Volume 28 1919 > Volume 28, No. 111 > History and traditions of Rarotonga. Part VI, by Te Ariki-tara-are, p 134-151
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HISTORY AND TRADITIONS OF RAROTONGA.
PART VI.
ABOUT TANGIIA AND TE NGA-TAITO-ARIKI.

[In the following part (which is a continuation of Part IV.) the Sage, while professing to give the history of the celebrated Rarotongan chief, Tangiia-nui, also in reality gives a brief sketch of the history of the people right away from the first ancestor known to them down to the same Tangiia, who settled in Rarotonga in the thirteenth century. Tangiia's adventurous voyages, his wars, and his loves will form another part of these papers.

As in all these old Polynesian legends we are carried back to that stage of development in human progress, when it was the common belief that the gods took part in the affairs of mankind, a belief by no means exclusively Polynesian.

The scene of most of the following story is laid in Savai'i and ‘Upolu of the Samoan Group, the former of which islands is known to the Rarotongans as Avaiki, while Avaiki-raro is a general name for the Samoan, Fiji, and other islands in their neighbourhood. In some of the proper names it is difficult to understand whether the Sage refers to gods or men, for they often have identical names. The story of the Ruru (White Heron) and the Sea-snake is also to be seen in our “Rarotonga Records,” and the two stories whilst agreeing in the main, should be read together, for each contains detail not shown in the other. Some remarks on the genealogies are referred to in the general introduction to this series of papers.]

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THIS is a word about Te Nga-taito-ariki, who was a son of Te Tumu (from whom descend the following generations of men):—

  • 1 95 Te Tumu
  • Te Nga-taito-ariki
  • Mua
  • Eanga
  • Maina
  • 90 Maeata
  • Makaro
  • Te Marama
  • Te Eanga-ki-te-ao
  • Tangata-kato
  • 85 Te Atu-tanganga
  • Te Atu-te-ngangata
  • Te Atu-te-ki
  • Te Atu
  • Tiki
  • 80 Taito-rangi-ngunguru
  • Taito-rangi-ioio
  • Taito-kuru-angiangi
  • Taito-kuru-ma-rakamea
  • Vaitakere 2
  • 75 Te Tarava
  • 74 Te Tarava-enua
  • Te Rua-enua
  • Te Rua-mata-iko
  • Te Punupunu. Te Utarei (e uanga ika ia. Anau akera ta Rua-mata-iko).
  • Ara-kapua
  • 70 Te Ara-o-nga-atua
  • Toi
  • Pungaverevere (ka ngaē ki te Ara-o-nga-atua).
  • Manu
  • Manu-kaiaia
  • 65 Manu-kavakevake
  • Ore
  • Turanga ma Te Ruru
  • Rongo-rua
  • Rira (or Rina)
  • 60 Te Irapanga 3
  • Tu-tarangi
  • 58 Etoi
TU-TARANGI AND HIS WARS.

254. Tu-tarangi (generation No. 59 above) caused a great war, the reason of which was as follows: He owned certain birds [probably trained sea-gulls] named Aroa-uta and Aroa-tai; they were trained birds that did work for him, they obtained food, and fished for him. On a certain occasion, Tane-au-vaka sent a messenger to Tu-tarangi asking for the use of his birds, but Tu-tarangi would not consent at first, but in consequence of frequent applications he at last allowed the bird that lived ashore (Aroa-uta) to be sent to Tane-au-vaka. But the bird would not act (for its new master) so it was killed. Tu-tarangi was then applied to for the other bird, and he finally consented to lend Aroa-tai to Tane-au-vaka. This time the bird did his work and caught fish; but it was not treated properly, it was not fed, and so when it was sent to fish along the shore, the bird refused to work because it had no stamina.

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255. Then Tane-au-vaka became angry with the bird, and killed it. When Tu-tarangi learnt that both his birds were dead, great was his anger, and he despatched his son Etoi to fell the tree named “Te Ii-matoa-i-avaiki” [to make arms of]. So the son went, and felled the tree, and when it was down he returned and reported to his father. The father then said to his son, “Go thou, and lay the matter before [the god, or perhaps a learned man] Tāne.”

256. Then Etoi took the wood to Tāne, and on his arrival, Tāne said, “Return! and tell Tu-tarangi to send hither a priest.” In accordance with this command, Tu-tarangi sent Rauru-maoa with an offering of food; it was cold (uncooked) food, and was (?) named after that tree “Au-makariri.” On Rauru-maoa's arrival, Tāne directed him, saying, “O the powers of earth! turn over this wood. O the powers of the land! split the wood, named “Te Ii-matoa-i-Avaiki,” hew it in pieces, shake it; gnash the teeth, be nimble, glare the eyes; that it may return to the breast of Rongo-ma-Tāne!” 4

257. After the wood had been split up, eight weapons were dubbed out of it, and the following names given to them: the spear was named by Tu-tavake after his own teeth—“Nionio-roroa”; the aro was named “Te Aroaro-rangi,” the kounga was ‘Te Pivai-rangi,’ the mata-tupa was ‘Te Mata-tua-rere,’ the rupo was ‘Te Poopoo-rangi,’ the korare (the javelin) ‘Te Iti-rarerare,’ the akatari-kuri (a barbed spear) ‘Puapua-ai-nano,’ the tao (lance) ‘Rau-tiare.’

258. After all the weapons were completed they were deposited in the house called Oro-kete, which was the ediface at the back part of house [? of Tu-tarangi], where was the ataata-itu [? altar] to the god Rongo-ma-Tāne. When all the weapons had been placed in due order, the priest, Rauru-maoa, reported to Tu-tarangi that all was complete. Tu-tarangi asked, “Are they really good weapons?” to which the priest replied, “One only is deficient, ‘Nionio-roroa,’ which Tu-tavake has placed on the altar of Rongo-ma-Tāne.”

259. When Tu-tarangi learnt this, he sent a messenger to Kuru—his leading warrior—instructing him as follows: “Go thou, and take possession of the weapons now with Rongo-ma-Tāne.” In consequence Kuru proceeded to the presence of the god, when Tāne said to him, “O Kuru! Welcome! O Kuru, what have you come for? You have a strange appearance, thy eyes are (?) staring!” Kuru replied, “I have come to fetch the weapons.” Tāne spoke to him, “Enter then!” After Kuru had entered the house all the weapons of Tāne moved or wriggled; then he proceeded to examine them all, to find which best suited his purpose, even that on the altar - 137 of Tāne named “Nionio-roroa.” He decided on that particular one, when Tāne said, “O Kuru! that is a cursed weapon (of evil omen). It will be the death of (the people of) the land, and also destroy the land.” Kuru replied, “This is the one I choose” (prefer).

260. Kuru then came forth from the house, and holding up the weapon he cast it into the hands of the several gods (i.e., he called on those gods to give his weapon power) saying, “The weapon that shall stand in the battle, whose shall it be? By Rongo, Tāne, Rua-nuku, Tu, and Tangaroa!” (shall my weapon be guided). He then seized the weapon in his hand, and with it cut off the heads of the children of Tu-tavake named Ti-tape-uta and Ti-tape-tai. The boast (accompanying the action) resounded afar, when Tāne asked, “O Kuru! what is that?” “It is the effect of the sacredness of the weapon.” “I said to you, ‘O Kuru! it is a cursed weapon.’”

261. Kuru then went out again and met the sisters (of those already killed) named Titi-kereti and Tata-kerero, both of whom he killed. The sound spread, and then Tāne asked, “O Kuru! what is that?” “That is the woman-consuming power of the weapon!” Then said Tāne, “It is Tu-the-relation-eater. Go, O Kuru! I have done with it, and do not return; thine is the tapakau, the rau-ota and the moumounga (? wastefulness).”

262. And then Kuru departed for the other side of Avaiki and there fought (the people); and succeeded in catching Tane-au-vaka and all his many men. So Kuru killed Tane-au-vaka. Thence Kuru proceeded to another part and fought there, even unto Amama 5 the place of Maru-mamao, who with his many men fought from daylight until the evening. (In the battle) Maru-mamao and his party held the coast line, while Kuru and his party were by the road side inland, and so his eyes were completely blinded (? by the sun), and then Maru-mamao struck Kuru in the face with an axe, and killed him. Thus the celebrated weapon “Nionio-roroa” became the property of Maru-mamao.

UI-TE-RANGI-ORA AND DISPERSION OF THE PEOPLE.

263. There were born unto Etoi (Tu-tarangi's son, the following descendants):—

  • 57 Etoi
  • Etai
  • 55 Emaunga
  • Erangi
  • Ui-tamua
  • Ui-taringa
  • 51 Ui-te-rangiora
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It was the latter who built a (celebrated) pāi [or sea-going canoe], and the timbers of the canoe were men's bones. 6 The keel of the canoe (? and the canoe itself) was called “Te Ivi-o-Atea.” The whole of the canoe was built of men's bones, and because no bone was long enough to form the kiato [or connecting supports of the outrigger], the tree named “Te Tamoko-o-te-rangi” was felled for that purpose. This tree was a reserved (and sacred) tree belonging to Taa-kura and Ari. When these two found out that Ui-te-rangiora had cut down their tree, they commenced a war with his party and many men were killed, but they secured eight portions of the tree, which were dubbed into drums, tutunga, [tapa-beating logs] and boards. The drum was named “Taka-enua,” and was used in the akaariki ceremonies at Avarua, 7 while the tutunga was named “Tangi-varovaro.”

264. Then Ui-te-rangiora proceeded to complete his vessel, and launched it on the sea. This was the first occasion of seeing the pāi and canoes (? of that kind), and the (commencement) of the scattering of all Avaiki to the various islands. Due to the wars originating in Avaiki through Kuru, Taa-kura and Ari, were the people scattered to all the islands; to Avaiki-runga [Eastern Avaiki—Tahiti, Paumotu, etc.] to Iti-nui, Iti-rai, Iti-anaunau, Iti-takai-kere [some of the Fiji group, no doubt the eastern or Lau islands], Tonga-nui, Tonga-ake, Tonga-piritea, Tonga-manga, Tonga-rara, Tonga-anue [the Tonga, or Friendly Islands] to Avaiki-raro [Savai'i], Kuporu ['Upolu], Manuka [Manu'a], Vavau [North Tonga Group], Niva-pou [Niua-fou] and Niua-taputapu [Keppel's Island, both north of Tonga Group].

265. Ui-te-rangiora's descendants were:—

  • 51 Ui-te-rangiora
  • Makua-ki-te-rangi
  • Te Rangi
  • Ata-o-te-rangi
  • Tara-o-te-rangi
  • Te Paku-o-te-rangi
  • 45 Te Uka-o-te-rangi
  • Uu
  • Ane
  • Taipu
  • 41 Tuna-ariki
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In Tuna-ariki's time a war commenced between him and Tu-ei-puka, about Avarua. Tuna-ariki insisted that it belonged to him, whilst Tu-ei-puka equally claimed it. So Tuna-ariki killed Tu-ei-puka, and the au, [the chieftainship] devolved on the former. In the end he was killed by a pig, an uru-kivi [? striped] pig, which ate that ariki.

266. After his death the government devolved on Kati-ongia, about whom is the saying, “Kati-ongia became ruling chief, and Kuporu ('Upolu) ruled.” He was a son of Tu-ei-puka who had a brother named Māru. Kati-ongia's 8 descendants were:—

  • 40 Kati-ongia
  • Kapua
  • Atonga (also known as Otenga-atua and Tauira-rangi-o-Avatea).
  • 37 Te Aru-tanga-nuku
ABOUT THE VESSEL OF TE ARU-TANGA-NUKU.

267. Te Aru-tanga-nuku very much desired to have a canoe of his own; he was incited thereto by his parents (probably uncles) Oro-keu, Oro-i-nano, and Oro-taere. The reason of this strong desire was the scarcity of food, for the food allowed them by Atonga [the ruling chief who is said to have had two natures, one a spirit (vaerua) and the other a physical one (kopapa-tangata)] was very deficient, very little was given to them or their child (? nephew). Hence they incited the elder son (of Atonga)—Te Ara-tanga-nuku to build a vessel in order that they might go to other lands [than Kuporu, or 'Upōlu].

268. After their minds had been made up, they prepared the axes, made the customary feast, and next morning shouldered their axes and proceeded to prepare a tree as a keel for the vessel. They went to the mountains, where they met a ruru [the white heron] and an aa [snake] 9 striving together. The ruru said to Oro-keu, “O the chief! O Oro-keu! Separate (or end) the fight of the ruru and the aa.” The aa said, “The scarlet-belted chief must go on his way and leave the ruru and the aa to their mutual struggle.” And so Oro-keu went on his way.

269. After the above appeared Oro-taere, to whom the ruru addressed himself, “O the chief! O Oro-taere! end the fighting between the ruru and the aa! Now Oro-taere felt sorry for the ruru - 140 because he was an elder brother of his, one of Ore's children. 10 His anger grew towards the aa, for he supported the cause of the ruru, and he therefore cut down the aa with his axe, and then lifted down his relative the ruru, and, placing it in front of him, wept over him, and healed the wounds made by the aa. As soon as this was accomplished, the ruru asked Oro-taere, “What is your object here?” “I am going to fell a tree to make a vessel for the ariki.” Then said the ruru, “Go to my tree at Ara-punga-verevere; I did not tell Oro-keu and Oro-i-nano about this [because they would not help me in my struggle with the aa]. Probably they are dead on the ridge by this time.” So Oro-taere went on and found the tree, a Maota-mea was the kind, 11 which he felled and commenced shaping out [as a canoe], then fixed the hauling ropes (kaka) and left it.

270. Now, at this time there came Tangaroa-iu-mata [? the owner of the forest] and behold! there laid the fallen tree. He asked [to himself], “Who has fallen my tree?” But he could not find out; so he went to the guardian of the place—Rata-i-te-vao 12—and asked him, “Who has been felling one of my trees?” Rata replied, “I do not know!” Tangaroa then proceeded to enquire of every one who dwelt near those parts, Titiri, Tata-rara, and Tu-enua-i-te-vao-tere, but they all replied they had no knowledge of the circumstances; and then he came to the conclusion he would not be able to ascertain who was the delinquent. So Tangaroa returned to the fallen tree, and re-erected it, saying to the tree, “Stand up thou maota-mea, be erect, be girded on thy bark.” At this the bole of the tree stood erect again, and then he addressed the top (tamoko) of the tree, saying, “Stand there, O thou head of the tree! the large and small branches of the tree! the chips and the leaves return to your places! Adhere, gird on, the bark!” At this the tree stood erect as it was previously, and Tangaroa-iu-mata returned to his home.

271. Sometime after the above, Oro-taere and his party returned to their work, and on arrival at the the place where the stump ought to have been—it was not there; the tree stood erect; nothing but the hauling ropes suspended on a tree were to be seen. They searched and then found the tree by a white place from which a piece of bark had been taken down to the sea by them [when they felled the tree] - 141 in consequence of the sacredness of the tree [and over which ceremonies to remove the tapu of the tree had to be performed]. They all returned to the shore, and again Oro-taere consecrated his axes, the tapu of which had been destroyed in killing the aa, and hence it became possible for Tangaroa to re-erect the tree again. After this had been done they returned and again felled the tree, barked it, fixed the hauling ropes, and commenced dragging the log to the place where Atonga the priest lived.

272. The 13 food was prepared for the priest, for Atonga, the riaria and the other parts were cooked, but the heap of wood was left, it had not been shaped. On another day Te Ara-tanga-nuku said to his wife, Pori-o-kare, “You must go and take some papaia, [pounded and baked taro] for the priest.” She proceeded to cook some, and before long took it to Atonga, and after he had eaten and was satisfied, he said to Pori-o-kare, “Return, and say unto the ariki he must build a house. To-morrow the vessel will be completed, and when the house is finished let all Kuporu be seated there so they may behold the vessel being dragged along by the birds.”

273. After Pori-o-kare had departed, Atonga summoned Tupua-ki-Amoa 14 and said to him, “Haste, and say to the ruru, it is to go to the Pirake-akaruirui-rangi, 15 and assemble all the birds to come and drag the vessel of the ariki.” He went off and gathered all the many birds. When daylight came all the birds surrounded the vessel, the moamoa [? ground birds] took hold of one side, others helped from inside. The Kakaia, the Ngoiro and Katikatika families, the quick flighted birds on the out side. And they said, “With the wings strike the stern; shake the log; lift it; shake the bows; together, hasten the ‘Ivi-o-Atea.’ Gathered together are the many of Kuporu, to see the sight; thou will win O Oro-keu! O Oro-i-nano.” It was the Kati-rori bird who recited the song. And now the canoe arrived at the house built by the hands of Te Ara-tanga-nuku. Tupua-ki-amoa had been sent to fetch the vessel, but he failed through want of food. [Another story says that he took off the figure-head of the canoe and hid it, but Atonga recovered it.]

274. This is the explanation about that vessel: It was dubbed out in the night by Atonga-vaerua [Atonga-the-spirit] and his workmen, and these are the names of those shipwrights: Iu-mata, Aa-ngu, - 142 Na-ora, and Na-oti, who built one side of the vessel, while Tupa, Tupa-ake, Tupa-aki, and Uri-reka built the other side; there were eight builders, Atonga being the ninth. Atonga named the vessel “Taraipo” [built-in-the-night], 16 while the birds also gave it a name, “Te Manu-ka-tere.” 17 When the canoe reached the home of the ariki, the birds returned inland, but Atonga stopped the ruru, and asked it, “Where is a tree suitable as a rakau-tukava for the ariki?” The ruru replied, “At Te Po-amio.” “Where is that place?” said Atonga. “At the Ara-pungaverevere, at the place where I live.” And then the bird went away.

275. Atonga now instructed Tupua-ki-Amoa, saying, “Go thou and cut down Te Po-amio,” and explained where it was. So Tupua went off to enquire of Rata-i-te-vao (the guardian of the forest), saying, “Where is Te Po-amio?” “Beyond there,” said Rata, so Tupua went on and inquired of Tupi-riri, who replied, “Further on.” So he went on, but could not find it. Then he descended to Tupa-raro and asked him, who said, “A long way on”; but he still did not find the place. He then went to Tu-enua, in the great forest, who explained to him, “There it is.” Then he went on and searched, found it, and cut down the tree which was named Ipi-rere. He brought it down to the village and shaped it, and on completion named it “Te Amio-enua.” He then delivered it to the ariki, who took the weapon and placed it in the canoe, and then the vessel was named “Te Pore-o-kare.”

TE ARA-TANGA-NUKU'S VOVAGES.

276. The vessel was now launched into the sea, and proceeded on its voyage to Iva (the Marquesas Islands). The name given to the vessel at Iva was “Te Orauroa-ki-Iva” [the long voyage to Iva]. From there it went to Rapa-nui [Easter Island] and on to Rapa-iti [or Oparo, south-east of Rarotonga in lat. 27° 30′ south, another name for which is Rapa-hue], where Irei (or Ivi) was left on account of his bad navigation of the vessel. From there they sailed to Avaiki-runga [Tahiti and neighbouring groups] and all the islands near there. At Avaiki-runga the vessel received a further name, “Te Ara-ki-Avaiki.”

277. The great desire of the ariki—Te Ara-tanga-nuku—and all the crew, on the completion of the vessel, was to behold all the wonderful things on the ocean which had been discovered and reported by Ui-te-rangiora [see par. 263] the man's-bones canoe (Te Ivi-o-Atea) in former times. The following were those things: The rocks growing out of the sea beyond Rapa Island; the monstrous - 143 waves; the female dwelling in those waves, with her hair waving and floating on the surface of the ocean; and the tai-uka-a-pia [the frozen sea], the deceitful animal seen on the sea, which dived below the surface; a very gloomy and dark place, where the sun is not seen. There is also there (a kind of) rock whose summit pierces the sky with steep bare cliffs, where vegitation does not grow. Such was the work of this vessel at that time; and also to convey people to all the islands. It was this vessel, “Te Ivi-o-Atea,” that discovered all these great and wonderful things on the ocean, and all the surrounding islands.

[The inference to be drawn from the foregoing statement is, that Te Ara-tanga-nuku followed in the footsteps of the other great navigator, Ui-te-rangiora, who flourished fourteen generations, or 350 years before him, and that he visited, some at least, of the “wonders” discovered by Ui-te-rangiora, in the seventh century (using the generation herein given as chronology). There can be little reasonable doubt that the “wonders” described above refer to the Antarctic regions, “a very gloomy and dark place where the sun is (rarely) seen,” the “rocks whose summits pierce the sky,” being icebergs, while the “deceitful animal” is probably either a walrus or sea-lion, while the “hair waving on the surface” is probably the bull-kelp, which these people would not see in the tropics. The “Tai-uka-a-pia” is the ice, or frozen sea, like pia, the scraped arrowroot, which is exactly like snow, and is just the kind of description these people would give to snow or ice, with which they would not be acquainted with, except perhaps traditionally. Uka is the equivalent of the Maori huka, ice, frost, snow. Such, expressed in the poetical language of the islanders of the tropics, is the description of the regions south of Rapa, where the ice is frequently to be found about latitude 50°. The Tongans have also traditions of the frozen ocean, which they had visited in ancient times.]

278. Te Ara-tanga-nuku had the following descendants:—

Family Tree. 36 Te Aru-tanga-rangi, Te Amaru-ariki, Te Amaru-enua, Te Uenga-ariki, Te Uenga-enua, Kau-tea, 30 Kau-mango, Vai-iti, Kau-kura, Pou-vananga-roa-ki-Iva=Rua-mano (f), Kau-ngaki (f), Maonga (f)=Pou-tea, Ono-kura=Te Ata-nua, Nga-upoko-turua, Nga-maru, Kotuku-tea, 26 Maono, Keu, Raka-nui (f), 26 TANGIIA-NUI, Tu-tapu
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[Here we leave these generations of adventurous voyagers and emigrants, for in the times of Tangiia-nui the twenty-sixth generation from the year 1900, we enter upon an important epoc in Polynesian history. The time covered by this Part VI., saw the spread of the so-called “Tonga-fiti” branches to nearly all parts of the Pacific, and it was four generations after Tangiia that the last migration to New Zealand took place, i.e., in the middle of the fourteenth century.]

NO TANGIIA E TE NGA-TAITO-ARIKI.

253. E tuatua no Te Nga-taito-ariki; e tamaiti na Te Tumu, anau akera tana ko Te Nga-taito-ariki:—

  • 95 Te Tumu
  • Te Nga-taito-ariki
  • Mua
  • Eanga
  • Maina
  • 90 Maeata
  • Makaro
  • Te Marama
  • Te Eanga-ki-te-ao
  • Tangata-kato
  • Te Atu-tanganga
  • Te Atu-te-ngangata
  • Te Atu-te-ki
  • Te Atu
  • Tiki
  • 80 Taito-rangi-ngunguru
  • Taito-rangi-ioio
  • Taito-kuru-angiangi
  • Taito-kuru-ma-raka-mea
  • Vai-takere
  • Te Tarava
  • Te Tarava-enua
  • Te Rua-enua
  • Te Rua-mata-iko
  • Te Punupunu, Ko Uta-rei (e uanga ika ïa) Anau akera ta Rua-mata-iko
  • 70 Ara-kapua
  • Te Ara-o-nga-atua
  • Toi
  • Punga-verevere-ka-ngaē-ki-te-ara-o-nga-atua
  • Manu
  • Manu-kaiaia
  • Manu-kavakevake
  • Ore
  • Turanga, ma Te Ruru (e manu ïa)
  • Rongo-rua
  • Rira
  • Te Ira-panga
  • Tu-tarangi
  • 57 Etoi
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254. Kua akatupu a Tu-tarangi i te tamaki; tera te mea i tupu ei taua pekapeka ra—e puke manu na Tu-tarangi, ko Aroa-uta, e Aroa-tai; e puke manu rave angaanga nana; e rave kai nana, e tautai ika nana. E tae ake ra ki tetai tuatau, kua unga maira a Tane-au-vaka i te karere i aua nga manu ra ki a Tu-tarangi, kia omai aia i aua nga manu ra nana. E kare akera i tika i a Tu-tarangi. E, no te putupntuanga i te tiki mai, kua oatu aia i te manu noo uta na Tane-au-vaka—koia a Aroa-uta. Kare i keu ki te angaanga, kua ta aia i te reira manu. E kua tiki akaou mai i tetai—kua pati rai ki a Tu-tarangi, e kua oatu a Tu-tarangi i a Aroa-tai ki aia. E, kua rave taua manu ra i tana angaanga, kua tautai i te ika nana. E kare ra aia i takinga-meitaki i taua manu ra; kare i angai ki te kai; e kia tono ra aia i te manu ra kia tiki i te ika ki tatai, kare te manu e keu. No te mea, kare na e kapenga a te manu.

255. Kua riri iora a Tane-au-vaka i te manu, e kua ta iora, mate iora. E kia kite ra a Tu-tarangi e, e kua mate nga manu, kua tupu iora te riri o Tu-tarangi; kua tono atura i tona tamaiti, i a Etoi, ei tipu i te rakau, i a Te-Ii-matoa-i-Avaiki. Kua aere atura te tamaiti, kua tipu atura i te rakau; e topa iora ki raro, kua oki maira e akakite ki te metua. Kua karanga atura te metua ki te tamaiti, “Ka aere! kavea ki a Tane.”

256. Kua aere atura a Etoi, kua apai i te rakau ki a Tane. E tae atura ki a Tane, kua tuatua maira a Tane, “E oki! e karanga atu ki a Tu-tarangi, kia unga mai aia i tetai taunga.” Kua akaunga atura a Tu-tarangi ia Rauru-maoa; kua keri iora i te kai ei taonga. E kai makariri i topaia i te ingoa o taua rakau ra, ko Au-makariri. E tae atura a Rauru-maoa, kua tuatua maira a Tane, na-ko-maira, “E te atu papa e! e kia uriuriia akera te rakau nei, E te atu-enua! kia vavai akera te rakau nei, ko te Ii-matoa-i-Avaiki; kia tutuki, kia ungaunga, kia ru, kia tete, kia ngavari, kia inana. Kia koki ra e, ki roto i te uma (? rima) o Ronga ma Tane e.”

257. E oti akera te rakau i te vavaiia, kua tarai iora e, e varu rakau. Teia te ingoa o taua au rakau ra; Ko Te Tokotoko; koia tei topaia e Tu-tavake ki te nio nona—koia a Nionio-roroa. Ko Te Aroaro-rangi; koia te aro. Ko Te Pivai-rangi—koia te kounga. Ko Te Mata-tua-rere—koia te mata-tupa. Ko Te Poopoo-rangi—koia te rupo. Ko te Iti-rarerare—koia te korare, e Rau-tiare—koia te tao. Ko Puapua-ai-nano—koia te akatara-kuri.

258. Kua ma te au rakau kua kave ki roto i te are, ko Oro-kete—koia te orau i te tuaroa o te are; ko te ataataitu ïa o Rongo ma Tane. Kia oti te au rakau i te akapapaia kua aere atura te taunga ra, ko Rauru-maoa ki a Tu-tarangi, “E rakau meimeitaki ainei?” Kua karanga atura aia, “Okotai rai taka i te rakau; ko Nionio-roroa tei i a Tu-tavake, tei runga i te ataata-itu o Rongo ma Tane.”

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259. E kite akera a Tu-tarangi i tei reira tuatua, kua tono atura aia i te karere ki a Kuru—ko tona ïa tumu-toa—kua na-ko-atura a Tu-tarangi ki aia, “Ka aere koe, ka tiki i te are rakau i o Rongo ma Tane.” Kua aere atu a Kuru, aere atura, e tae atura ki o Rongo ma Tane. Kua kapiki maira a Tane, ki a Kuru, na-ko-maira, “E Kuru e! ina! ka oro mai, E Kuru! e aa te aerenga. Kua tu ke koe E Kuru! Kua ioi o mata.” Kua karanga a Kuru ki a Tane, “E tiki au i te are rakau.” Kua kapiki maira a Tane ki a Kuru, “E na roto mai.” E. tei to Kuru tomoanga atu ki roto, kua keukeu atura te are rakau a Tane i a Kuru; e tae atura aia ki roto kua akara aere iora aia i te au rakau ravarai e tau i aia; mari ra ko te rakau i runga i te ataata o Tane, ko “Nionio-roroa.” Kua kiriti maira aia i taua rakau ra; kua kapiki maira a Tane, “E Kuru e! e rakau kanga. Ka mate te enua, ka nina ua te enua.” Kua karanga maira a Kuru, “Ko taku rakau rai teia!”

260. Kua tomo atura a Kuru ki vao, kua akatu akera i te rakau ki runga, kua titiri atura i te rakau ki te rima o te au atua, na-ko-atura, “Ko te rakau e tu i te taua naai? Na Rongo, na Tane, na Rua-nuku, na Tu, na Tangaroa.” Kua opu aia i te rakau, kua taki akera ki runga i tona rima, kua tipu iora ki nga tamariki a Tu-tavake—i a Ti-tape-uta e Ti-tape-tai. Kua vavaro atura te iio; kua ui maira a Tane, “E Kuru e! ko te aa tena?” “Ko te tapu tena i te rakau,” “O, i karanga atu na au ki a koe, ‘E Kuru e! e rakau kanga!’”

261. Kua oki akaou atura a Kuru, kua aravei atura i nga tuaine, i a Titi-kereti, e Tata-kerero; kua mate ia tokorua; kua vavaro mai te iio; kua ui atura a Tane, “E Kuru! ko te aa tena?” “Ko te kai vaine teia i te rakau.” Kua na-ko maira a Tane, “Ko Tu-kai-taeake tena. E Kuru! e aere; kua oti taku. Aua e oki mai. Naau atu te tapakau, e te rau-ota, e te moumounga.” Kua aere atura a Kuru ki tetai pae i a Avaiki, kua tamaki atura; kua rauka iora taua ariki ra ko Tane-au-vaka ma tona tini tangata katoa. E kua ta iora a Kuru i taua ariki ra, i a Tane-au-vaka, mate iora.

262. Kua aere atura aia—a Kuru—ki tetai pae, kua tamaki. E tae ua atura ki Amama ki o Maru-mamao. Kua tamaki maira a Maru-mamao ma tona au tangata i aia i te akirata i te popongi. Ko Maru-mamao ma tona au tangata, i a ratou a tai—i te tapa tai; ko uta a Kuru i te tapa-ara. Kua tamaki iora, kua verovero maira te rā ki nga mata o Kuru; kua poiri kerekere iora nga mata o Kuru. Kua pari maira a Maru-mamao i nga mata o Kuru ki te toki; mate iora aia. Kua riro atura taua rakau ra i a Maru-mamao.

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263. Anau akera to Etoi, ko:—

  • Etai
  • 55 Emaunga
  • Erangi
  • Ui-tamua
  • Ui-taringa
  • 51 Ui-te-rangiora

Kua tarai aia i te pāī, e ivi tangata te rakau i taua pāī ra. Ko te ivi o Atea te takere i taua pāī ra. E oti ua ake taua pāī ra e ivi tangata anake. No te mea ra kare e ivi tangata roa ei ova, ei kiato, no reira i kotia ei a te “Tamoko-o-te-rangi” ei kiato, ei ova. E rakau raui na Taa-kura e Ari. E kite akera a Taa-kura e Ari e, kua motu taua rakau ra, i a Ui-te-rangiora; kua tamaki atura, kua mate iora te tangata, kua riro maira te rakau i a raua. E ono potonga i riro mai, kua tarai iora ei pau, ei tutunga, ei papa. Ko te ingoa i te pau ko Taka-enua—koia te pau akaariki ki a Avarua. Ko te tutunga ko Tangi-varovaro.

264. Kua rave akaou a Ui-te-rangiora i te pāī, kua akaova, e kua ri, kua aau i te kiato; kua oti, kua tuku ki te tai. Ko te kiteanga akera rai ïa i te pāī e te vaka. Ko te pueu-rikirikinga teia i a Avaiki ki te pa enua. No te tamaki i tupu i Avaiki e Kuru, e Taa-kura e Ari, kua pueu-rikiriki atura Avaiki ki te pa-enua ravarai; ki Avaiki runga, ki Iti-nui, ki Iti-rai, ki Iti-anaunau, ki Iti-takaikere, ki Tonga-nui, ki Tonga-ake, ki Tonga-piritia, ki Tonga-manga, ki Tonga-raro, ki Tonga-anue, ki Avaiki-raro, ki Kuporu, ki Manuka, ki Vavau, ki Niva-pou, ki Niua-taputapu.

265. Anau akera ta Ui-te-rangi-ora ko:—

  • 50 Makua-ki-te-rangi
  • Te Rangi
  • Ata-o-te-rangi
  • Tara-o-te-rangi
  • Te Paku-o-te-rangi
  • Te Uka-o-te-rangi
  • Uu
  • Ane
  • Taipu
  • 41Tuna-ariki

Kua tupu te tamaki i a raua ko Tu-ei-puka; Tera te ara; ko Avarua. Te manono nei a Tuna-ariki nona a Avarua; te manono mai a Tu-ei-puku nona. Kua ta iora a Tuna-ariki i a Tu-ei-puka; mate iora. Kua riro maira te au ki a Tuna-ariki. I te openga iora kua mate aia, kua pou i te puaka, e uru-kivi te puaka i keinga i (? ai) taua ariki ra.

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266. I muri iora i aia, kua riro te au ki a Kati-ongia—i tuatuaia ai e, “Kua ariki Kati-ongia, kua au Kuporu.” E tamaiti aia na Tu-ei-puka. E teina a Māru no Tu-ei-puka:—

  • 40 Ko Kati-ongia, anau tana ko
  • Kapua
  • Atonga (known also as Otenga-atua and Tauira-rangi-o-avatea)
  • 37 Te Aru-tanga-nuku
NO TE PAI O TE ARU-TANGA-NUKU.

267. Kua akakoro a Te Aru-tanga-nuku ei vaka tona. No nga metua tane te manako no Oro-keu e Oro-i-nano e Oro-taere. Tera te tupuanga i taua manako ra, e aue kai. Ki te kai a Atonga e kai ua maira, kare e omai na ratou ma ta ratou tama. No reira ratou i akakoko ei, ki te tama ariki—ki a Te Aru-tanga-nuku—kia tarai i tetai pāī ei ara no ratou ki te pa-enua.

268. E taka akera te tuatua, kua rango iora i te toki; kua moe i te angai e popongi akera, kua apai te toki ki te tipu i te rakau, i te takere i te pāī. Kua aere atura ratou e tae atura ki te maunga, kua aravei iora ratou i te Ruru e te Aa, te taiapiapi ua ra. Kua kapiki maira te Ruru ki a Oro-keu, “E te ariki, E Oro-keu! e vaoa te taua a te Ruru ma te Aa.” Kua tuatua maira te Aa, “E aere rai te ariki Maro-kura i tana aere e vao rai te Ruru ma te Aa kia taiapiapi marie.” Aere atura aia i tana aere.

269. Kua mama atura a Oro-taere; kua kapiki maira te Ruru, “E te ariki, e Oro-taere! a vaoa te taua a te Ruru ma te Aa.” Kua tupu akera te aroa ki roto i aia, no te mea, e tuakana te Ruru nona—ko tetai tamaiti ïa a Ore. Kua tupu akera tona riri ki te Aa, kua tauturu atura aia i tona taeake, kua tipupu iora i te Aa. E mate atura i taua taeake nona ra, ki raro, ki mua i aia, kua aue iora ki runga i te Ruru. E oti akera kua rapakau iora ki te vai, kia papa te etietinga a te Aa i aia. E oti akera tei reira, kua ui maira te Ruru ki a Oro-taere, “E aa to aerenga?” “E koti rakau toku aerenga; e pāī no te ariki.” Kua na-ko maira te Ruru, “E oro ki taku rakau, i te Ara-pungaverevere; kare au i akakite ki a Oro-keu e Oro-i-nano. Tera raua kua mate ki runga i te kaivi.” Kua aere atura a Oro-taere e tae atura ki taua rakau ra, e Maota-mea te ingoa i te rakau. Kua tipu iora, e kua pari, kua tamou te kaka, e vao kia vai.

270. Kua aere maira a Tangaroa-iu-mata, e ina! kua motu te rakau. Kua ui maira na-ko maira. “Naai i tipu taku rakau?” E kare akera i kitea; kua aere atura ki te tiaki i te kainga—ki a Rata-i-te-vao—na-ko atura, “Naai i tipu taku rakau?” Kua karanga maira, “Kare au i kite.” Kua ui tatakitai aere atura ki te au tangata ravarai i vai tata mai ki taua kainga ra, ki a Titiri, ki a Tatarara, ki a Tu-enua-i-te-vao-tere, kua na-ko-maira ratou, “Kare rava matou i kite.” E kite akera aia e, kare i kitea. Kua oki atur - 149 aia—a Tangaroa-iu-mata—kua akatu akaou i te rakau, e kua kapiki atura ki te rakau, na-ko-atura, “E tu te maota-mea e, ka tu mai ki runga; kia kiri; kia taka.” Kua tu maira te tumu ki runga i reira; kua kapiki akaou atura aia, ki te tamoko o te rakau, na-ko atura, “Ka tu mai koe, e te kauru o te rakau! e te manga o te rakau; e te atava o te rakau; e te rara o te rakau, e te ungaunga o te rakau, e te rau o te rakau. Kia piri! kia kiri! kia taka!” Kua tu te rakau ki runga, kua aere atura aia ki tona kainga.

271. E miringao i te reira, kua aere atura a Oro-taere, e tae atura aia ki te tumu i te rakau—kare ua; kua tu ki runga. Ko te kaka ua tera e tarava ua ra; kua kimi iora ratou, e kitea iora ki te ngai kiri e tea ua ra; ko te ngai kiri ïa i taoia ki tai, i te tapu i te rakau ki o te iiotanga. Kua oki atura ki tai, kua rango i te toki, no te mea, ko te ara ïa i akatuia te rakau no te toki i tipuia ki te Aa—kua noa ki reira te toki. E kia oti, kua oki ratou, kua tipu i te rakau; kua motu ki raro, kua pari, kua ma; kua tamou te kaka; kua kika; kua tōtō atura ki o te taunga, ki o Atonga.

272. Kua tau atura i te kai na te taunga—na Atonga. E ope ua atura nga riaria e te enua i te tau atu, te vai ua mai rai te ututua rakau, kare akera rai i taraiia. E tae akera ki tetai ra, kua tuatua atura a Te Aru-tanga-nuku ki tana vaine, ki a Pori-o-kare, “Ka aere koe, ka rave i tetai papaia na te taunga.” Kua aere atura aia, kua tau; e maoa iora, kare i mamia kua apai atura ki a Atonga; kua kai iora aia, e pangia akera, kua tuatua maira aia ki a Pori-o-kare, na-ko maira, “Ka aere, ka akakite atu ki te ariki, kia anga i te are; Apopo kua oti te pāī. E kia oti te are, akanooia a Kuporu ki raro, kia matakitaki i te pāī i te totoanga mai a te manu.”

273. Tei te aerenga o Pori-o-kare, kua karanga atura a Atonga ki a Tupua-ki-Amoa na-ko atura, “Ka oro koe, e karanga atu ki a te Ruru; kia aere koe ki a te Pirake akaruiruirangi ei oro i te manu tini ei kika i te vaka o te ariki.” Kua aere atura aia ki te oro i te manu, e katoa akera te manu tini; kua tae ki te popongi, kua iri te manu ki runga i te vaka; kua pakipaki iora te aronga moamoa na tai pae, na tai pae, i te papaki i te manu ki roto i te vaka. Ko te Kakaia, e te Ngoiro, e te Katikatika—ko te aronga oro ïa i vao. Kua kapiki iora, na-ko atura, “Pakia i miri vaka, ueuea te tumu; ka maranga-ranga, ka ruea (? uiea) te iu o te vaka; ka tere, ka maoru (? maeru) ki te Ivi-o-Atea. Ka topokipoki e te tini o Kuporu, ka matakitaki; ka re koe e Oro-keu e Oro-i-nano; Oro-keu, Oro-i-nano.” Na te Katirori i tumu te amu. Kua tae atura te vaka ki roto i te are, ta te rima o Te Aru-tanga-nuku i rave. Kua unga iora a Tupua-ki-Amoa i te tiki i te vaka, tera te ara, e aue kai.

274. Teia te tu o taua vaka nei; i taraia i te po, na Atonga-vaerua i tarai ma te aronga rima-rave. Teia taua aronga ra: Ko - 150 Iu-mata; ko Aa-ngu; ko Naoti—ko te aronga taunga ia i te rave i tetai pae i te vaka. Ko Tupa; ko Tupa-ake; ko Tupa-aki; ko Urireka—ko ratou te rave i tetai pae; tokovaru taunga, ko Atonga ka tokoiva. Kua topa iora a Atonga i te ingoa o taua vaka ra, ko Taraipo; kua tapa te manu i ta ratou ingoa, ko Te Manu-ka-rere. E riro atura te vaka ki o te ariki kua oki te manu, kua tāpu atura a Atonga i te Ruru, kua ui atura ki aia, na-ko atura, “Tei ea ake te rakau ei rakau tūkava na te ariki?” Kua tuatua maira te Ruru, “Tei te Po-amio.” Kua na-ko maira a Atonga, “Tei ea ia ngai?” “Tei te Ara-pungavere-vere, i te ngai taku e noo nei.” E kia riro atura te manu kia aere.

275. Kua karanga atura a Atonga, na-ko atura, ki a Tupua-ki-Amoa, “Ka aere koe, ka tipuia te Po-amio.” Kua ui akaou atura a Tupua-ki-Amoa, “Tei ea ia ngai?” Kua tuatua maira a Atonga, “Tei te Ara-punga-verevere.” Kua aere atura aia ki a Rata-i-te-vao, kua ui atura ki aia, “Tei ea a te Po-a-mio?” Kua na-ko maira aia, “Tei ko atu.” Kua aere atu aia ki a Tupi-riri, kua karanga maira aia, “Tera atu.” Kua aere atura aia ki reira, kare rai. Kua topa atura aia, ki o Tupa-rara kua akakite maira aia ki aia, “Tera roa ai.” E tae atura aia ki reira, kare ua rai. Kua aere atura aia ki o Tu-enua, i te vao-tere, kua akakite maira a Tu-enua i te vao-tere ki aia, “E tera.” Kua aere atura aia, kua kimi; e kitea iora, kua tipu atura. E ko Ipirere te ingoa i taua rakau ra. Kua apai maira ki te kainga, kua tarai iora, e oti akera kua topa iora i te ingoa, ko Te Amio-enua. Kua apai atura, kua tuku ki te rima o te ariki. Kua rave te ariki i taua rakau ra, kua aao ki roto i te pāī; kua topa iora i te ingoa o te pāī ko Pori-o-kare.

276. Kua tuku atura i te pāī ki te tai akatere atura ki Iva. Ko te ingoa o taua pāī ra ki Iva, ko Te Orauroa-ki-Iva. Aere atura ki Rapa-nui, e Rapa-iti, akaruke iora a Irei (? Ivi) ki reira. No te akatere kino i te pāī i akarukeia. Me reira, kua aere ki Avaiki-runga, e ki te pa enua katoatoa e pini ua ake. Ko te ingoa ki Avaiki-runga i taua pāī nei, ko Te Ara-ki-avaiki ïa.

277. Tera te akakoroanga a te ariki—a Te Aru-tanga-nuku—ma te au tangata, i te otinga i te pāī, ko te au mea i te moana ko tei kitea e te pāī ivi-tangata, i muatangana. Tera taua au mea ra; ko te mato tupu i te moana—tei tai-rua-koko ra, te peru ua ra i te rauru i roto i te moana, e i runga i te kiri-a-tai; e te tai-uka-a-pia; e te puaka pikikaa i runga i taua tai ra, ko tei ruku ki raro i te tai—e ngai ave ua e te popoiri, kare e kitea e te ra. Tera tetai, e mato rai, kua tae roa te take ki roto i te rangi, e pare-moka ua, kare e ngangaere e tupu. Ko te angaanga ïa i raveia e teianei pāī i taua tuatau ra, ko te tari i te tangata ki te pa-enua ravarai. Ko te Ivi-o-Atea te pāī i kitea ai te au mea katakata nunui ki te moana, ma te pa-enua e pini-ua-ake.

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278. Kua anau akera ta Te Ara-tanga-a-nuku ko:—

Family Tree. 36 Te Aru-tanga-rangi, Te Amaru-ariki, Te Amaru-enua, Te Uenga-ariki, Te Uenga-enua, Kau-tea, 30 Kau-mango, Ono-kura = Te Ata-nua, Vai-iti, Nga-upoko-turua, Kau-kura, Nga-maru, Kotuku-tea, Pou-vananga-roa-ki-Iva = Rua-mano (f), Kau-ngaki (f), Maonga (f) = Pou-tea, 26 Maono, Keu, Raka-nui (f), 26 TANGIIA-NUI, Tu-tapu
1   The numbers show the generations back from the year 1900.
2   In the times of Vaitakere we learn from other documents that the people were living in that Avaiki which has been identified with either Java or Sumatra.
3   Te Irapanga is in all probability the navigator shown in our “Memoirs,” Vol. IV., p. 32, who led the migration from Tawhiti-nui (? Borneo) to the Hawaiian Islands, but who apparently settled finally in either the Lau islands of the Fiji Group, or in Savai'i of the Samoan Group.
4   These cryptic sayings are difficult to understand (as were also the Greek oracles), but the object appears to have been to facilitate the conversion of the wood into spears, and to give the latter mana.
5   Amama is one of the islands mentioned in Part V. hereof, as being adjacent to Futuna (Horne Island), north of Fiji. But it may be a local name on Savaii, where this scene is laid.
6   Thus the original reads, but it is a strange statement which has some meaning not apparent. Perhaps the canoe was ornamented with bones let into the wood.
7   It would be interesting to learn where this Avarua is, either in Savai'i, 'Upolu, or perhaps the Lau Group. It is mentioned in several traditions, and is not that one at Rarotonga or Ra'iatea. The akaariki is the appointment of a high chief to his office.
8   This Kati-ongia is no doubt identical with 'Ati-ongie of the Samoan genealogies.
9   Snakes of a harmless kind, but sometimes over 12 feet long are found in Samoa; but this was the sea-snake, or pui. For the cause of this strife, see “Rarotonga Records,” p. 83.
10   This looks like the Samoan custom of claiming relationship with certain birds, etc.—a species of incipient totemism. But probably it was a fight between two clans, of whom the heron and sea-snake were the totems, or gods.
11   Maota-mea is the Dysoxylon alliaceum, a very handsome tree that grows in the Samoan Group. There was a beautiful clump of these trees in front of Robert Louis Stevenson's house at Vailima, on the hills behind the town of Apīa, the lower branches of which he had cleared away, leaving a charming view of the town and the sea under the upper branches, as seen from the house.
12   Rata-i-te-wao is known to Maori traditions.
13   There seems as if a part of the story had been ommitted here. Riaria means refuse, but the sentence is apparently incomplete. The riaria, we learn from another narrative, were demanded by Tupua-i-Amoa, as his perquisites, but the woman refused to give them, and hence Tupua's subsequent action in taking off the figure-head of the canoe.
14   Tupua is an old family name in Samoa. Amoa is a place on the north-east coast of Savai'i Island.
15   Pirake is a bird noted for its soaring habits.
16   Compare the New Zealand Maori story of the canoe of the same name, and built under somewhat similar circumstances.
17   A name by which, I was informed in Tahiti, this celebrated canoe was known in that island.