
18 As described by Maretu, infra.
19 ? Toma, the writing is so bad it is difficult to make out.
20 Araura is the ancient name of Aitutaki.
21 These two names mean the “bloody sea” and the ‘red sea’—if names of islands, they are not now known by those names.
22 These two names are not now known as islands; they may be people's names.
23 Araura is the ancient name of Aitutaki.
24 One can only suggest that akamouia te pito has reference to some ceremony. It was customary to deposit the navel-string of a child at the marae of some god, who thus became guardian of that particular child.