Volume 21 1912 > Volume 21, No. 2 > Extracts from Dr. Wyatt Gill's papers, p 39-64
EXTRACTS FROM DR. WYATT GILL'S PAPERS. (CONTINUED).
No. 18. THE LAMENT FOR PAOA OF MANGAIA ISLAND. 1
Translated by the Rev. W. Wyatt Gill.
No. 19. E TUATUA TEIA NO TE TAUA A TE RURU MA TE ĀĀ, E NGA TAMAKI I TE TUATAU I A TU-TARANGI. 2
E enua ko Avaiki, e ariki ko Tupua, ko Taito.
TE tupuanga i te tamaki i a te ariki, i a Tu-tarangi. Tera te ara i tupu ai te tamaki i taua ariki ra. E nga manu nana i tikina mai e tona teina, e Tane-auaka. Tera te ingoa i nga manu, ko Aro-a-uta, ko Aro-a-tai; e manu kamakura a Aro-a-uta, e manu rava-kai a - 42 Aro-a-tai. No te rai pati a Tane-auaka i oronga'i a Tu-tarangi i te manu kamakura, Aro-a-uta. E tei te riroanga i a ia taua manu ra, kua tono a ia kia aere kia tautai ika nana. Kare ra i aere; riri iora a Tane-auaka, ta atura kia mate. E oti akera, kua oki akaou rai a ia, kua pati i te manu toe na Tu-tarangi, i a Aro-a-tai. Kare ra i paria mai. E no te rai maro i pa'i a ia i tana manu. E kia riro katoa oki tei reira, kua tono katoa kia aere e tautai i tetai ika. Te aere ra taua manu ra, a Aro-a-tai i te tiki i te ika; e kia rauka, te apai maira ki a Tane-auaka. Te ruru ra ki te vao, e maata ua atu te ika, e ope rava ki vao, kare rava i toe tetai nana. Te pongi ra taua manu ra. E kia popongi ake kua tono akaou rai; kare ra i aere akaou taua manu, no te mea kua mate i te pongi. Te riri ra a Tane-auaka; ta atura i tei reira manu, mate katoa atura aua nga manu ra, a Aro-a-uta e Aro-a-tai.
Riri akera a Tu-tarangi; akatupu atura i te tamaki. Tono atura i tana tamaiti, i a Etoi kia tipu i tona rakau, i a ‘Te Ii-matoa’; e kia rauka mai taua rakau ra, apaiia atura ki te taunga, ki a Tāne. I reira taua taunga ra i ui mai ei, “E aa teia rakau?” “E rakau tamaki! Kua riri a Tu-tarangi i nga manu kua taia e Tane-auaka.” I reira taua taunga ra, tuatua mai ei, “E oki ra! Tonokia mai tetai taunga ei tarai i te rakau; naku e akakite.” I reira i tonokia mai ei a Rauru-māoa. Te taraiia ra taua aronga rakau ra e manganui. Kua tapa anakeia ki te ingoa; tera te ingoa, e Aroaro-rangi, e Tokotoko-tai, e Mata-tua-rere, e Puapua-inano, e Pivai-rangi, e Raurau-tiare, e Iti-raverave—koia te korare.
Te taraia ra taua aronga rakau ra e te taūnaia mai te kai e Tu-tarangi. E kia oti ra i te taraiia, uipaia iora ki roto i te are o Tāne; e te tu o taua are rakau ra, e mea tu ke i te mataku, okotai ra i tu ke roa, ko te Tokotoko-tai. Tera te mea i tu ke ei ko te ru-uaanga. I reira i aere ai a Rauru-māoa e akakite ki a Tu-tarangi. Te akakite atura oki i te rakau tu ke roa, te ru uara; kua riro i a Tu. I reira a Tu-tarangi i tono ei i tona toa, i a Kuru, kia tiki i taua rakau ra, ako-ako atura i a Kuru, auraka e rave i tetai rakau ke mari ra ko te tokotoko e ru ua ra, tei tapaia e Tu ki a ‘Nionio-roroa.’
I reira a Kuru i aere ei e tiki i taua rakau ra. E i tona taeanga, kite atura a ia i taua rakau ra i te ru-uaanga; rave atura a ia. Kare ra a Tane i pa, no te mea kua riro i a Tu. E no te rai maro o Kuru i pa i a Tane; rave atura a Kuru i taua tokotoko ra. E kia tae a ia ki raro i te are, aravei iora a ia i nga tamariki a Tu; motu atura nga mimiti o aua nga tamariki ra, mate atura, ko Ti-tape-uta, e Ti-tape-tai.
Oki maira a ia ki a Tane ma te taoi mai i nga mimiti. Ui atu ra a Tane, “E aa tena? E Kuru!” “Ko te tapu tena o te rakau.” Oki akaou atura a Kuru, aravei atura i nga tuaine o aua nga tamariki ra—ko Titi-kereti, e Tata-kerere. Motu katoa atura to raua mimiti; oki akaou atura ki a Tane; kua ui mai rai a Tane, “E Kuru! E aa - 43 tena?” “Ko te kai vaine teia i te tautai.” Tono atura a Tane kia aere a Kuru, auraka e oki akaou mai ki a ia.
Aere atura a Kuru. Kia kite ra a Tu kua mate nga tamariki, aka-evaeva atura a ia; pare atura i te pare tavake, i tapaia i a Tu kia Tu-tavake. Aere atura ki raro i te vari i Rangi-taua. Aere atura a Kuru i te ta aere i te tangata ma te apai ki a Tu-tarangi i te tangata rakau; e ta Kuru ingoa i taua rakau ra, ko ‘ Taitai-pakoko.’ E kia tae ra ki Amama-atua, tei reira a Maru-maomao. Kua mataku a ia ko te mate katoa aea a ia i a Kuru, oro atura ki a Tongaiti. Kua ui maira a Tonga-iti, “E aa tena?” Kua tuatua atura a ia, “E popongi apopo e mate ei au i a Kuru!” I reira a Tonga-iti i tuatua mai ei ki a ia, “Oro mai ra, e oro natia te kaki o te rā. Kia akakite mai i te tuatua ki a koe.” Oro atura a Maru-maomao e nati i te rā; e tei tona natianga i te ra, takaviri atura ra ma te tuatua e, “Koai teia ariki nui i natia i taku kaki?” Tuatua atura a ia “Ko au! Ko Maru-maomao.” “E aa te ara i nati ei koe i taku kaki?” Akakite atura a Maru-maomao, “Popongi apopo e mate ei au i a Kuru!” I reira te rā i tuatua mai ei ki a ia, “Tara ia ra taku kaki!” I reira te rā i tuatua ei i te akakiteanga i te tuatua, “Apopo i te popongi e oro koe ki te tapa-tai tu ei. Kia aere mai a Kuru tei te tapa-tai koe; kia tu a ia i uta i te tapa-ara, kia oka atu te vero i a aku mata ki te mata o Kuru, kia poepoe nga mata; ei reira koe e oro ei e pari i a Kuru ki te toki.”
E kia popongi akera kua pera atura a Maru-maomao. Te mate ra a Kuru i a ia; riro maira te tokotoko a Kuru i a Maru-maomao. I reira a Maru-maomao i oronga i te tokotoko ki tona toa, ki a Te Aka-metua-o-te-po, aere atura a ia ki Avaiki.
E kia riro i a ia te rakau, tapaia iora te ingoa o taua rakau ra ki a ‘Paii-enua.’ E oti akera, akaruke iora a Te Aka-metua-i-te-po i taua tokotoko ra, aere atura i te kimi i a Maru-maomao ki Avaiki-te-araro. E te tu o tona aereanga i rere-aere ua a ia i roto i te rangi, i tapaia'i tona ingoa ki a Etu-rere. E i tona kiminga i a Maru-maomao, kitea atura tei te kainga o Tu-Avaiki, kua tapekaia ki te pou-tina o te are. Tera te ara, e keia i te vaine a Tu-Avaiki, i a Te Neke-o-te-rangi. E te taura i tapekaia'i a Maru-maomao, e iapo. I reira a Eturere i tatara'i te tapekaia i Maru-maomao; oki atura a ia ki Amama-atua, ma Eturere i te ta aereanga i te tangata.
E tae ua maira ki Amama-atua, e kua apai i ta raua tangata na Tavake-ariki ma te rakau katoa; tapaia iora taua rakau ra ki a ‘Nina-enua.’ I reira a Tavake-ariki i oronga i te rakau, i a ‘Nina-enua’ ki te toa, ki a Karika. Ei mungao (? muringao) te tupu ra te karo i a Tavake-ariki e Tane-murivai-o-Tonga. Tera te ara, e vai pa na Tane-murivai-o-Tonga. E muringao te aere atura a Taveke-ariki, va'i atura i taua vai ra, pa atura i te vai nona; e kia aere mai a Tane-murivai-o-Tonga, tata atura raua e mate atura Tane-murivai-o-Tonga.- 44
Ka ā ingoa ra i taua rakau ra, ko ‘Nionio-roroa,’ ko ‘Taitai-pakoko,’ ko ‘Paii-enua,’ ko ‘Nina-enua.’
No Te Arutanga-nuku. Nona te pai nei, a ‘Taraipo.’
Tera te mea i rau pāi ei a ia; e auē kai. Kare e paria e te metua, e Atonga-tangata; no reira a Te Arutanga-nuku i tuatua ei ki nga metua keke—koia nga teina o te metua—e aere e rau pāi ei kimi enua ke atu kia kaikai ratou ki reira. I reira te aerenga o aua nga metua ke ra i te tipu rakau. E kia aere ra; ko Oro-keu tei aere mua, e kite atura i te tainga a te Ruru ma te Aā. Tera te mea i tata'i raua; kia rere-aere te Ruru ki te moana, e kite atura i te vaa o te Aā te amama ua ra i roto i te vaarua; titiko atura i tona vaa ki te tutae. Riri ake ra te Aā, akara matariki atura i te rere-aerenga a te Ruru, e kite atura i tona toanga ki runga i te rakau o te kaivi-maunga, akairo atura. E mei reira kua oki putuputu ua rai taua Ruru ra ki te titiko i taua Aā rai ma te akainaina.
Kia topa ra te ua e puke atura te vai, kake atura a ia ki te maunga na raro i te kauvai; aere atura a ia ki te ta i te Ruru. I te po i aere atu taua Aā ra, kua akairo marie oki a ia i te ngai e nooia e taua Ruru ra.
E kia tae te Aā ki te maunga i te po, tera taua Ruru ra tei runga i te rakau, kua varea e te moe. I reira a ia e tapeka'i i tona iku ki te tumu o te rakau; i toro marie atu tona mimiti, te tapeka atura i te Ruru ma te kakati. Ta atura raua i taua po ra e ao ua ake.
I reira te taenga atu o Oro-keu. Rokoia atu a ia kua vaitata te Ruru i te mate, kua ope te uru i te katikati ia te Aā. Kia kite ra te Ruru te aere maira tona teina tangata—koia a Oro-keu—kaku atura a ia, na-ko-atura, “E te ariki! E Oro-keu! Vaoa te taua a Te Ruru ma te Tuna.” Kua kapiki katoa te Tuna, “Aere te ariki-marokura i tana aere, vaoo te Ruru ma te Tuna kia taiaapi i ta raua taiaapi; e kia nā, aere atu ki to raua kainga nonoo ake.” Aere atura a Oro-keu, kare a ia e vavao.
E muri akera kua tae mai tetai tangata ke, ko Oro-i-nano. Kua kaku rai taua Ruru ra ki a ia, na-ko-atura, “E Oro-i-nano! Vaoa te taua a te Ruru ma te Aā!” Kua kapiki katoa te Aā, “Aere te ariki maro-kura i tana aere vaoo te taua a te Ruru ma te Aā kia taiaapi i ta raua taiaapi, kia nā, aere atu ki to raua kainga nonoo ake.” Aere katoa atura a ia, kare rai i vavao i ta raua taua.
Kia tae ra a Oro-taere, ko te tokotoru ïa o nga tangata. Kua kaku akaou rai te Ruru ki a Oro-taere mei tana rai i kaku ki nga tangata mua. E kia akara ra a Orotaere i te Ruru kua vaitata te Ruru i te mate, tangi atura a ia, no te mea e tuakana manu nana; rave atura a ia i tana toki, tipupu atura i te Aā e mate atura. I reira te uianga a - 45 te Ruru ki a Oro-taere, “Ka aere koe ki ea?” Akakite atura a Orotaere, “Ka aere au ka tipu rakau ei pāi no te ariki, no Te Aru-tanga-nuku.” I reira te Ruru i akakite mai ei i te rakau, “E oro ra ki taku rakau i te ara pungaverevere; e Maota-mea.” Aere atura a Oro-taere e tipu i taua rakau ra. Kareka a Oro-keu, e Oro-inano, kua oki ua raua ma te rakau kore; ko Oro-taere ua tei ta i te rakau, ko te tutaki ïa i te vavaoanga i te taua a te Ruru ma te Aā. Aere atura a Oro-taere e tipu i te rakau, inga atura te rakau i te ra okotai. E kua oti i te pari, tamau atura i te kaka ei kika, vaoo atura i taua rakau ra, aere atura ki te kainga.
E muri akera kua aere mai te tangata nona te vao-rakau, ko Tangaroa-iu-mata. Kua riri a ia, e kua ui ki a Rata-i-te-vao (ko te tiaki ïa i taua vao rakau ra). Kare ra a Rata i kite. Kua tarotaro a Tangaroa-iu-mata i taua rakau ra kia tu akaou ki runga, na-ko-atura:—
Kia rere mai te tumu o te rakau,
Kia piri, kia tau,
Kia rere mai te kauru o te rakau,
Kia piri, kia tau,
Kia rere mai te rara o te rakau,
Kia piri, kia tau.
Kia rere mai te pakiri o te rakau
Kia piri, kia tau.
E, te openga iora, tu akaou iora taua rakau ra ki runga mei tona tu takere rai; mari ua tetai manga pakiri tei kore i piri akaou; no te mea kua riro i te apai ïa e Oro-taere ki mua i te marae i kore ei i piri akaou. Kua kapiki rai oki taua tangata nona te vao rakau, koia a Tangaroa-iu-mata; kua oki rua, kua oki toru i te kapikianga, kare rai i piri akaou taua manga pakiri ra ki tona vairanga. E oti akera, aere atura a ia.
E kia popongi ake, i reira a Oro-taere ma tana au tangata e aere mai ei e kika i taua rakau ra; e kia tae ra ki te ngai ta Oro-taere i vao ei i taua rakau, ina! kare ua te rakau i tona vairanga. Kimi akaou atura ratou katoatoa, e kitea atura tera tei te ngai i tu ei, te vai ra oki te akairo ko te vairanga o te manga pakiri i riro ki mua i te marae. Kua ui tetai aronga ki a Oro-taere i te ara i tu akaou ei te rakau. Akakite atu ra a ia i te ara, ko ia kare i rango i te toki ki mua i te marae. I reira te rangoanga i te toki, apai atura ki mua i te marae; i reira te tipu akaouanga i taua rakau rai. E kika atura ki te ngai e tarai ei te pāi, koia te kainga o Atonga-tangata, ko te taunga a ia i te tarai i te pāi, raua ko Tupua-ki-Amoa. Kareka ko te kai i te kainga o te tama a Atonga-tangata, koia a Te Aru-tanga-nuku, kua pou takiri, e kua onge i te tipuanga i te au rakau no taua pāi nona ra. E kare rai e paria e te taunga—koia tona metua, a Atonga-tangata.- 46
I reira taua tama ra—a Te Aru-tanga-nuku—i kimi ei i te revenga kia vave tona pai, no te mea kua maro te ua te rakau ki te vairanga, kare rai i raveia ke. Tera te ravenga: Kua tono a ia i tana vaine, i a Te Pori-o-kare, kia tāu i tetai umu kai; ei taro te kai, e papāia e te rukou. Te tāu ra te vaine i taua umu kai ra; e kia maoa ra te kai, kua ui te vaine ki te tane, “Ka peea teia kai?” I reira a ia e tuatua ei, “E apai koe ki te taunga, ki a Atonga-tangata. Ei reira koe reru ei i to papāia, tuku atu ei i to rukou; e kia tu a ia ki te tuaroa o te are, e aere rai koe ki reira, e kia oro ki te tuapoto, e oro rai koe ki reira, e ki te tara, e aru rai koe ki reira, e kia oro ki te po e aru rai koe ki reira.” Tera taua po ra, koia te akangaro uaanga i mua i a ia. Tera te mea i pera'i a Te Aru-tanga-nuku, kia inangaro a Atonga-tangata i tana vaine, i a Pori-o-kare kia moe raua.
I reira te vaine i aere ei ki a Atonga-tangata ma te akono i tei tuatuaia mai e tana tane. E kia tae ra a ia ki a Atonga-tangata, tera te noo ua ra i te ngutupa-are; kapiki atura ra, “Teia te papāia a āu e te rukou.” Tukua atura ki mua i tona aroaro, e kua reru i te papāia, ma te eueu i tona uaorai kakau. I reira a Atonga-tangata i oro ei ki te tuaroa o te are; kua aru rai a ia ki reira; tupu atura te manako kino ka moe i taua vaine ra, tuatua iora, “E kua kaki te papāia.” Kai iora a Atonga-tangata i te kai a taua vaine ra e oti akera, moe atura i taua vaine ra. E kia oti i te moeanga, tuatua atura a Atonga-tangata ki a Pori-o-kare, “Oro mai ra, e oro ki tai i to tane, kia oro i to Kuporu, kia anga i tetai orau—koia te are ei vairanga i te pāi o korua. Apopo i te popongi e uipa te tangata ei matakitaki i te pāi. Na te manu e oatu; e noo te tangata matakitaki i raro—auraka e tu ki runga.”
Aere atura a Pori-o-kare ma te akono i taua tuatua ra; e kia tae a ia ki tana tane tikai, kua akakite atura i taua tuatua ra. I reira a ia e tuatua'i e, “I na ea ake nei oki tena pāi i oti ei? Te maro ua maira oki nga rakau.” Akono atura oki i taua tuatua ra i akakiteia mai e taua vaine ra.
I taua po rai i aere mai ei a Atonga-atua e rave i taua pāi ra. E oti roa akera i taua po ra, i tapaia ei i te ingoa o te pāi ko ‘Tarai-po.’ E i te popongi ra kua uipa te manu tini e apai i taua pāi, te manu nunui i raro i te takere o te pai, te manu ririki i rungao ïa i te pao aere uaanga. I reira tou ei te amu—na te Kakirori i tou te amu. Tera te amu:—
Tupokipoki te tini o Kuporu, ko matakitaki
E noo koe ē! e noo koe ē!
Arakāu ē! Arakāu ē!
Ko te amu ïa a te manu i te apaianga i te pāi e tae ua atu ki mua i te paepae; tapaia iora te ingoa i taua pāi ra, ko ‘Te Manu-karere,’ - 47 ka rua ingoa, no te mea na te manu i apai mai. E kia tae ki te paepae, tapaia iora ko ‘Pori-o-kare’—koia te ingoa o te vaine; ka toru ingoa. E, mei runga i te paepae apaiia atura ki roto i te orau, tapaia iora ko ‘Te Pori-o-nou’—e ingoa no tona tupuna vaine; ka ā atura ingoa i taua pāi ra.
Kua anau ta Te Aru-tanga-rangi, nana i akatere te pāi ra, akatere atura ki Avaiki, noo atura i reira i te kai āu. E mei reira oki akaou mai ki Kuporu. E mei reira aere atura ki Tutuira, noo atura ki reira i te kai āu. E roa akera, oki akaou atura ki Kuporu. I reira te anauanga i tana tamaiti ko Rira. Anau tana ko Papa-runga, aere atura a ia ki Tongareva. Anau tana ko Papa-raro; aere atu a ia ki Iva. Anau tana ko Tupa; aere atura a ia ki Taiti anau tana ko Mooariki, &c.
[Translation of No. 19.]
ABOUT TU-TARANGI, HIS WARS IN AVAIKI-RARO, AND THE MIRACULOUS WEAPON.
[From the genealogical table (page 40) it will be seen that Tu-tarangi flourished at 63 generations back from the year 1900; or, if we take Te Ariki-tara-are's table (end of “Hawaiki,” 3rd Edition) we find his period to be 57 generations back from the same date. Again, if we take the first table mentioned above, and use the mean number of generations from 1900 to Tangiia as 26 generations (instead of 30) and then count back to Tu-tarangi we get 59 generations, or only two different from Te Ariki-tara-are's table, which is probably the most correct. This brings us to about the year 475 a.d., when, as we have reason to believe, the ancestors of Maori, Rarotongan, Tahitian and other branches were living in Eastern Fiji, Samoa, Tonga, &c.—names that are included in that of Avaiki-raro (see the chart). The succession downwards from Tu-tarangi in this table, and in that of Te Ariki-tara-are, do not always agree in the names—some appear to be misplaced—but for the present we prefer to consider the latter as the standard. It is clear from other traditions that Tu-tarangi was a great chief in those times, and that his conquests extended to the following islands, many of which being obsolete names, cannot now be identified (see J. P. S., Vol. I., p. 25):—Iti-nui, Iti-rai, Iti-takai-kere, Iti-anaunau (the Fiji group); Tonga, Nuku, Anga-ura, Kurupongi, Ara-matietie, Mata-te-ra, Uea (Wallis island); Vai-rota, Katua-pai, Vavau (Tonga group); Enua-kura, Eremanga (of the New Hebrides); and Manuka (of Samoa).
In the story to follow, it will be seen that it turns on the miraculous powers of the weapon ‘Tokotoko-tai’ (with other names). It is difficult to understand whether Tāne, Maru-maomao, Tu, and others, are the gods of those names, or whether they were men; they rather appear to be human beings, but the actions of Polynesian gods are merely those of glorified men. Te Rā, is no doubt the Sun, or Sun-god. The story appears to be partly historical and partly mythical, and is probably of very different dates—some very ancient, now inextricably - 48 mixed together. It is probable from some of the names, that the older parts of the story, are astronomical myths in their origin. In Dr. Wyatt Gill's “Myths and Songs” will be found (p. 142) the story of “Rata's canoe, a legend from Aitutaki,” in which some of the incidents of the scene of the legends below, are given, but Rata alone is accredited with the deeds of the three uncles. This is followed by Rata's adventures in search of his parents as given by Mr. Savage, J. P. S., Vol. XIX., p. 142. But we think the Aitutaki version is corrupt, and that herein given is the more correct, a man named Rata being the guardian of the forest, but not Rata of Mr. Savage's story. For the many references to Rata in Samoa itself, see “Hawaiki,” p. 198 (3rd Edition).]
THIS is an account of the growth of the wars in the times of Tu-tarangi. The following is the evil doing that originated the wars under that chief, and also the account of his birds which were lent to his younger brother named Tāne-auaka. The names of those birds were Aro-a-uta, which was a kamakura, and Aro-a-tai, a fishing bird. It was only in consequence of the persistence of Tāne-auaka that Tu-tarangi entrusted the kamakura bird to him. After the bird had been secured by Tāne-auaka, he sent it away to catch fish for him. But the bird did not go; so Tāne-auaka was very angry and killed it. After this he returned to Tu-tarangi and begged for the other bird, Aro-a-tai; but he would not lend it. Only in consequence of the persistent begging of Tāne-auaka was his request at last complied with.
Tāne-auaka having secured the fishing bird, it was directed to go away and catch some fish. So off went Aro-a-tai, and when it had caught some, brought them to Tāne-auaka and scattered them outside, in great numbers, but not one was reserved (by the people) for the bird itself. So that bird starved. When the next morning came, it was again ordered to go and fish, but the bird would not do so, because it was suffering from hunger. Again Tāne-auaka got into a passion and killed the bird, and thus both Aro-a-uta and Aro-a-tai perished.
Tu-tarangi was very wrath at this, and prepared for war. He sent his son Etai to cut down his tree, named ‘Te Ii-matoa’; 3 and when this had been accomplished, some of the wood was taken to the priest, or artisan (taunga), 4 Tāne, who asked, “What is that wood for?” “It is to be used in making weapons of war! Tu-tarangi is incensed with Tāne-auaka on account of the death of his birds.” Then said the priest, “Return! and send here some other artisan to make the weapons; I will show him how.” Rauru-māoa was now sent, and - 49 several weapons were made, and all received names, thus: Aroaro-rangi, Tokotoko-tai, Mata-tua-rere, Puapua-inano, Pivai-rangi, Rau-rau-tiare and Iti-raverave, which last was a javelin, or korare.
Whilst the artisan was shaping out these weapons, Tu-tarangi was arranging for their food. When the arms were finished they were taken into the house of Tāne. Those weapons were quite different to ordinary ones, and were very fearsome, one in particular was so, the ‘Tokotoko-tai.’ It differed in this respect, that it would shake of its own accord. Then Rauru-māoa, the artisan, went to inform Tu-tarangi, and to tell him of the peculiarity of that shaking spear; which had been taken by (? the god) Tu. On learning this, Tu-tarangi sent his leading warrior, Kuru, to fetch that spear, impressing on him not to bring any other but that particular one which shook of its own accord, and which had been named by Tu, ‘Nionio-roroa.’
So Kuru went off to fetch that particular weapon, and when he got there he saw that it did shake of itself, and so proceeded to take it. But Tāne hesitated about giving it up because it was in the possession of Tu; and it was only due to the insistence of Kuru that he at last conceded it. When Kuru got outside (the house) he met two of the sons of Tu, and at once (tried the effect of the miraculous weapon) and cut off their heads. Their names were Ti-tape-uta and Ti-tape-tai.
He then returned to Tāne with the two heads; the latter asked, “What is this, O Kuru!”“That is the (effect of) the tapu of the weapon!” Then Kuru went forth again, and met the two sisters of the slain boys, named Titi-kereti and Titi-kerere. Both their heads were cut off, and with them Kuru returned to Tāne, who asked, “O Kuru! what is this?” “This is the female food of the fishing!” Tāne then sent Kuru away telling him not to return again.
So Kuru went off. When Tu found that his children were dead, he lamented over them (with the usual ceremonies, evaeva); he adorned himself with a plume of the tavake bird (Phaeton aethereus), hence was he named Tu-tavake, and descended to the mud at Rangi-taua. Kuru then started off on a man-killing expedition, and brought to Tu-tarangi the results of his slaying with that weapon. Kuru's name for that weapon was ‘Taitai-pakoko.’ When he reached Amama-atua, he found Maru-maomao there, who became much alarmed lest he also should be killed by Kuru; so he went to Tonga-iti, who said to him, “What is it?” He replied, “To-morrow morning I shall be killed by Kuru!” On that Tongaiti said to Maru-maomao, “It is well! go and entangle (nati—to tie, throttle) the neck of the Sun, in order that he may disclose to you what to do.” So Maru-maomao went off to carry this out; and as he did so, the Sun twisted about and said, “Who is this chief who is tying my throat?” He replied, “It is I! Maru-maomao!” “What is the reason you tie my throat?” Then - 50 Maru-maomao told him. “To-morrow morning I shall be killed by Kuru!” The Sun replied, “Unloosen my throat,” and on this being done, he said, “To-morrow morning go down to the sea-side and stand there, so that Kuru when he comes may find you there, and he will then (be forced to) stand by the side of the road (or inland) and thus his eyes will be pierced (dazzled) by the rays from my face, and he will be blinded; then you attack him with your axe.”
When morning came Maru-maomao did as suggested. And so Kuru was killed by him, and the famous weapon became the property of Maru-maomao, which he presented to his warrior Te Akametua-o-te-po, and then went off himself to Avaiki.
When the warrior became possessed of the weapon he gave it a new name, ‘Paii-enua.’ After this Te Akametua-o-te-po abandoned the weapon there and went off to search for Maru-maomao at Avaiki-te-araro. The manner of his going was, he flew through the heavens, and hence his name became changed to ‘Etu-rere’ (Flying-star, otherwise? a meteor). In his search for Maru-maomao, he found him at the home of Tu-Avaiki, tied up to the pillar, on account of his having debauched Te Neke-o-te-rangi, the wife of Tu-Avaiki; he was tied up with a rope of iapo (Siapo, Samoan, the paper-mulberry.) Etu-rere untied the fastenings of Maru-maomao, and they both then went off to Amama-atua on a warlike expedition.
When they reached Amama-atua, they took their dead man and the famous weapon and offered it to Tavake-ariki; and then the weapon received another name, ‘Nina-enua.’ It was then given by Tavake-ariki to the warrior Karika. 5 Some time after this a dispute arose between Tavake-ariki and Tane-murivai-o-Tonga, on account of a dammed up stream of the latter's. Tavake-ariki destroyed that dam, and diverted the water to his own dam. (Probably irrigation streams for taro patches.) When Tane-murivai-o-Tonga came on the scene they fought, and Tāne' was killed.
There were thus four names given to this famous weapon:—‘Nio-nio-roroa,’ ‘Taitai-pakoko,’ ‘Paii-enua,’ and ‘Nina-enua.’- 51
About Te Aru-tanga-nuku and his Ship ‘Taraipo,’ and the Fight between the Ruru (the White Heron) and the Aa (Sea-snake).
[The following story is again, no doubt, partly historical, partly mythical. In this twentieth century, we unbelieving Europeans are prone to discredit accounts like that of the tree standing up again after being felled; though, with that belief in the supernatural that so often colours ancient stories, the Polynesians of former times would not deny the creditability of it. The same story is told of several of the far famed canoes of the Maori migration to New Zealand. It may be suggested that perhaps the struggle between the White Heron and the Sea-snake is explainable by a disturbance between two tribes (or families) of Upolu, Samoa, whose particular deities (totems, perhaps) were those two birds. Dr. Turner, in his “Samoa a Hundred Years Ago,” mentions the Heron and the Tuna (eel) as minor gods of some of the Samoan families, and in the following narrative it will be seen that the author applies the name Tuna to the Sea-snake more than once. However, this may be, the building of this celebrated ship would appear to be a historical fact, and its subsequent voyages are of great interest, though only partly described herein. The first name of the canoe—‘Tarai-po’—is embodied in Maori traditions also, as well as Rata-i-te-vao, the guardian of the forest.]
The reason for building his ship, was a scarcity of food. His father, Atonga-tangata, would not give him any; and in consequence Te Ara-tanga-nuku said to his uncles—younger brothers of his father—that they should build a ship in order that they might search for some other land where they might obtain food. Therefore the uncles proceeded to the forest to fell a tree. When they started Oro-keu (one of the uncles) went first, and he saw in the forest a battle between the Ruru (White Heron) and the Aā (spotted Sea-snake). This is what they were fighting about: When the Ruru used to go out to sea, and saw the mouth of the Aā wide open, he eased himself into the Aā's mouth. At this the Aā was very angry, so he carefully watched the flight of the Ruru, and saw where it settled down on a tree on the mountain ridge, and carefully noted the spot. After this the Ruru often came to sea again, and continued the same conduct toward the Aā.
A great rain came on, and the rivers were flooded; and then the Aā swam up the river to the mountains, on his way to fight the Ruru. He travelled by night, for he had carefully noted the place where the Ruru dwelt.
When the Aā reached the mountain in the night, there was the Ruru on the tree fast asleep. He twisted his tail round the bole of the tree, and quickly extending his head embraced the Ruru, at the same time biting it. They fought all through that night until daylight.- 52
At this time appeared Oro-keu on his way to the forest. When he got there he found that the Ruru was nearly dead, nearly all its feathers had been bitten off by the Aā. When the Ruru saw his human younger brother, i.e. Oro-keu, he complained to him, “O Chief! O Oro-keu! terminate the fight of the Ruru and the Tuna!” 6 At the same time the Tuna said, “Go on his way, the scarlet-belted chief; leave the Ruru and the Tuna to settle their own quarrel; and when they are satisfied they will go to their respective homes.” So Oro-keu went on his way without separating the combatants.
After some time there came along another man, Oro-inano. Again the Ruru complained, saying, “O Oro-inano! separate the Ruru and the Aā!” The Aā also spoke, “Proceed, the scarlet-belted chief on his way; leave the Ruru and the Aā to fight their own battle, and when they have had enough they will return to their homes.” He also went on his way, not interfering to stop the fight.
Next came Oro-taere, who was the third of the men. The Ruru again addressed his prayer to Oro-taere as he had done to the others. When Oro-taere looked at the Ruru and saw that it was nearly dead, he cried about it, for the Ruru was a bird-brother of his. He seized his axe and made a blow at the Aā, killing it at once. The Ruru now asked Oro-taere, “Where are you going?” The other replied, “I am going to fell a tree to make a ship for the ariki, for Te Aru-tanga-nuku.” Then the Ruru explained where a tree could be found, “Go to my tree, by the way of the spiders, it is a Maota-mea.” 7 So Oro-taere went on to fell the tree. But Oro-keu and Oro-inano had gone home without finding a suitable tree. It was Oro-taere who felled the tree, and this was his payment for putting an end to the fight of the Ruru and the Aā. So he went on to fell the tree, and down it came in a single day's work. When it was trimmed, he fastened some kaka (convolvulus vines) to the log already to drag it out, and then leaving it he returned home.
After he had left, came along the man who owned the forest, Tangaroa-ui-mata. He was very angry (at the tree being felled), and asked Rata-i-te-vao (Rata-of-the-forest), who was the guardian of the forest, about it. Rata knew nothing of it. So Tangaroa-ui-mata recited an incantation to set up again that fallen tree, saying:—
Come together the stump of the tree!- 53
Stick together, in proper place.
Come hither the head of the tree!
Stick together, in proper place.
Come hither the branches of the tree!
Stick together, in proper place.
Come hither the bark of the tree!
Stick together, in proper place.
The end of it was, the tree stood up again, identically as it was originally, all except one piece of bark, which did not adhere to its place because it had been taken by Oro-taere to the marae (or altar, no doubt as a propitiatory offering for having cut down a sacred tree). Again the owner of the forest spoke, twice, thrice, but the missing bark did not adhere to its place. This done, the man left.
When morning came Oro-taere and his band of men came to the forest to drag out the tree, and when they reached the spot where Oro-taere had left it, behold! there was no tree there. They all made a fresh search for it, and then found it where it originally stood, recognising it by the sign of the piece of bark which had been taken to the marae. Some of the men asked Oro-taere the reason why the tree was again erect. He then explained, it was because he had not dedicated the axe at the marae before using it. Then they took the axe to the marae, and completed the proper ceremonies over it, and afterwards set to work to fell the tree anew, and commenced to haul the log to the place where it was to be dubbed out, which was at Atonga-tangata's home, for he and Tupua-ki-Amoa (Tupua-at-Samoa) were the naval architects. But all the food at the home of Te Aru-tanga-nuku—Atonga-tangata's son—had been consumed, and there was starvation for those cutting out the different pieces of wood for his canoe. The priest—that is, his father, Atonga-tangata—would give them none.
The son—Te Aru-tanga-nuku—then began to devise some scheme in order that his canoe might be quickly finished; because the grain of the wood was becoming hard, by being left, and not able to be worked. This was his scheme: He ordered his wife Te Pori-o-kare to cook some food, such as taros, papāia (taro, pounded and baked) and rukou. After the woman had cooked the food she asked, “What is to be done with it?” Her husband replied, “Carry it to the priest, to Atonga-tangata. There you will pound the papāia, and give your rukou. If he is standing at the back part of house go up to him; if he crosses to the front part follow him, if to the side, go you also, even if he goes to the po, (Hades) follow after him.” The meaning of that po (Hades) is, if he should disappear from her sight altogether. The reason that Te Aru-tanga-nuku gave these directions, was in order to incite sexual passions in the priest …… Then said Atonga-tangata to the woman, “Return to the coast, to thy husband, and to the people of Kupolu ('Upolu). Tell them to construct a canoe shed in which to place the canoe of you two. To-morrow morning let the - 54 people gather there to admire the canoe. The birds will bring it down from the forest; let all the people remain seated to admire it—let no one stand up.”
So Pori-o-kare returned bearing in mind what she had been told, and when she got to her own husband, she told him what the priest had said. He said, “How could that canoe have been finished? The wood was still quite hard.” But he made the arrangements as described by the woman.
In that same night came Atonga-atua to complete the canoe; it was finished during the night, and the name of ‘Tarai-po’ (made in the night) given to it. In the morning all the numerous birds gathered together to bring down the canoe, the great birds got under the keel, the smaller birds above to bear it along. Then was the amu sung by the Kakirari (a species of bird); this is it:—
Gathered together are the many of Kuporu, to see,
Rest thee there! rest thee there!
Uplift it! uplift it!
That was the amu of the birds as they carried it along, right down to the paepae (or platform of the house), and then the canoe got another name, ‘Te Manu-ka-rere’ (the flying bird), because it was the birds who brought it along. And when it reached the paepae, it was given its third name, ‘Pori-o-kare,’ after the woman. From the paepae it was carried into the canoe-shed, and then its fourth name was given, ‘Te Pori-o-nou,’ after Te Aru-tanga-nuku's grandmother.
Te Aru-tanga-nuku's son was Te Aru-tanga-rangi, and it was he who sailed this ship, away to Avaiki (Savai'i), where he stayed to? make peace. From Avaiki he returned to Kuporu, and from there went on to Tutuira (Tutuila, Samoa) and stayed there to? make peace. After some time he returned to Kuporu, and then was born his son Rira, whose son was Papa-runga, who went in the ship to Tongareva Island, and there the latter's son Papa-raro was born. From there the latter sailed to Iva (The Marquesas), where his son Tupa was born, and he sailed the ship to Tahiti, where his son Moo-ariki was born.
(For Moo-ariki's descendants see the genealogical table. The native author then describes the doings of Tangiia-nui, and his final settlement in Rarotonga, but as his account is not nearly so full as that of Te Ariki-tara-are's—which we hope to publish in full—it is here omitted. Although Iva is believed to be the Marquesas group, which was well known to the Rarotongans, and to which they made frequent voyages, the Iva mentioned in this narrative may be Hiva at either Ra'iatea, Taha'a, or Porapora Islands—we are not sure which.)- 55
The period of Te Ara-tanga-nuku is a very important one in Polynesian history, for with his celebrated canoe commenced the series of voyages that ended in the discovery of a great many of the Islands of Polynesia, and their subsequent settlement.
No. 20. KO MOU'A-PUTA, I MO'OREA.
E Korero na tetai tangata Rarotonga.
KO te tuatua teia i a Reia e Matatini. E ekai ta raua, e vaine te ara, ko Ina-mangamanga-i-aitu te ingoa i te vaine. Na Matatini te vaine i riro i a Reia—ko Makea a Reia. Kia nui te vaine ki a Reia, e kaki ei ki te ui tunu. Te aere ra te tane ki te tiki i te ui ki Tautira; mate iora a Reia i a Matatini—ko te vaine te ara. Oki maira te tangata tini i aru i a Reia, akakite maira e kua mate a Reia. Aue atura te vaine ma te teina o Reia, ko Au-maru.
Ko Au-ruia te metua o Au-maru; nana i karanga, “E rave i te vaine naau, ka toa tena tamaiti ei ranga i te ua o Reia.” Anau atura te tamaiti ko Pai-tangaroa te ingoa.
E tae akera ki te mātaanga, toa atura taua tamaiti ra; tika atura ta Au-ruia i karanga e, ‘ka toa tena tamaiti ei ranga i te ua o Reia.’
Kia oki mai taua tamaiti ra mei te kave mimiti tangata ki mua i te marae i o Poa (? Opoa), kua ui mai ki te metua vaine, “Naai au?” Kua karanga atura te metua vaine, “Naku koe!” Kua karanga atura te tamaiti, “Koai te metua tane?” Kua karanga atura, “Ko Aumaru.” Kua karanga atura te tamaiti, “Kare! Na Reia au.” Kua akatika atura te metua vaine. Kua ui maira te tamaiti, “Tei ea taku metua?” Kua karanga atura a ia, “Kua mate!” “Tei ea te matenga?” “Tei Tautira!” “Naai i ta?” “Na Matatini!” “O! Ka aere au ka tiki i taku metua!” “Aua e aere. Ka mate koe!” Kua karanga atura te tamaiti, “Kare au e mate.”
Kua rave iora i te ranga e te au tavini, aere atura, e tae atura ki Tautira. Kua ui atura, “Tei ea taku metua, a Reia?” Kua tuatua maira te tangata tini, “Tena, tei raro i te rua-ui parai.” Kua titiri iora a ia i te ranga—koia te kō nei—ki raro i te one; maranga maira te metua ki runga ma te ui katoa; kua kai iora i te ui tunu, kua aki-aki i te ui e kua titiri i reira. Kua kiriti i te au, ta atura a ia i a ratou; koia a Tautira, e oire.
Kua kiriti akera a Pai-tangaroa i a Ruau-tumu, ko te taii ia i te ui taua au ra. Ko Eora te ingoa i taua marae ra.- 56
Kia otiia, kua rave a ia i te au, kua tuku ki runga i te ūā, aere atura ki tona uaorai oire. Kua tarai iora i taua rakau ei rakau tamaki nana, ei ta i Tahiti kia pou takiri ei tutaki i te metua, a Reia.
Kare i akatikaia e te metua vaine, e Ina-mangamanga-i-aitu, i reira kua rokoia e te riri; kō atura i te rakau ki Mo'orea, puta atura i te mato i Mo'orea, oro atura, kiriti maira i te rakau; kō atura ki Tahiti, puta atura ia mato, mama atura ki muri mai i taua mato, topa atura ki raro i te kauvai, riro atura ei akaraanga ma te tangata aua nga puta ra, mei tei Mo'orea e tei Tahiti, mei reira mai e teia noa ai.
Ko ta te metua vaine pee teia; e tuatua au ki tana tama, e tako i te tuatua taito:—
E taku ariki e! ka tupu ra te io,- 57
I a Otini ma Orangi
Ko tē ki, ko tē pā, ko te papakia
Ki Te Mokoroa-i-ata. Ko Tangata-kato,
Ka noo i te vaine, i a Moana-arunga,
E pā ka eke ia vaine i a Tangata-kato,
Ka noo i te vaine i a Te Tuitui-ia-o-kuiono
Ka rito, ka kao ka tupu, ka metua ka roa ka pakari
Ka rito, ka kao, ka tutukia, ka tupakia
Ka turama, ka marama te enua i ē' iā ke'ā'ē'ke.
Aere ka tiki ka ranga i te ua o Reia,
Ko Tangata-kato ka noo i te vaine
I a Ina-mangamanga-i-aitu
Anau tana ariki ko Pai-tangaroa,
E Pai e! te Pai a nga nuku, te Pai a nga rangi,
Ta pai te rangi nei kia ngangata,
Ka ura mama, ka to te marino ki tai e,
Pai e te kura ki te Ruea, e Pai e,
E toka ra, ko Tokaeaea,
Tukua ki a Au-maru, e rakau ra.
Tukua ki a Au-maru e marae ra, ko Eora
Tukua ki a Au-maru nga korero i te araroa,
Tukua ki a Au-maru te pito, te tangaengae.
Tukua ki a Au-maru te pu ma te pau,
Tukua ki a Au-maru te urunga ma te păpă,
Tukua ki a Au-maru te unga ma te potiki,
Tukua ki a Au-maru, e ariki ra
Ka eke mai te rangi e, ko Au-maru,
Ei au, e taku tama; aua ei tamaki,
Oro mai e taku tama, e tu i runga,
Te tara pakuivi o Reia nui nei.
Ka tuia e Irimua, e Au-poto ua,
E taku tama te au o te tangata kai tamaki
Vaoo ua e taku tama to me rakau
Ei akaraanga na tai uki atu
Aere ki a Au-ruia, ki o to tupuna
Kia apii ia koe ki te korero,
Auraka ei tamaki, e tangata kai roa
E taku tama, te tangata akamou korero
Auraka ei tamaki e—
Tanumiā te au ē,
Ko mē 'i te enua, ko Autupu ē.
E tuatua ako na te metua vaine ki tana tama, mei te kapi toru mai e pukaua.
[Translation of No. 20.]
ABOUT MOU'A-PUTA (THE PIERCED MOUNTAIN) AT MO'OREA ISLAND.
THIS is the story of Reia and Mata-tini: A deadly feud existed between the two chiefs over a woman named Ina-mangamanga-i-aitu. She was Mata-tini's wife, and had been carried off by Reia. When the woman became pregnant to Reia, she desired some cooked yams, so her husband went to fetch some yams from Tautira, 8 where he was killed by Mata-tini on account of the woman. The men who had accompanied Reia, on their return reported that he was dead, at which the woman and Reia's younger brother, named Au-maru, deeply lamented.
The father of Au-maru was Au-ruia, and he said unto his son, “Take the woman thyself, the child which is conceived (the woman was pregnant to Reia) will be a warrior to avenge the death of Reia.” A son was born and named Pai-tangaroa.
When he had grown up he proved to be a great warrior; and thus was justified the words that Au-ruia had spoken, “The child which is already conceived will become a warrior to avenge the death of Reia.”
(On one occasion) when this young man returned from having deposited a man's skull at the marae of Opoa, 9 he said to his mother, “By whom am I?” His mother replied, “By me!” The lad then asked, “Who was my father?” The reply was, “Au-maru!” To this the lad replied, “Not so! I am by Reia!” The mother then acknowledged the truth of this. The boy then asked, “Where is my father?” She replied, “He is dead!” “Where did he die?” “At Tautira!” “Who killed him?” “Matatini!” “O I will go - 58 and fetch my father” (? his father's bones). “Do not go! you will be killed!” The lad replied, “I shall not be killed!”
He then took a ranga, 10 and with his servitors proceeded to Tau-tira, and on his arrival asked, “Where is my father Reia?” All the people replied, “There under the yam-pit he ripens” (means rotting). On thus he thrust the ranga—which was similar to a kō or spade—in the earth, and up came his father (? father's bones) together with the yams; he ate some of the cooked yams, and then gathered up the yams, destroyed them, and threw the pieces away. He pulled up an au (? Hibiscus), and (with it) commenced killing the people of Tautira village.
Then Pai-tangaroa took out his weapon, Ruau-tumu, which he had used to chop up the yams. The name of that marae was Eora.
When this was accomplished he took the au, placed (rested) it on his thigh, and thus carrying it returned to his own village. He then shaped that wood into a weapon of war, with which to kill all the Tahitians as payment for the death of his parent Reia.
But his mother, Ina-mangamanga-i-aitu, would not consent. But war intervened; he became incensed with anger, and he thrust (darted) his weapon at Mo'orea, it pierced the rock there; 11 he followed after the weapon and withdrew it, and cast it at Tahiti, piercing a rock there also, and it appeared on the near side, and fell into a river; and thus these holes remain as a sight for mankind down to the present day, both that at Mo'orea and that at Tahiti.
This is the mother's song; she repeated an ancient story (song) in favour of peace:—
TRANSLATION OF THE “TAKO” (SONG).
O my chief-like son! thy posterity shall arise—- 59
And spread from Otini to Orangi—(four corners of the earth)
The weight of whose mighty hand shall be felt
Like the flapping of the tail of the demon fish Te-Moko-roa-i-ata. 12
Took to wife one named Te-moana-a-runga,
Begat he many lines by that source:
Again he took to wife one named Te Tuitui-ia-o-Kuiono;
The seed was sown—it budded—it blossomed—attained maturity;
It spread out—and budded again and joined line to line—
Like the candle-nut strung on one stem;
'Tis lighted—it burns aglow and sheds its light around o'er the land;
Even so it is.
Go then to thy kindred, bid them to avenge Reia.
Tangata-kato took another wife, Ina-mangamanga-i-aitu;
She begat her first-born son Pai-tangaroa.
O Pai! O chief-like son of the land—the son of the heavens—
Smite O Pai! the heavens, the dark cloud that has spread o'er thee—
May it be rent asunder and lightly flee away—
That calm may spread o'er the face of the sea.
Take O Pai! the “kura” from the cave Ruea—
A sacred stone—Tokaeaea; give it to Au-maru;
A war weapon (spear) named ‘Kuau-tumu’
Give it to Au-maru; The Marae Eora—
Give O son to Au-maru—that he may tread the long war-path;
Bestow on Au-maru the right of chiefly command—
For the rending strife that may arise;
Give thou to Au-maru the house and contents—with the mat-making implement
Give to him the charge of the mothers and children of the tribe,
Give thou them all to Au-maru—who is an ariki—
Descend O emblem from the heavens on Au-maru—
Let there be peace O son—let not war prevail.
Come to me my son and stand—
On the shoulders of great Reia who lives in me—
Thy warriors Iri-mua and Au-poto shall uphold me—
Thou, O my son, art feared by war-makers.
Put down thy spear and leave it as a token—
That thy posterity may behold it.
Go thou to thy grandparent—to Auru-ia
That he may instruct thee in the korero
Let there be not war; for a man of war can ne'er be satiated;
But let my son be instead a man of wisdom and learning—
A keeper of the traditions of his house—
Let there be no war.
Plant deeply the spirit of peace,
That your rule may be known—the land of enforced peace.
This song was used by the mother to appease the wrath of her son.
[The chief Pai-tangaroa mentioned in the above story and song was apparently also known by the name of Tamarua-pai, and is mentioned in “Hawaiki,” 3rd Edition, page 240, as having accompanied Tangiia on his many voyages as chief navigator. If so, his period is about the middle of the thirteenth century.
The story of the pierced mountain in Mo'orea island (surely one of the most lovely places on this earth) named Mo'ua-puta, is very like the Scandinavian story of Senjemand, whose arrow pierced Torghatten mountain in Norway, and left a hole 289 feet high and 88 feet broad—somewhat the size of that in Mo'ua-puta.—Editor.]- 60
No. 21. TE TUATUA I TE TUNA ANGAI A TANGAROA MA TONGAITI.
Tera te tuatua i a Tuna; Kua angai taua Tuna ki raro i te puna-vai, ko Te Puna-i-a-Ruea te ingoa. Tera te ingoa o taua Tuna ra ko Maoro; te ingoa i nga tuaine, ko Kokopu-tapaēru e ko Tuna-apu.
Kua aere mai e tokorua tangata ko Tairi-tokerau te tane, ko Vaiēroa te vaine—ko nga metua iā o Rata-i-te-vao. Ko I-te-rangiora te tuakana, ko Rata te teina.
Kua aere mai ra nga metua kua kaviti i te Tuna angai a Tangaroa ma Tongaiti, koia a Maoro. Kua tarai i te kaviti kua maunu ki te karaii, e maunu poa, e tupukako. Ei reira nga tuaine o Maoro e karanga ai ki te tungane, “Auraka koe e kai, e maunu poa.” Kare i akarongo a Maoro. Ei reira nga tuaine e karanga ai, “E itu pukako; kia tae ki te itu o te pukako e mate ei koe.” Te tuku ra i te kaviti ki raro i te vai, te kai ra a Maoro i te kaviti, e ka tae ki te itu o te pukako te mate ra a Maoro.
Kia kite ra a Tangaroa ma Tongaiti kua pou a Maoro, kua riri nga atua, kua vaiia atura taua vai ra, kua taia atura taua enua ra e te vai ki te moana; pou atura taua enua tangata ra i te Toora, kare tetai i ora.
Kua aere atnra a I-te-rangiora ma Rata i te kimi i nga matua, kua aere atura raua e kimi, kare i kitea. Kua aravei atura raua i tetai tangata ko Ngana-oa te ingoa; kua ui mai aia, “Ka aere korua ki ea?” “Ka aere maua ka kimi i o maua nga matua.” Te karanga maira a ia, “Ka aere tatou. Kia kare korua e taoi i aku, kare korua e kite; e taoi korua i aku naku e akakite ki a korua i o korua matua.” Kua ui maira raua, “Teiea?” Kua tuatua maira a ia, “Tei roto i te kopu o te Toora!” Te karanga maira raua, “Ka aere tatou.”
Kua aere atura ratou ki te moana; te amama ua ra te va'a o te Toora, kua oro atura a Ngana-oa, kua toko atura i te va'a o te Toora, kua aere atura ratou ki roto i te kopu o te Toora. Tera taua enua tangata ra ma nga metua o Rata ma. Kua no'o ratou ki roto, tera te ravenga ta ratou i kimi, kua kotikoti ratou i te Toora kia mamae, a kia mamae taua ika ra, kua oro atura taua Toora ki runga i te akau, kua mate atura tana Toora, kua ora mai nga metua o I-te-rangiora raua ko Rata, kua no'o ki te enua.- 61
[Translation of No. 21.]
THE STORY OF THE TAME EEL OF TANGAROA AND TONGAITI.
[Stories connected with the Eel are frequent in Polynesian folklore, but they have more often to do with the demi-god Maui, than with Tangaroa. The above is one form of the story, which in the process of time has been interwoven into the story of Rata's search for his parents, to which, there can be little doubt, it did not originally belong. In the Maori version we find that Tuna dwelt in the heavens in the spring named Puna-kau-ariki, or in the river named Waihou—possibly the so-called river in the constellation of Erydanus; to him incantations were said as to a god—see “The Ancient History of the Maori,” Vol., I. p. 64, 124, etc., and many other references. But to find the origin of this myth we must go to India where Indra was the eel god—see J. F. Hewitt's “History and Chronology of the Myth Making Age,” p 500 et seq., London, 1901. This is not the place to enter into this question, but attention is merely drawn to the fact that Tuna is an interpolation into this story—and to the important statement, if true, that I-te-rangiora was a brother of Rata, the former being the great Polynesian navigator, known also as Ui-te-rangiora by Rarotongaus, and Hui-te-rangiora by Maoris. Far more complete histories of Rata's search for his parents—which is no doubt historically true—will be found in Journal Polynesian Society, Vol. XIX., p 142, by Mr. S. Savage, and 186 by Mr. A. Leverd, and “The Ancient History of the Maoris,” Vol I., II.]
The translation follows:—
“This is the story of Tuna the eel: That eel was fed down at the spring of water named Te Puna-i-a-Ruea, and the eel's name was Maoro. Its parents' names were Ura (Uira in Maori) and Tiaka, and its sisters' were Kokopu-tapaeru and Tuna-apu.
There came two people, husband and wife, named Tairi-tokerau and Vaiē-roa, who were the parents of Rata-i-te-vao, and his elder brother I-te-rangiora.
The above two people came and prepared a fish-hook for the eel belonging to the gods Tangaroa and Tongaiti, that is Maoro. They shaped out the fish-hook and then fastened on a crab, as bait, with a tu-pukako. 13 It was then the sisters of Maoro, the eel, said to their brother, “Do not eat of it, it is a bait.” But Maoro would not obey. Then said the sisters, “There are seven pukakos *; when you reach the seventh you will die.” The line and hook were let down into the water, and the bait was taken by Maoro, and when he reached the seventh pukako, he died.- 62
When Tangaroa and Tongaiti saw that Maoro was dead they were very angry, and they caused that water to burst out, which carried off that land to the sea where the land and people were swallowed by the Toora, or whale—not one escaped.
I-te-rangiora and Rata went off to look for their parents, but their search was unsuccessful, they could not find them. They met a certain man named Ngana-oa, who asked them, “Where are you going?” “We are in search of our parents.” He then said, “Let us go together. If you do not take me with you you will not find them, but if you do I will show you where they are.” “Where are they?” He replied “In the belly of the whale!” Then they said, “Let us all go!”
They all then went on to the ocean; where they saw the great open mouth of the whale; Ngana-oa went on and propped open the mouth, into which they all entered and descended to the belly of the whale, where they found that land and Rata's parents that had been swept away. Whilst they remained there they devised a scheme; they cut into the whale to give it pain, and when it felt it, it rushed on to the reef and there that fish died, whilst the parents of I-te-rangiora and Rata were saved, and remained in that land.
(The writer then quotes the Biblical story of Jonah and the Whale, as being similar to this.)
No. 22. E TUATUA KAI TANGATA I RAROTONGA.
E TUATUA teia no tetai tangata ka ano ka pou i te kai e te Ati-raui. Kua tapepeia a ia e, e keia:—
Kua akaputuputu te Ati-raui ki te ngai okotai; no to ratou uipaanga kua akakiteia e, kua pou te raui i te keia. Kua tapapeia tetai tangata no Mauke ki taua keia ra. Tera tona ingoa ko Tuatau. Kua takinaia mai taua tangata ra ki taua uipaanga ra; kua ui ratou ki a ia, “E, naau i keia te raui?” Kua akakite a ia e, “Kare!” Kua riri i reira te Ati-raui; kua takaikai i a ia ki te kaa kia piri, e kua taki a ia ki te ngai e tao ei. Kua aere i reira te tangata e tiki i te vaiē ei tau ei.
Ei reira taua tangata ra e tautopa ai ki tona atna, ki a Te Angi, “E Te Angi e! Tai tika ora naau i aku. Ka mate au!” E reira tona atua e uru ei ki roto i tetai vaine kia tatara i te kaa. Kia matara te kaa, kua oro taua taugata ra. Kua kapiki taua vaine ra ki te Ati-raui, - 63 “Kua ora ta kotou tangata!” Na taua vaine rai i tatara. Kua aere mai te Ati-raui; kua arumaki, e kua vaitata i te rauka. Kua kapiki akaou a ia, ki tona atua, “E Te Angi! Akamamā i a au kia kore au e rokoia!” I reiri tona atua e akamamā ai i a ia kia kore a ia e rokoia e te Ati-raui.
Ina ra, kia tae ki te ānā, kua pati akaou ki tona atua kia akaora i a ia, no te mea kua tae ki te ngai e mate ei a ia, “Akareia au, E Te Angi! Kia ora au!” Ei reira tona atua e akarere; kua ora taua tangata i reira ra. Kua oki te Ati-raui i reira, no te mea kua ora. Tera tana tuatua, “Kua tiaki tikai koe i aku, E taku atua!” Tera te tuatua opengo a taua tangata ra, “Otira oki, E taku atua! Naau ua nei ka ora ei au.”
[Translation of No. 22.]
A CANNIBAL STORY OF RAROTONGA.
THIS is the account of a certain man who was very nearly eaten by the Ati-raui people. He was accused of being a thief:—
The Ati-raui all assembled together at one place; and on gathering together it was reported that their preserve (? of fruit, or pigs) had been violated and stolen. A certain man from Mauke island, named Tuatua, was accused of the theft. The man was hauled before the assembly, where he was asked, “Was it you who stole from the preserves?” He replied that he had not done so. At this the Ati-raui people were very angry; they seized and bound the man with ropes, and then led him to a place where he was to be cooked. Then the men went off to gather firewood with which to cook him.
The prisoner now called on his god, Te Angi, to save him. “O Te Angi! Be gracious unto me and save me, for I am about to be killed.” On this his god entered into a certain woman, who thereon proceeded to loosen the cords which bound him. When they were undone he fled. The woman then said to the Ati-raui, “Your man has fled!” It was she who had untied him. Then the Ati-raui all started off to chase the prisoner, but when they had nearly succeeded in catching him, the man again called on his god, “O Te Angi! Hasten my footsteps so that I may not be overtaken.” His god complied with his prayer so he might not be caught by the Ati-raui.
Now when he arrived at a cave, the man again implored his god to save him, because he had now reached a place where he would probably be caught. “Cause me to disappear, O Te Angi! that I may live.” This the god did, and so that man was saved. The Ati-raui returned - 64 from there because the man had been saved. He said to his god, “You have truly guarded my life, O my god!” And the last word of that man was, “But, O my god! it was thee alone that saved me.”
(This little story illustrates the one punishment for any serious offence used by all Polynesians, viz., death. A suspected individual had little chance when tried by those whom he was accused (rightly or wrongly) of having injured.)
(To be continued.)
1 Expressed in the Mangaia dialect.—Editor.
2 Expressed in the Rarotongan dialect.—Editor.
3 Ii is the Rarotongan form of Samoan Ifi, the chestnut (Inocarpus edulis). The scene of this story is in Samoa.
4 Taunga is a priest; also an artisan, architect, canoe-builder, weapon-maker, &c., &c.
5 This statement is no doubt a modern gloss; and arises from the fact that the celebrated Karika did possess a weapon of that name. Tu-tarangi, as will be seen from the table, lived 63 generations ago, whilst Karika—who was a contem-porary of Tangiia-nui—flourished 30 generations ago, according to the table herein given; but 26 generations ago is the mean number. Probably Karika's weapon was named after the more famous one belonging to Tu-tarangi.
6 Here the writer gives the sea-snake the name of the fresh water eel.
7 The Maota is a large handsome tree common in Samoa (where the scene of this story is laid). A very fine group stands in front of Robert Louis Stevenson's house at Vailima, behind Apia, Upolu, Samoa, under the branches of which is a lovely view from the house over the woods to Apia, and the ocean beyond.
8 Tautira is situated on the Taiarapu peninsula, East side of Tahiti, and is one of the most beautiful spots in the Pacific.
9 It is a question whether this is the celebrated marae of Opoa at Ra'iatea Island, or some other—perhaps on Tahiti Island.
10 A spear about six to eight feet long, used as a crowbar. It was in shape like a native spade.—S. S.
11 This refers to the aperture in Mou'a-puta, the mountain on the east side of Mo'orea Island, through which is a hole that may be seen from the west coast of Tahiti.
12 The monster fish overcome by Maui. J. P. S., Vol. Vlll., p. 72.
13 This word is not known to the translator. Possibly it refers to the extenders often used in fishing.