Volume 25 1916 > Volume 25, No. 99 > Ngati-Tuharetoa occupation of Taupo-nui-a-tia, by Hoeta Te Hata, p 104-116
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- 104

TAUPO-NUI-A-TIA is the name of the country around the great Taupo Lake, North Island of New Zealand. Over what extent of country the name was used has never been accurately defined, but it seems to have been applied to the whole of the Lake basin.

This would mean the eastern watershed of the Hauhunga-roa Range; the western watershed of the Kaimanawa Range; the northern watershed of the Tongariro Group, and as far north as Ati-a-muri and Orakei-korako.

The greater part of the story deals with characters and localities within the above area, but occasionally it steps outside and mentions other places and other people.

Owing to the repetitions and circumlocutions of the Maori writer a word for word translation is not given, but the writer's meaning is rendered as far as we have been able to obtain it.

We are inserting in the text such explanations of names, localities, customs, and other things as may be thought necessary to help the text. Such explanations will be enclosed in brackets. The translation follows:— 1

I AM not able to tell the story of the things before the coming of Tia and Nga-Toro-i-rangi, but will begin at their coming. Tia and Nga-Toro-i-rangi came to New Zealand in the “Arawa” canoe. 2 They came to this island and landed at Maketu. Some of the voyagers began at once to call out the boundaries of the land they claimed, but Tia did not claim any for himself; he came on to this - 105 land [of Taupo]. On his arrival here the land was without inhabitants; he saw none. He went on to the place which is now called Hamaria, but its former name was Paka. The name Hamaria was given by the Missionaries. [Hamaria (Samaria) is the present name of a Maori kainga on the shore of Lake Taupo, about eighteen miles from the township, on the eastern shore.] Tia dwelt there and built a tūāhu for himself, and called the name of the tūāhu Hikurangi. [The erection of a tūāhu was for the due observance of religious rites and also as a sign of occupancy.] He also named the rocky cliff there Taupo-nui-a-Tia. [The cliff is in full view of the passing traveller.] Tia dwelt there for some time, but he saw no human inhabitants.

After a time Nga-Toro-i-rangi arrived and ascended Tauhara mountain, from the summit he threw his spear into the lake. The spear stood upright in the water, and stands there to this day, the point downwards and the butt up! It is not far out but close to the shore at Wharewaka. [Tauhara is an old volcano at the north-eastern end of Lake Taupo. Wharewaka is the name of the point jutting into the lake four miles from the township of Taupo on the eastern side. The distance from the summit of Tauhara to Wharewaka is seven miles! In the days of long ago, to throw a spear that short distance was a mere trifle!] Nga-Toro-i-rangi descended the mountain and reached the lake at Taharepa. [About one mile from Taupo.]

He built a tūāhu there and named it Te Tuahu-a-Nga-Toro-i-rangi. It was by means of incantations performed at this tūāhu that he killed the fish in the lake, and then by scattering shreds of his garment on the water he produced the fish named kokopu (Galaxias fasciatus), and inanga (Galaxias attenuatus). He then travelled on towards the south and reached Roto-ngaio and built a tūahu there and named it Hawaiki. [Roto-ngaio is a small lake, a few acres in area, separated from Taupo lake by a narrow sandspit; ten miles from Taupo.] He marched on and came to Hatepe and built another tuahu there and called the name thereof Ihuporo. [Hatepe is still the name of a Maori kainga on the edge of the lake sixteen miles from Taupo.] Nga-Toro-i-rangi went on to Hamaria and saw Tia's tuahu. He noticed that the mat of the marae (or yard) was quite green. He built a tuahu for himself, and brought some very dry material, nearly rotten, to make a mat for the marae. The wood for the posts of the tuahu was likewise old and decayed.

After this he found Tia, and at once asked him when he arrived. Tia replied that he had been there a long time. Nga-Toro' said that he had arrived there first. Tia said, “No. I did!” Nga-Toro' said, “Our tūāhus will show perhaps. Let us go and see.” Tia agreed to this and followed Nga-Toro' until they came to Tia's tūāhu. Nga-Toro' said, “Look, the material of your tūāhu is quite new. It was on account of this that I said I was the first here. Now let us go and see - 106 mine.” When they arrived Tia examined the material and found it very old. Because of this he agreed that Nga-Toro' was the first arrival. 3

They went on together from this place towards the south and came to Motutere. They built a tūāhu there and named it Mahuehue. [Motu-tere is about twenty-two miles from Taupo.] They passed on from Motu-tere and came to Toka-anu. [Toka-anu is a large native settlement at the south end of the lake.] They separated here Nga-Toro-i-rangi going towards Tongariro. Tia went to Tuhua Hauhungaroa, Hurakia and Titiraupeka. [These are the Maori names, in order, from the upper Whanganui River to the northern boundary of the western watershed.] Tia died at Titiraupeka. Tuamatua married Tauna, and had Tia who had Tapuika, who had Maranga-paroa, who had Tu-whakmaru, who had Kauae, who had Rongomai-aia, who married Tane-turiwera, who had Hine-tuki, who married Tarira, who had Tu-te-tawha, who married Hine-mihi, who had Te Rangi-ita, who married Waitapua, who had Tama-mutu, who married Te Hiko. [This Tama-mutu, from whom a number of the Taupo families trace their descent, lived about two hundred years ago.] Ngati-Tuwharetoa trace their ancestry to Tia and Nga-Toro-i-rangi, every family of them, and all those who dwell in Taupo-nui-a-Tia on every side.

When Nga-Toro' separated from Tia he went to the Rangipo. [The Rangipo is the piece of country between the Tonga-riro group and the southern portion of the Kaimanawa Range. It is the watershed of the upper Waikato, Whanga-ehu, and a tributary of the Rangitikei.] At this place he met Hape-ki-tuarangi; and after they had greeted each other, Nga-Toro' said to Hape', “O Hape, how do you live and what do you get to eat in this expanse of earth?” Hape replied, “My breath is my food, for the Kai-manawa [which means ‘eat breath’] range stands there.” Hape then asked Nga-Toro' where he was going, and he replied that he was going to climb Tongariro mountain. Hape then warned him to be careful that he be not overcome by the winds of heaven, but Nga-Toro' scornfully replied that he could meet storms of all kinds. 4 At the beginning of the ascent he was sore beset by the winds of heaven. Hence the name Rangipo. - 107 Then he was attacked by storms of all kinds; wind, rain and sleet rushing up from the Whangaehu River and from the Waikato River. Then began the assault of the snow, but Nga-Toro' climbed upwards until he reached the summit, with his jaws chattering with the cold. He at once shouted out for his sisters, Te Pupu and Te Hoata to bring him some fire; the women heard the voice of their brother and they came at once from Hawaiki, bringing some fire with them. They came by way of Whakāri, and at Waipiro they heard Nga-Toro' calling a second time to them to hasten. By this second call the sisters knew their brother was on Tongariro, so they came straight on to Tongariro by way of Umu-pokapoka, Punoke, Roto-mahana, Wai-o-tapu, Ohaki, Roto-kawa, Tapuae-haruru and Toka-anu. [The above are the Maori names of places of thermal activity on a line from the coast to Tongariro.] On the arrival of the fire Nga-Toro' revived, and they began their return to Maketu in the Bay of Plenty. As they went they kindled fires at the other side of Taupo, at Wai-mahana, Whakarewarewa, Ohine-mutu and Tikitere. [These are the other centres of thermal activity.] They passed on to the island Motiti and lived there, and Nga-Toro' died there.

After Nga-Toro' and Tia, the Ngati-Hotu tribe came and lived at Taupo. Beginning at the northern end, they spread south, until they reached the southern end of the lake. After these came the offspring of Kurapoto, Kawhea, Hei-marama and Rongomai-tutaeaka. These came and led the way for others. Kawhea went towards Runanga and Tarawera. [Two old Maori pas on the Napier-Taupo road.] Hei-marama and Rongomai-tutaeaka came on to Taupo and found the Ngati-Hotu dwelling there. There was strife between Ngati-Kurapoto and Ngati-Hotu, beginning at Ati-a-muri and coming on to Taupo. Ponui, Maunganui-a-Wawatai and Te Kirikiri were besieged and taken by Ngati-Kurapoto. [These pas are on the western side of Tapuae-haruru Bay, Lake Taupo. Te Kirikiri was on a low point jutting out into the lake about three miles from Taupo. Ponui was on higher ground about a quarter of a mile further south, and Maunganui-a-Wawatai on the high bluff known as Whakaiho.]

Ngati-Kurapoto then crossed to the east side of the Waikato and went on towards Roto-ngaio. They besieged and took Te Tara-o-te-Marama, O-tutete, O-kehu, Te Poporo, Poutu, Horo-tanuku and Te Puhou. [These pas are situated along the eastern side of the lake, Te Tara-o-te-Marama overlooking Roto-ngaio. O-tutete also overlooking Roto-ngaio, but nearly half a mile west of Te Tara-o-te-Marama. O-kehu was further south, overlooking the Hatepe, which is fourteen miles by road from Taupo. Poporo and Poutu were on the hills overlooking the lake near Motu-tere, about twenty-one miles from Taupo. Horo-tanuku, of which Matahi was chief, was at Tauranga - 108 Taupo, twenty-four miles from Taupo. Te Puhou was also near Tauranga.]

This was the end of the strife against Ngati-Hotu [in the northern end of Taupo]. The survivors fled and lived at Oue-maro-rangi, near the present settlement of Korohe, twenty miles from Taupo. All the land was taken by the strength of the weapons of Ngati-Kurapoto, under the leadership of Hei-marama and Rongomai-tu-taeaka. This was one of the reasons why Ngati-Tuharetoa came and spread themselves over the land, and afterwards occupied the pas of Ngati-Hotu.


Tuharetoa did not come to fight against the children of Kurapoto for they were relatives, but they came in pursuit of Maruiwi and Pakau-moana to slay them. This was to avenge the disastrous defeat of a party of Ngati-Tuharetoa at Kakatarae in the Heru-iwi country [on the east side of the Kaingaroa Plains]. At this fight three of the chief men of Tuharetoa were killed, and many of the rank and file. The names of the chiefs killed were Rongomai-te-nganana, Matangi-kai-awha and Taniwha-paretuiri, the wife of Matangi-kai-awha was taken prisoner, and the dead fell into the hands of Maruiwi and Pa-kaumoana. They were brought to Purotu on the Mohaka River [near the bridge on the Napier-Taupo road], and were piled in the oven in a great heap. Hence the names there, Wha-tihi and Umu-ariki. All the bodies were of young men of rank. The survivors fled to the Ngati-Kurapoto at Taupo, and on their arrival there came upon the Waiaruhe of Hine-kaharoa. [Waiaruhe is the name of one of the springs that form the source of the Mangamutu, a tributary of the Wai-tahanui stream which enters Taupo lake eight miles from Taupo.] The fugitives ate the fern root they found there, and Hine-kaharoa heard that all her fern root had been consumed. She was very angry and in her wrath said, “Leave the fern root, the bones of Rangitu and Tangaroa.” These men were ancestors of Tuharetoa through Tua-matua, and in consequence they were very much upset at the words of Hine-kaharoa. Rakei-hopukia and his people returned to Kawerau and told the tribe of Hine's curse. When the rest of Tuharetoa heard of it they were angry, and under the leadership of Rakei-poho, Taringa and Rereao, started for Taupo to avenge the insult. They came on to Taupo and found Ngati-Kurapoto in their pa at Te Tara-o-te-Marama. The pa was besieged by Taringa and Rakei-poho, but they failed to take it. Peace was made, and a great sacrifice of dogs was offered to give satisfaction for the words of Hine-kaharoa. The number of the dogs was seventy. The place where they were cooked was called Te Umu-kuri. This place is just below Te Tara-o-te-Marama, and it is still known by the name of Te Umukuri. Taringa and Rakei-poho did not invest O-tutete, O-kehu, Te Poporo or Poutu. They went on - 109 to Tauranga [on Lake Taupo], and from thence to Toka-anu. Rereao came by way of Kaingaroa, and kept inland [away faom the shores of Taupo] until he took Oue-maro-rangi. This pa belonged to Ngati-Hotu and some of Ngati-Kurapoto. Tipapa-kereru, chief of Ngati-Hotu was killed here. Rereao went on and took another pa at the source of the Toka-anu stream. This was the last of the Ngati-Hotu pas in this district, the people being exterminated and their land passing to the descendants of Tuharetoa, and the northern end to Ngati-Kurapoto and Marua-hine. Strife ceased between them and the offspring of Kurapoto, Maruahine, and Tuharetoa intermarried and lived at Taupo. The children are reckoned as the offspring of Tuharetoa, from Taringa, Rakei-poho, Rereao, Rongomai-te-ngangana, Taniwha, Matangi-kai-awha, Rakei-hopukia and others; each company and each division of them on every side are called Tuharetoa-i-te-Aupouri.

We return to what we have said about Ngati-Tuharetoa and Maruiwi, the taking away of those killed and the captivity of Pare-tuiri at the hands of Pakau-moana. Some time afterwards a party of Tuharetoa followed them, but not for the purpose of fighting. They wished to perform a certain operation on the field of battle where their brethren had been killed, and to lift the tapu from the place, and also to see where the bodies of their relatives had lain. They passed on and reached the Mohaka River, and saw the place where their brethren had been cooked. They caught some of the company of Maruiwi there and killed them. They took out the heart of one of them and roasted it in the fire, and offered it in the ceremony of whangai-hau to the god. At the conclusion of the whangai-hau the priest ordered a hole to be dug, when finished he warned his party not to laugh at him, and taking off his clothes, he thrust his head into the hole and uttered a karakia, or prayer. When the karakia was finished the tohunga, or priest, arose and told Rakei-hopukia and his friends that it was finished, he had consigned Maruiwi to Hades.

This operation was a form of makutu, otherwise known as whakanania. Its effect was to cause the total destruction of Maruiwi and Pakau-moana. The party then returned to Taupo to eat the fern-root of Hine-kaharoa.

At the beginning of the flight of Maruiwi and Pakau-moana to Here-taunga (Hawke's Bay), they came one evening to Kaiwaka, to the place called the Arawhata-a-Wharekotore. These places are on the old Napier-Taupo road between Petani and Pohue.

They stopped there to sleep, and started to gather firewood, when fear came upon them and they fled, leaving their firewood. The name of the place has since been known as Wahie-anoa. They came to Te Paho and straight on by Pokopoko. [About three miles from Pohue.] This is a river, narrow and gorgy, narrow at the top and widening out below. They did not see the river because the ground was level, and - 110 in the dark they did not notice a crossing. They had no idea that such a river was there. In the fighting that night Maruiwi was in front and Pakau-moana behind when the fall into the river took place. There was no shout of warning, nor anything for those in front to tell those behind what was happening ahead of them. They all fell into the river and were killed on the rocks; not one of them survived. In the morning it was known that Maruiwi and his people were all killed. The river was so stained with blood that it flowed out into the Manga-one and then into the Tutae-kuri, and it was seen by the people outside as if the whole river was flowing with blood. Pakau-moana and his people went on to Hei-pipi, now called Petani, and lived there. 5

Ngati-Tuharetoa trace back to Pakau-moana as follows:—Pakau-moana had Tu-pouri-ao, who married Tute-ihonga and had Rumakina, who married Koraha who had Kearoa, who married Kura-tawhiti and had Tu-rauha, who married Kura-tawhiti the 2nd and had Rakai-te-kura, who married Te Rangi-tuehu and had Tuaka, who married Te Angiangi and had Mahina-rangi, who married Tu-rongo and had Raukawa, who had Taki-hiku, who had Upoko-iti who had Te Ata-inu-tai, who married Te Kahu-rere-moa who had Waitapu, who married Te Rangi-ita and had descendants.


Turi-roa heard that Pare-tuiri was still living and that she had been well treated by Pakau-moana because he was related to her. So Turi-roa went to Pakau-moana's pa at Hei-pipi and said that he had come to fetch Pare-tuiri. Pakau-moana was willing to let her go, and he placed her hand in Turi-roa's and she went with him. Pare-tuiri's first son was by Matangi-kaiawha, who was killed at Kakatarae, and his name was Umu-ariki. After her marriage with Turi-roa she had children, who are reckoned as Tuhare-toa. Hine-rauone was his sister.

After the return of Pare-tuiri some of the Ngati-Kurapoto were living at Mohaka Tapapa, near the head waters of the Mohaka River. Ngati-Whiti-kaupeka and Marua-hine were also living there, and marriages were frequent between the members of the different tribes. A sister of Marua-hine number one belonged to Whiti-kaupeka tribe, she married Tupangia of Kura-poto. Kurapoto married Haua-nui and had Kawhea, who had Tama-uarehua who had Tu-pangia, who married Marua-hine.

Pare-tuiri was living at Mohaka-Tapapa, and she went to Poponui, a place close by, to dig fern-root for herself. She dug the fern-root - 111 and stacked it in heaps to dry, and when ready she placed it in kits, and on top of the fern-root some perei [perei is something like the kumara in appearance, but it grows among the fern, and she got them while digging the fern.] As she returned to the pa she passed close to a heap of kumara in a kumara plantation. The name of the plantation was Paenga-roa, for kumara grows well in that place. Some children of Ngati-Whiti saw the perei on top of Pare-tuiri's kit of fern-root and they said that it was kumara from Paenga-roa. 6

The children spoke to their elders of Ngati-Whiti and said that kumara from Paenga-roa had been stolen by Pare-tuiri. Ngati-Whiti at once caught the woman and killed her. As soon as the members of Ngati-Kurapoto living there heard of the death of Pare-tuiri at the hands of Whitikaupeka, they at once commenced to fight against Whiti. The leader of Kurapoto was Ranginui-a-Haweri, a nephew of Pare's by her sister Pahau-moko and with him were Whakarua and Turiroa. They first sent a messenger to Taupo to tell Ngati-Kurapoto and Ngati-Tuharetoa that Pare-tuiri had been killed by Ngati-Whiti. The people of Kurapoto and Tuharetoa at once started by way of Taharua, and went towards the mouth of the Taharua stream. They came to Tutae-puehu one of the crossings of the Taharua and there met a woman named Hine-te-kikini. They pursued and caught her and questioned her as to the whereabouts of their enemies. They were told that they were all shut up in their pas. At the close of the examination she was killed, and a block of pumice stone was set up and called Hine-te-kikini after her. That block of pumice stands there to this day. The woman belonged to Whitikaupeka. After her death at the hands of the war-party, the party proceeded against some of the pas belonging to Whitikaupeka, against Rounui and Rouiti. These pas were taken. Then were gathered all those living in the pas belonging to Ranginui-a-Haweri, Tupuritia, Wharua and Turiroa, together with Kurapoto and Tuharetoa against Pakira, Te Unahi and Po-te-heuea. A running fight took place in Amaru [a river, a tributary of the Mohaka], then on Te-Ranga-a-Whakarua by Ngaruroro to O-whaoko 7 where the fight ended. Through this fight those lands came into the possession of Ngati-Kurapoto and Ngati-Tuharetoa. The name of a mountain there was called Te-Ranga-a-Whakarua, because in the pursuit of Whitikaupeka, Whakarua for the first time climbed up from the bottom of the mountain to the top. Hence the name Te-Ranga-a-Whakarau. Te - 112 Wai-a-Tapuritia was so named because Tapuritia was killed in the water there, where the dead of Whitikaupeka were piled in heaps.


These pas were in Tapapa and belonged to Ngati-Kurapoto. Rounui and Rouiti were between Amaru and Kaipo. These rivers join and form the Mohaka. It is there where the kumara plantation is which is called Paenga-roa. It is a large cultivation containing about twenty acres. The oven of Pare-tuiri is there [the oven in which she was cooked]. As a result of the fighting of Kurapoto and Tuharetoa against Whiti they got possession of a large area of land. Beginning at the Mohaka through Tapapa and Pohatu-a-Waha, Hara-topuni, Te Mimi-o-Hinekaitangi, Ahi-kaeaea, Papa-kopuru, Pa-maurea, Tara-o-Huikanga, Te Kohairoa, Ama-whiti, Manga-tainoka, Nga-kaweka-iti, Te Puku-o-Hikarna, Ma-korako, Manawa-ruruku and Owhaoko. All this land came into the possession of Ngati-Kurapoto and Tuharetoa at that time, and has remained so to this day. The Native Land Court confirmed their claim against Ngati-Whiti and Ngati-Kahungunu. Here endeth this story.


Ngati-Apa tribe dwelt at Roto-a-Ira, it was also the dwelling place of Tu-te-tawha and his younger brother Te Rapuhoro. On one occasion the two of them went to Pukawa, Whare-roa, Karanga-hape, Hauhunga-roa and Tuhua. [Pukawa, Whare-roa and Karanga-hape are the names of blocks of land fronting the Taupo Lake from Waihi, near Toka-anu, to beyond the Karanga-hape cliffs in the western bay of lake Taupo.] Then they went on to Hauhunga-roa and Tuhua. This journey was for the purpose of taking possession of Tuhua for himself (Tu-te-tawha). He got as far as Puke-tapu, to the watershed of the Taringa-motu. [Taringa-motu is a stream that joins the O-ngarue about four miles above the modern town of Taumaru-nui.] Then he heard the sound of the trumpet of Te Kanawa [an ancestor of Ngati-Maniapoto]. When Tu-te-tawha heard the sound of the trumpet of Te Kanawa roaring over the mountains of Tuhua, he fell prone to the earth and there was no strength left in him. The name of the place where he fell was called Takapu-tiraha-o-Tu-te-tawha. [This is the name of a place at Puke-tapu.] The descendants of Tu-te-tawha dwell in the places he travelled over, and which were also explored by Tia, up to the place where he met Te Kanawa. On their return they dwelt for a while at their village at Roto-a-Ira, but, owing to quarrels with Ngati-Whiti, they gathered their things and moved on to Karanga-hape. The name of his pa was Motu-tara [an island out in the lake]. While there Hine-mihi of Whakatāne came to him. The reason of her coming was Tu-te-tawha, although it was said the real - 113 reason of her coming was her liking for huahua. [Birds preserved in their own fat.] Hine-mihi was the younger sister of Hine-aro, who had married Pakira. Pakira's people, Ngati-Poto of O-pepe and Tauhara [places just out of Taupo on the Napier road], prepared a lot of huahua and gave it to Hine-aro, who was returning to Whakatāne with a party of Ngati-Kurapoto. When they arrived Hine-aro gave the huahua to her brother Tu-hereua. When Hine-mihi saw the huahua out flew her hand to take some of it for herself. On seeing this her brother, Tu-hereua, thrust her hand away and said to her, “Go to Taupo to Tu-te-tawha and let him be your husband, then you may eat huahua.” Hine-mihi was overcome with shame at the words of Tu-hereua her brother.

When Ngati-Kurapoto returned with Hine-aro to Taupo, Hine-mihi, with Te Aki-pare her younger sister, returned with them. They got as far as O-pepe and then Hine-mihi asked Pakira as to the whareabouts of the dwelling place of Tu-te-tawha. Pakira pointed out the direction of Roto-a-Ira and Hauhunga-roa in the distance.

Hine-mihi at once prepared to move on, and as she went she wondered if Tu-te-tawha would be pleased to see her.

When she arrived at Te Ponga [a small kainga on the edge of Roto-a-Ira where the track from Toka-anu leaves the forest] she rested for a short time. Then she adorned herself for her visit to the home of Tu-te-tawha. She combed her hair and girded herself with her korohunga, then she threw her paepaeroa over her shoulder. After putting on her garments she took out her calabash of sweet scented oil. The sweet scents in the oil were tarata (Pittosporum eugenoides), tawhiri (Pittosporum tenuifolium), mokimoki (Doodia baudala), taramea (Achphylla squarrosa) and titoki (Alectryon excelsum). These were the things the Maoris used for scent in their oil. She tied up her scent and hung it round her neck. Then she took an albatross plume [also scented with the scents mentioned above] and placed it in her ear. Her head was adorned with a heron plume called Te Rau-o-Titapu. Hine-mihi thought that she was like Te Au-o-Karewa, as she went along scattering a sweet smell on every side. The name of that place was henceforth called Te Ponanga-o-te-hei-o-Hine-mihi. Hine-mihi went on and came to Roto-a-Ira where Tu-te-tawha was living. As soon as she was seen the cry was raised, “It is Hine-mihi! It is Hine-mihi!” She was welcomed and stopped there for a short time, while the people gazed at her as if she were Te Au-o-Karewa sitting there. The sweetness of the perfume with which she had anointed herself was spread on every side.

When the welcome was ended they all went up to the pa to the people and Tu-te-tawha.

- 114

Tu-te-tawha married Hine-mihi and their children were Te Rangi-ita, Tuara-kino, Parapara-hika and Turu-makina. Of these Rangi-ita was the eldest, and Turu-makina was a girl.

At that time Tu-te-tawha was living in fear of his old enemies the Whiti-Kaupeka tribe, so he moved on to a pa he had called Motu-tara at Karanga-hape, on the shores of Taupo. While living there, one summer, at the time when the maire berries were ripe on Hauhunga-roa, and pigeons feeding on the berries, Tu-hereua had a desire to see his sisters Hine-mihi, Hine-aro and Te Aki-pare. Tuhereua had two reasons for coming. The first was his love towards his sisters, and the second was his desire to see his brother-in-law Tu-te-tawha. It was summer at that time and huahua was not a summer food, huahua is only used in winter, with the exception of Pakira, who had huahua at the wedding feast when he married Hine-aro.

Tu-hereua reached Taupo, the dwelling place of Pakira and Hine-aro, at Tauhara, and asked his sister about the locality of Tu-te-tawha's pa. Pakira and Hine-mihi said that it was at Hauhunga-roa, at the headland standing out at Karanga-hape. [Tu-te-tawha's pa was visible across the Taupo lake from Pakira's dwelling place.] The men to the number of ten went on board a canoe and paddled across to Karanga-hape. They were seen by some of Hine-mihi's slaves, who at once called out to their mistress that a canoe was approaching and was near the headland of Karanga-hape.

Hine-mihi called to them to examine the visitors carefully for it might be Pakira and Hine-aro. The servants replied that there were many men on the canoe. Hine-mihi came out of the house and looked carefully at the canoe, that was now close at hand, and she recognised her brother.

So she told her slaves that it was her brother Tu-hereua coming in the canoe. Hine' at once commenced a tangi of welcome to her brother as the canoe approached. Tu-hereua was a most handsome man and was well-known on every side.

The canoe reached the landing place and those on board heard the calling and the tangi. They stood in the marae (or plaza) until the tangi was finished, and then they entered the house. Tu-te-tawha and most of the tribe were in the mountains at Hauhunga-roa snaring pigeons and preparing huahua. There were not many at the pa. Hine-mihi, Te Aki-pare and their slaves, with the old men and women were all the inhabitants the place contained when Tu-hereua arrived. As soon as the party had entered the house Hine-mihi commanded the slaves to prepare food as quickly as possible. The fires were soon blazing, and kits of fern-root were brought to Hine-mihi and then placed near the fires. Then began the roasting and the beating of the fern-root, the old women pounding, and the slaves roasting the roots - 115 until they were cooked. Tu-hereua's men thought that the slaves were a long time preparing the food, and they frequently asked each other what progress the slaves were making. Some of them replied that the slaves were still pounding fern-root. Tu-hereua was lying down just below the window so he was able to report progress from time to time. A huge heap of root was pounded, and then Hine-mihi opened up the storehouse where the huahua was kept. While she was doing this Tu-hereua asked one of his men to look out and see what was being done. He replied that Hine-mihi was digging in the earth. The woman uncovered the pit and took up a papa [vessel made of totara bark] full of huahua and placed it outside. Hine-mihi and her slaves then took the prepared food and the huahua and placed it before her brother Tu-hereua. The fern-root was offered with the huahua as a relish, and Tu-hereua and his men set to and eat until they were satisfied. When it was evening Hine-mihi went into the whare and sat down by the side of her brother. Among other things, Tu-hereua asked Hine-mihi where her husband Tu-te-tawha was. Hine-mihi replied that he was at Hauhunga-roa. He then asked, “What notice have you of Tu-te-tawha's coming?” Hine-mihi replied, “Before long you will hear the sound of a trumpet from the top of the ridge, that will be Tu-te-tawha and his people.”

A message had reached Tu-te-tawha that his brother-in-law Tu-hereua had arrived. So when they had finished packing the properly cooked huahua in the papas they were carried up to the top of the ridge overlooking the lake. Then Tu-te-tawha sounded his trumpet, and Tu-hereua knew by the sound that Tu-te-tawha was coming.

They met at the pa and lived there for a long time, and Tu-hereua married a woman from the Waikato tribe named Wai-pare. The name of the trumpet of Tu-te-tawha was “Nga-tai-o-para-nui.”

After the marriage of Tu-hereua and Wai-pare, Tu-hereua made Taupo his permanent dwelling place. One day he said to Tu-te-tawha, ‘Friend, in the event of war this is a very bad place to be in [meaning the pa Motu-tara]. Have you no other dwelling places?” Tu-te-tawha replied that he had plenty of other places to live in further on. Tu-hereua then said to Tu-te-tawha, “Let us leave this place and go and see some of the other places.” Tu-te-tawha accepted the advice of his brother-in-law. They left Motu-tara, went on board their canoes and paddled away until they came to Whakauenuku. [A point of land to the east of Karanga-hape cliffs.] Tu-te-tawha said it was one of his dwelling places.

Tu-hereua said it was not suitable. They paddled on to Whareroa. [A small stream running into the lake about eight miles from Tokaanu.] Tu-hereua said, it would not do because there was no - 116 protection for canoes [in an easterly wind]. At this time some of their enemies were living at Kuratau. [A river entering the lake about five miles from Tokaanu.] These people belonged to Ngati-Whiti. Tu-hereua again asked Tu-te-tawha if he had auy other places. He said he had another further on. Tu-hereua said, “Let us go and see it.” He did not know that it was occupied by the enemy. They paddled on to the Kuratau, where there enemies were, and approached the mouth of the river. Tu-te-tawha said to his brother-in-law, “This is one of my places.” Tu-hereua said, “This is a place for canoes to float.” The meaning of the saying being that canoes could float at anchor in the river, they would not have to be moved sideways to launch them every time they were wanted.

The bows of the canoes were turned towards the landing place, and when close in, Tu-te-tawha suddenly noticed the enemy. They charged. Tu-te-tawha jumped into the water, and taking a bow of a canoe in each hand, he rushed them ashore. Tu-hereua was standing up in the stern of one of the canoes watching Tu-te-tawa. When he saw what was done he uttered this saying, “What a man for fighting, he is pushing the bows of the canoes ashore. How strong he is.”

They were now close to the enemy, and Tu-hereua leaped ashore with a taiaha as a weapon. With the first blow of the taiaha a man fell and the cry pealed forth, “I have the first fish.” The name of this man was Kuratau, so the place has borne the name of Kuratau ever since. Tu-te-tawha killed Te Rae, and called out “I have killed the next.” Mori and Te Tatoo were also killed.

All the men that fell were chiefs. And in the pursuit many were struck and killed by Tu-te-tawha and Tu-hereua.

The name of the fight was Uwhiuwhi-hiawai. The survivors fled to their homes and fear left the hearts of the other inhabitants. Tu-hereua married Wai-pare and had Tuharetoa the second. He married Whanau-rangi, and had Tukino, Taipa-hau and a girl, Hokokai. This is another source of Ngati-Tuharetoa. Tu-hereua and his sisters Hine-mihi, Hinearo and Te Aki-pare, with their things returned to Whakatāne. And the strife of Tu-te-tawha and Tu-hereua against Ngati-Whiti ceased and peace was made between them for a time.

(To be continued.)

1   In Mr. Fletcher's explanations it should be noted that the modern township at the north end of the lake is named Taupo, and from it the distances are given, not from the lake itself.—EDITOR.
2   It is necessary to say for the information of members living outside New Zealand that the ‘Arawa’ canoe formed part of the fleet that arrived here in the middle of the fourteenth Century.—EDITOR.
3   This is the same kind of deceit that was practised by Nga-Toro-i-rangi and the rest of the crew of ‘Te Arawa,’ on their first landing at Whanga-paraoa, east side of the Bay of Plenty—see Journal Polynesian Society, Vol. XXIV., p. 13. As Tia was one of the crew at that time it is a wonder he could have been deceived so easily.—EDITOR.
4   This story does not mention the meeting between Nga-Toro-i-rangi and Tamatea-nui, which took place at Roto-a-Ira, a few miles south of Lake Taupo. See this “Journal,” Vol. XXIV., p. 18. Hape-ki-tuarangi is said, however, to have come from Hawaiki in the “Takitimu” canoe with Tamatea-nui.—EDITOR.
5   For a full and interesting account of the Maruiwi people and their final destruction, see Elsdon Best's account, this “Journal,” Vol. XXII., p. 159.—EDITOR.
6   See Journal Polynesian Society, Vol. XXI., p. 86. Where the Ngati-Whiti account of this transaction is given.
7   O-whaoko is the general name of the plateau lying between the Upper Rangitikei and Moawhanga rivers and forms the connection between the Ruahine and Kaimanawa mountains.—EDITOR.