Volume 2 1893 > Volume 2, No.2, June 1893 > The occupation of the Chatham Islands by the Maoris in 1835: Part IV - Intertribal Dissensions, by A. Shand, p 74-86
THE OCCUPATION OF THE CHATHAM ISLANDS BY THE MAORIS IN 1835.
PART IV.—INTERTRIBAL DISSENSIONS.
ABOUT a year after the Jean Bart episode (see Journal of the Polynesian Society, Vol. I., p. 200) the Ngatimutunga tribe decided to march round the coast, from their various settlements adjacent to Whangaroa, and drive the Ngatitama tribe out and take possession of Waitangi. For this there were several takes (causes) assigned, the last one being a kanga (or curse) uttered by the Ngatitama tribe against Pomare, who was at that time—Patukawenga being dead—the leading chief of the Ngatimutunga.1 Pomare wrote a letter to some of the Ngatitama tribe, which they tore up, coupling the action with some insulting remarks, all of which was held to be a kanga. At the same time, Te Koea, a younger brother of Ngatuna (who had been seized and taken away to France by Captain Cécille of the corvette Héroine), evidently aware of the strained feeling that existed, in a fit of perversity not at all uncommon to Maoris in such cases, and grieving it was said for the loss of his elder brother and the leading men of his tribe slain on board the Jean Bart, and who was furthermore jealous of the pre-eminence of Meremere, who had married Tapiri's wife (Tapiri having died shortly after arrival on the island), went to “the parent” Tatua or Koteriki, an inseparable ally of Pomare's, and incited him to take Waitangi (the Ngatitama portion), saying, “To - 75 oneone ko Waitangi”—“Your land is Waitangi.” Owing to its being better land than Whangaroa and its vicinity, the Ngatimutunga had long cast covetous eyes on Waitangi.
Accordingly, on arrival, the Ngatimutunga marched along the sea-beach past the Kaimataotao Pa,2 situated about 400 or 500 yards from the mouth of the Waitangi River (Mangatukarewa), and made an entrenchment on the opposite or southern side. While marching past Kaimataotao, a suggestion was made to fire on the invaders, but whether from their superior numbers, or from the fact that several of them were closely related to those in the pa, they were not molested. After this, the invaders having completed their entrenchments, began to fire upon the Ngatitama and Kekerewai in their pa of Kaimataotao, in order to drive them out. In returning the fire one of the beseiged killed Te Ahipaura, eldest son of Ngamate, one of the leading kaumatuas (old men) of Ngatimutunga. This accident, although brought on by themselves, straightway intensified the determination of Ngatimutunga to drive Ngatitama out of the pa, as well as to get revenge for the death of Te Ahipaura.
Hereupon happened another curious little incident of Maori custom. Raumoa,3 the head chief of the Kekerewai branch of Ngatitama became “very much grieved” at the death of his “son”4 Te Ahipaura, and much annoyed that matters should have put on such a serions aspect. He took a keg of powder with some arms, and told Te Rakatau and others of his party to leave him—to go out and join the Ngatimutunga—and enjoined on them to be strong to fight against him. They did go out from the pa, but remained neutral, visiting both parties during the events which followed. Whether there may not have been an unexplained motive underlying this apparently gallant behaviour is perhaps not improbable, such, for instance, as the desire of having some one to assist the besieged outside the pa, in case - 76 of the worst happening. This, indeed, occurred later on, when the Cuba shipped all in the pa round to Waikeri, when one Paoro—an old chief who left in compliance with Raumoa's orders—stood between the bullets of the Ngatimutunga and their enemies, the Ngatitama, when the latter were being shipped away from the Waitangi beach, thereby causing the firing to cease, as Ngatimutunga dared not injure him.
At this time the besieged were running short of food, while Meremere and other relatives of the Ngatitama were living unmolested at Waikeri, on the north-eastern side of the island. Apprehending difficulties, the besieged had made up their mind to abandon the pa and go to Waikeri; whilst Meremere and party were to come round to the Awapatiki, on the eastern side of the island, and assist in covering their retreat. This subject was being discussed when the Cuba, the New Zealand Company's surveying ship, arrived at Waitangi in June, 1840, with Mr. Hanson (afterwards Chief Justice of South Australia) as agent for the Company, who shipped away the besieged to the north-eastern end of the island. (See Mr. Hanson's letter at the end of this article.)
The Ngatitama were taken from Waitangi on board the Cuba on the 17th June, 1840, and landed, some in Kaingaroa, the rest at Okawa—Waikeri being the general name for the district. This place Okawa, was subsequently a bay-whaling establishment, which was organised by M'Clutchie, mentioned in Mr. Hanson's letter to the New Zealand Company, and which is dated erroneously 12th August, 1841, whereas it should have been 1840, the letter having been published in the New Zealand Journal for April, 1841.
The “son,” mentioned by Mr. Hanson, who “E Mare” (Pomare) wished to avenge was Te Ahipaura, who was possibly the son of a cousin and consequently a “son,” in Maori custom, however distantly related, just as mātuas represents the senior branch in descent of great-grand nephews.
The Ngatitama lost only one man named Toko during this warfare, the same poor young fellow who escaped by hiding in the chains of the Jean Bart, and was only saved then to lose his life about a year after. Both parties appeared contented to fire at one another in a half-hearted sort of fashion, there being so many on either side who were relatives.
Shortly after the Ngatitama and their allies had settled at Waikeri, a war party of Ngatimutunga followed round the coast, and coming upon a poor harmless Moriori killed him as a matter of course. They - 77 then laid in ambush for others, and caught Wiremu Kingi Meremere's younger brother Pohitaka, who was out unsuspectingly shooting tuis. The Maoris said he died bravely like a rangatira, saying nothing, but merely smiled. One Tangari Te Umu despatched him with a tomahawk. This they considered to be the first satisfaction obtained for Te Ahi Paura, as Pehitaka was an undoubted rangatira.
After this another taua came and attacked the Ngatitama, and in the fight that followed, Ngakare and Kiore were shot and Tupara Te Umu wounded by the Ngatitama. Peace was then made by Tatua of the Ngatimutunga holding up his hani, or taiaha, as a sign to Meremere, who was a relation, and the latter recognising the action as a desire for peace the fighting ceased. The final cessation of all fighting however occured late in the year 18425 when a party of Natives, sent by the Church of England Missionaries, came from New Zealand introducing Christianity with them, which was embraced at once. Meremere and the Ngatitama sent on their part Te Rangikahaunga who readily welcomed the teachers, who were Wiremu Tamihana Te Neke, Hakaraia Te Iwikaha, and Pita Hongihongi. Among the Ngatimutunga, Nga Whairama, a leading chief and father of Wiremu Tamihana Karewa (subsequently appointed Native teacher by Bishop Selwyn), embraced Christianity, and with him all his adherents. Nga Whairama was induced to do so from having heard that Te Rangitakē of Waikanae in New Zealand had adopted Christianity. Pomare immediately after this went to Wellington, where his arrival on the 24th October, 1842, in a brig called the Hannah is recorded. When there he received from the Natives a large proportion of the money paid to them by the New Zealand Company for Port Nicholson, with part of which he purchased horses (hacks), the first landed on the Chatham Islands. Pomare's section of the Ngatimutunga owned all the land where Wellington is now built, from Waipiro, the little stream which formerly ran down Sydney Street near the House of Assembly, round to and including all Te Aro end of the city.
Following the first mission party came another under the Rev. Mr. Aldred of the Wesleyan denomination, who brought with him - 78 Mohi Te Ikaherengutu, Tamati Te Tawarahi, Wiremu Upo and a boy, Hamiora, who were landed from a schooner of which M'Clatchie was master, at Okawa in 1843. Finding that the natives of that district had embraced Christianity under the auspices of the Church of England, the party went to Hawaruwaru, where the Ngatihaumia hapu became Christians, and from thence continued their journey to Tupuangi, where the Ngatihinetuhi and Ngatiaurutu also embraced Christianity. The rest of the Ngatimutunga all accepted the teaching of the gospel with the exception of the Ngatikura hapu, who with one exception remained aloof.
The advent of Christianity appeared—as described years after by those who took part in these scenes—to have been an inexpressible relief to the Maoris, and most certainly it was so to the Morioris, who through its means realised, that although in bondage, they no longer stood in immediate danger of being killed—still, however, the restless roaming spirit of the Maoris could not subside at once.
PART V.—THE RESIDENCE AT THE AUCKLAND ISLANDS.
OWING to the limited area of the Chatham Islands, taken together with the fact that many of the Maoris did not obtain land in their own right, a desire for an extended field of operations grew up amongst them. Tauru Matioro—who was found as described by the Maoris on their arrival at Whangaroa in November, 1835, living there with a mixed sealing and whaling party—had it appears visited the Auckland Islands (called by the Maoris Maungahuka) with a sealing expedition prior to this. Owing to his representations, Patukumikumi, his father-in-law, with a number of the Ngatimutunga, taking their Moriori slaves with them, joined him in chartering a Sydney brig named Hannah (name of captain unknown, but said by the Maoris to be “Maero”) and proceeded to those islands.
Almost immediately after landing, a party proceeded, with one Motu - karaka, a chief, to takahi (take possession) of the island. On going over it, however, they found it was peaty, bleak, and evidently quite unsuitable for them to live on. Accordingly Motu-karaka and Tangari Te Umu (it does not appear certain if there were any more) went back on board the Hannah, with the intention of returning to the Chatham Islands. The captain, fearing that the rest would get on board and compel him to take them back also, weighed anchor and returned to Waitangi, leaving the greater number to get on as they best could at the Auckland Islands.- 79
As far as can be ascertained they arrived at the Auckland Islands some time in the beginning of 1843, for they say the Gospel had only been introduced a short time among them when they departed thither. Possibly this was in the autumn, or otherwise they could not have had potatoes and seed, which they certainly took with them.6
According to the Maori account they could only find one part of the island where potatoes would grow. They used some plant—as they described it—with a leaf like a turnip, as a vegetable. Pauas (mutton-fish) did not appear to flourish there, but there was a great abundance of mussels, large and small (kuku and taore). Of fish they allege there were only two kinds obtainable, one fit to cook (called kokopu), but the other full of a kind of thread-worm (ngaio) penetrating through the flesh, which they in consequence dared not eat. The islands abounded in sea-birds, including two large kinds of albatross (tataki and hirara), which built on an adjacent island to the south. The young of all these kinds of sea-birds they took in their season, just before they were prepared to fly. Further, there was (they said) a stout-leaved plant growing there which they used as flax, there being no New Zealand flax natural to the island.
The names of the Maoris left on the island were:—Te Patukumikumi7 and his wife Tapirirua; Tapae and his wife Ngapera; Tauru-Matioro and his wife Ngawhanga; Tapae's children, Unaiki (female), Hapua, Kauri, and Te Ahirata (males), all born on the island; Toenga Te Poki and his wife Potae; Tanumia and his wife Tahunga; Ngakare8 and his wife Piro; Ngapongi and his wife Tuku; Poni and his wife Ngaruma; Whirinaki and his wife Pouaka; Epiha Pakau, Mapu, and Waiwhero (all three males); Ngaki (female), with some children. Twenty-three Maoris altogether who went there.
The Morioris were: Males—Takoroa, Tarere, Tamaehanga, Tape-peke, Tamaaroaro, Pakautu, Marakapia, Tarakihi, Meke, Pita-Rangite-muia, Matai, Ngatiawa, Ta-moko-tu-a-he, Hange, Tiemi; Women—Kahoki, Hakina, Tongarei, Hine-kutu, Te Kore, Hine-makōkō, Porou, Rohana, and Taha pātū; twenty-five of them in all.
According to their story they had been on the island about two years when the Enderby whaling party arrived and occupied the - 80 island with them.9 Some time after the arrival of the Enderby settlers, one Toenga Te Poki became jealous of the influence exercised by Tauru Matioro; and being of a very impulsive and turbulent disposition, raised a disturbance with Tauru, whose cause was championed by his father-in-law, Toenga's cousins Tapae and Tupara and others. The quarrel commenced by one of them saying to Matioro's wife: “The name10 of your son Pēpē (baby) has been killed by Toenga, and I saw him and his wife Potae make a fire and eat part of it.” This naturally raised the indignation of Matioro and party, as it appeared to be a piece of wanton malice. Not content with this, Toenga armed himself, and later on having gained the assistance of Pito-one, or Ngakare, and a Moriori or two whom he induced to join him, intended to attack Matioro. On their advancing to the attack, Matioro fired and killed Ngakare, which so terrified Toenga that he ran away in affright. Patukumikumi with his daughters had gone, apparently for safety, to some little island in the harbour, and from there they saw Toenga and others coming one morning in a whale-boat to where they were dwelling in a small whare. As Toenga evidently had hostile intentions, Patukumikumi loaded his gun, and lying flat on the floor of the house with the muzzle of his gun protuding, waited until the boat grounded. As Toenga was proceeding to land, Patukumikumi sent a bullet smashing through the boat, which so alarmed Toenga that he and his party beat a hasty retreat. Seeing this, Patukumikumi's daughter Ngawhanga, who also had her gun loaded, did not fire as she had been on the point of doing; they were quite satisfied with the retreat of the enemy.
After the death of Ngakare, Toenga was in great fear for his personal safety, and much ashamed of fighting against his cousins. He had no adherents, and shortly after these occurrences a stray vessel calling in, he and his wife were brought back to the Chathams.11
As long as the Enderby settlement continued on the island the Maoris seemed content to remain, but when the settlement broke up in 1852, Matioro with a section of his party went to Stewart's Island in a cutter of Governor Enderby's named The Auckland. They landed - 81 at Port Adventure and dwelt there with the South Island Natives for some time, leaving the brothers Tapae and Tupara with their wives and families at the Auckland Islands.12 (See Note 5.)
In the meanwhile their relatives in the Chatham Islands hearing of the break up of the settlement and of the death of their friends, chartered the Lalla Rookh, brig, 155 tons, Ward master, at a cost of 100 tons of potatoes, and in March, 1856, went viâ Port Adventure, Stewart's Island, to bring them back to the Chatham Islands. They first picked up Matioro and all his people, including the Morioris at Stewart's Island, and then went on to the Auckland Islands.
Tangari Te Umu, Petere Roiri, and others went from the Chatham Islands in the brig to fetch their friends back. Arrived at the Auckland Islands a difficulty awaited them, highly illustrative of Maori procedure and character. This incident was detailed by an old lady, the relict of Tapae, only recently dead. After landing, a very great tangi (wail) commenced on both sides, a mixture of love for the living and sorrow for the dead. The old lady in question—Ngapera—with her husband and others felt aggrieved at having been left alone in the island when Tangari Te Umu (her husband's younger brother) and others left them to shift for themselves, and went back with the vessel which brought them to the Auckland Islands. Although secretly rejoiced at the arrival of the vessel, it was not deemed proper to show it. In the first place she armed herself with a good stick, which her mother observing, admonished her to be careful and not to injure any one. Thus armed she sallied out, and addressing her nearest connections more especially (knowing they could not retaliate), poured forth a torrent of invective. “Yes,” she said, “you have come now after all these long years to fetch us away. You left us here to die. I will not go back with you. I will die on the land where you deserted me,” Whereupon, to give point to her scolding, she came down with her stick on the head of her unfortunate brother-in-law, causing the blood - 82 to flow, and following it up by assailing others in like manner, all of whom meekly submitted. “They dared not touch me,” she said (with a grimace of mingled fun and conceit), “I was such a rangatira.” She was really senior in descent to them. After she had vented her displeasure, her husband Tapae declared that he also would die in the island, to the great consternation of the rescue party, who for some time did not know what to do.
At last Tangari could stand his brother's obstinacy no longer, and with a shout of pretended fury rushed at Tapae, seized and carried him out of his house bodily. Seeing that active measures were being taken, and doubtless glad of a decent excuse to yield, he said, “Let me alone and I will leave with you,” to the great joy of all. Accordingly all proceeded on board, but the termagant old lady declared that they made her tipsy with liquor, and so by that means got her on board—a somewhat ridiculous termination to her opposition!
Before returning they exhumed, and afterwards brought away with them to the Chatham Islands, the bones of their dead. They arrived at their old home after about three weeks' absence, and all settled down at Waitangi. True, however, to his wandering instincts, Matioro only stayed there a short while, and then went back to Waikanae, in New Zealand, where all his wanderings ceased.
From that time until 1868 the Maoris apparently settled down in peace and quietness, devoting themselves to trading with the settlers who commenced to arrive, and to cultivating the soil, especially distinguishing themselves in the growth of potatoes, for which at one time they found a most excellent market in the goldfields of Australia. But their previous wanderings had engendered a spirit of unrest, and soon after the escape of Te Kooti from his island prison at the Chatham Islands, all of the Maoris, with the exception of a few, returned to their old homes in Taranaki, New Zealand, where they now live. This migration occurred in 1868; and it was in accordance with a matakite (or prophecy) that they should do so.
1. The following is the quotation from Mr. Hanson's letter referred to in the text. It was published in the New Zealand Journal for April, 1841, and is dated Port Nicholson, August 12th, 1841, (or 1840, as Mr. Shand points out). He says:—
“In my letter of the 15th June, I informed you of my having completed the purchase of the Chatham Islands from E Mare (Pomare) and the chiefs of Ngatimutunga, and of my purpose to put a stop to the existing war between the Ngatimutunga and Ngati-tama tribes, by removing the latter from the pa in which they were enclosed.- 83
“The day fixed on for the removal of the people was the 17th June. On the morning of that day I directed the captain of the Cuba to send on shore all his boats, and procured the loan of two others from an American whaler, whose wreck I detailed in my last letter. . . . . About nine in the morning the boats put off under the direction of Mr. Macathie, and at the same time I went ashore in his gig. . . . . On landing I went to the pa where E Mare and the principal chiefs of the besieging party were stationed, watching with great indignation the proceedings of the boats. He addressed me angrily, demanding what right I had to interfere, and threatened to follow up the others and exterminate them, but I eventually induced him to send orders and stop the firing. I watched with great anxiety the proceedings on the beach where the boats were being loaded with the women and children from the pa under a constant fire of musketry. Fortunately the presence of mind and resolution of Mr. Macathie, aided by the orders of E Mare to cease firing freed me from my apprehensions. Muskets were still fired into the air. The removal of the party occupied nearly three hours. The women, children, and old men were removed first, and after them about forty fighting men. Before leaving the pa they had set fire to their sacred houses where the bones of their dead chiefs were preserved. They were all in fighting costume, that is, perfectly free from clothing, their bodies painted and their heads adorned with feathers, and cartouche box round the waist, musket and tomahawk in hand. . . . .
“Scarcely had the last man left the besieged pa when it was filled with the besiegers, and almost instantly set on fire in every quarter. Before having performed this act of revenge and triumph, they mustered on the beach and commenced a war-dance. I had hoped that all was over, but the folly of Coffee, the interpreter, who from his having married into the besieged tribe had became half a Maori, and who encouraged the men in the boats to cheer and discharge their muskets, drew a fire from the party on the beach which had nearly proved fatal.
“As soon as the boats had reached the ship, the gig came to fetch me off; before it arrived however, the wife of E Mare came to me on the part of her husband to beg that I would leave Mr. Faddy—the doctor—on the island, to retain possession of the island.
“I was highly rejoiced at having been the means of saving 180 persons—which was the number we brought off—from certain death. . . . . The forbearance of E Mare under the circumstances was highly creditable to him, although it is true the war originated in an unprovoked act of aggresion on his part, though no doubt he felt himself fully justified, and he was eager to avenge the death of his son. He was well aware from the state of the besieged party that a few days would have put him in possession of the pa by starvation. . . . .
“As soon as I got on board we weighed anchor and sailed . . . . but a gale coming on from the eastward, which lasted a week, it was not until the 23rd that we succeeded in landing about 80 of the party at Kaingaroa. The remainder we landed at Waikati on the morning of the 26th.”
2. Some trouble has been taken to fix the dates of events connected with the Maori occupancy of the Auckland Islands, but the result is not entirely satisfactory. We are indebted to several gentlemen who have assisted in this inquiry. The results are briefly given as follows:—As stated in the text, the Maoris believe that they landed on the islands early in 1843. Mr. John Hay, of Southland, very kindly made inquiries amongst the old settlers in that part of New Zealand in reference to this subject, and obtained from Mr. George Printz, of Riverton, the following information:—“In the month of October, 1842, the schooner Scotia, Captain Ward, on a sealing cruise to the Auckland, Campbell, and Macquarie Islands, landed a sealing-party on Enderby Island, in Port Ross, Auckland Island. With this party, some two hundred baskets of potatoes were landed and placed in a cave on Enderby Island. Soon after, the party sailed down the coast to Carnley- 84
Harbour, at the southern end of Auckland Island, where they built huts and commenced operations. No Maoris were on the island at that date. In the following month of November the sealers were surprised to see three boats coming up the harbour and making towards their camp. They surmised that these must belong to another sealing - party working on another part of the island, but to their great astonishment the boats turned out to be manned by Maoris, headed by a chief named Matioro. The Maoris remained a few days, and then took their departure for Port Ross, after impressing the sealers into their service. On arrival at Port Ross the sealers were surprised to find that their potatoes left there were rapidly being consumed by Matioro and his party, consisting of some thirty Maoris and their wives and children, together with about the same number of Moriori slaves, of whom the greater number consisted of young men and women. Matioro and his people were well provided with a large and varied supply of provisions, consisting of flour, tea, sugar, biscuits, bacon, and a large quantity of spirits—mostly rum. They had three whaleboats, and were well supplied with guns and ammunition, evidently taken from the French whaler Jean Bart they had seized at the Chatham Islands.” Mr. Hay goes on to give Matioro's account of the taking of the whaler as communicated to Mr. Printz, which in its main outlines is in conformity with the story already published in this Journal, though differing in detail. Mr. George Printz was a boy of fifteen with the sealing party at the time of the occurances just related, and he believes the date of the Maori arrival at the Auckland Islands to be quite correct; Captain Stevens, another old Southland settler corroborates it as far as he is able.
3. Dr. Hocken of Dunedin very kindly supplies the following note from Enderby's work. The ship Governor Enderby conveying Mr. Enderby, the Lieut-Governor of the Auckland Isles, sighted the Western coast on the 2nd December, 1849, and was piloted into Laurie Harbour (Port Ross) on the 4th by a New Zealander. There were seventy of these people on the islands who had been brought by a Colonial vessel from the Chatham Islands, about eight years previously; thirty of them under a chief named Matioro on Enderby Island; twenty-five under another chief named Manature on the main islands, and the others were independent. They possessed many hogs and had enclosed and cultivated a considerable quantity of land. To prevent any possibility of future disputes, the Governor deemed it advisable to compensate them for what they considered to be their rights, and they surrended to him all claims to any hogs and to all the land, whether enclosed or otherwise, retaining for their own use during the coming winter the growing crops. He also engaged the whole of the Maoris in the Company's service, the two chiefs as constables, the other men as labourers, at moderate rates of wages, but quite equal to agricultural wages in England. The chiefs appeared to understand their duty, and in one instance where the Maori dogs had been worrying the sheep, Matiori gave orders for the destruction of six of them.”
4. Mr. F. R. Chapman of Dunedin, also adds the following notes, which he obtained from Mr. Thomas Younger of Picton, who was one of the Enderby settlers. “When we got close into the island, to our surprise we saw a boat coming off from the point opposite Ocean (Ewing) Island, and with more astonishment found it to be manned by three or four Maoris completely naked, with the exception of a bit of sealskin wound round their loins. They were painted and had feathers in their hair, and had one woman amongst them. One of them came on board whilst we were still outside, we had a Maori sailor on board, who asked him to pilot us in, and from that day he was called Pilot Jack—a savage looking Maori he was. The sailors first took him and dressed him in some of their clothes; he then took charge of the ship and piloted us right in. We anchored between Shoe Island and the (Maori) settlement. . . . . We came across a Maori pa a quarter of a mile to half a mile from Deas Head; there was a very old Maori there, and perhaps- 85
a couple of dozen altogether in the pa. . . . . I never went to the point opposite Ewing Island, but there were a good many Maoris living there; they used to come in great numbers, one night so many came that we were under arms all night, armed with flint-lock Brown-Besses—all passed off however without disturbance—there were fully thirty or forty men that came over at that time, but they had no guns with them. . . . . I made small contracts with the Maoris for road works; they used to carry up the gravel from the beach in sacks. . . . . Sir George and Lady Grey visited us in H.M. Ships, Fly and Havannah. . . . . I never heard that the Maoris had to be paid for their land. We all got on well together, the Maoris—as Maoris—were exceedingly good, and only occasionally did a little trouble arise through drink, between the sailors and Maori women. . . . . In all there were about 100 settlers, including women and children. . . . Some of the Maoris went away with me about a year after the formation of the settlement, and about a year before it was broken up. The chief Matioro and his wife, named Kuini, were some of those who went. She was a person of superior rank. On one occasion an extraordinary thing happened. I found the Maoris hunting about the bush for something, but I could not understand from their imperfect English what it was they were searching for. Suddenly I came across Kuini, in a tree; she had just swung off, hanging herself by her scarf. A Maori sprung up the tree and let her down. I saw her later with her sister, she said: “See that”—showing me a bag of money—“me mate, moni mate”—i.e., “me dead, money dead.” She added that next time she would drown herself. I did not understand the expression, but she made motions signifying that the money would be buried with her. The fact was that the sailors had taken liquor and gone amongst the Maori girls, and Matioro had accused his wife of this. The Maoris all left soon after us, I understood.”
5. In answer to enquiries as to whether any knowledge still existed at Stewart's Island as to the residence of Matioro there, the Rev. Charles Connor very kindly made enquiries for us, and replies from Paterson Inlet as follows:—“I have ascertained, principally from an old man named Moses or Mohi te Kiekie, that Matioro and his party came from the Auckland Islands in a cutter to Port Adventure, on the East Coast of Stewart's Island, about the year 1854. This cutter was commanded by a man named Whitelock, whose son is now living in Colae Bay (South-land), and his daughter was the late Mrs. John Newton, whose husband still resides at ‘The Neck,’ Stewart's Island. The party consisted of Captain Whitelock—the only European on board—Matioro himself, and three or four other Natives belonging to Matioro's tribe. Mohi te Kiekie and Henere Kingi saw them come ashore, and heard from them their story. . . . . It was on account of a war that had been raging between Matioro's tribe and the others that the former fled in a vessel (name unknown) to the Auckland Isles. Enderby found them there in 1849, and they continued there for some years after. I cannot ascertain when Matioro first arrived at the Auckland Isles; they said they left because they could get nothing to eat but seals' flesh. They tried to grow potatoes, but failed; nothing would grow. Matioro chartered a schooner called the Maria, and returned to the islands for the rest of his tribe, in all about thirty, and arrived a second time in Port Adventure, about the year 1854. He with twelve others and some children returned very soon afterwards to Wellington in the Lalla Rookh, commanded by Captain Watt. [This statement somewhat conflicts with that in the text, but the latter being the account of the actual actors in the affair is probably correct.—Editors.] Those who remained on Stewart's Island all died—there is not one of their descendants left. There is a man named Rita Paewhenua (see Note 6), who belongs to the Ngatiawa and Ngatikahungunu tribes, living at Ruapuke Island; his father was one of the chiefs engaged in the war at the Chatham Islands before Matioro left.”- 86
6. At the request of Mr. John Hay, Mrs. Maurice Topi, of Ruapuke Island, obtained from Rita-Paewhenua some information, which is summarised as follows: “The Maoris went to the Auckland Islands in the schooner Hannah, of Sydney, an English vessel. There were from forty to fifty of them, and they landed at Port Ross two or three years before Governor Enderby. They lived on fish, &c., and tried to grow potatoes, but they would not grow well; they also introduced some flax plants from the Chatham Islands, which are said to be growing there now. While they were on the island they had a war amongst themselves, which was brought about by Toenga, who killed a man named Pitoone. After the fighting Toenga returned in a brig to the Chatham Islands. Rita gives the names of several of those who went there, which agree with those in the text. The reason they left the island was that they could get no food to grow, nor buy any after the Europeans had left. Matioro and several others came to Stewart's Island in a cutter called the Auckland, belonging to Governor Enderby, and settled at Port Adventure with the South Island Natives. There were two brothers named Tangari who came from the Chatham Islands in the brig Lalla Rookh, and took away their elder brothers, their wives and families. They also went to Stewart's Island, and took Matioro and his friends back to the Chatham Islands.”
7. Mr. John Hay also obtained the following information from the Maoris living at Oraka, Southland, and principally from Maika Kaniera, who lived at Port Adventure in Stewart's Island when the events occurred:—. . . . “About the year 1853 or 1854, or the year in which Mr. Mantell came to the Bluff to purchase the Murihiku Block [Mr. Mantell made payments to the Maoris in February, 1854, see Alex. Macky's ‘Native Affairs, South Island.’—Editors] a schooner called the Mary Ann, from Wellington, went to Port Ross, Auckland Islands, and brought away eight Maori men, ten women, and some children, also five Moriori men, six women, and one child, and landed them at Port Adventure, where they lived for some time. In the following year—end of 1854 (?) or 1855 (?)—a brig named the Lalla Rookh, Captain Watt, came from Wellington to Port Adventure and embarked all the surviving Maoris—followers of Matioro—with the exception of two, a Maori and his wife, and set sail for Port Ross, where the remainder of the party were embarked, and the brig then took them all to the Chatham Islands. The same brig was evidently carrying on a smuggling trade. Through representations made by the late Rev. Mr. Wholers, of Ruapuke, some time afterwards, on her arrival at Sydney, she was seized by the Customs authorities and sold. Four Maoris and one Moriori died at Stewart's Island. Of the two left behind by the brig, the woman died at Port Adventure and the man at Mataura, Southland.”
1 Had Patukawenga lived there would have been no war. It was by Te Poki and Pomare that war was assented to, especially by the former. Years after, when Pomare met Te Rangitake in Wellington, in 1843, the latter reproached him severely (they were close relations) with allowing war between Ngatimutunga and Ngatitama—all being kinsmen—the former bent his head in silence, feeling he had done wrong, and said nothing.
2 In Chapman's “Centenary Memorial of Captain Cook's Description of New Zealand,” published at Auckland in 1870, at page 140, will be found a sketch by the late Major Heaphy, V.C., of either this pa, or that erected by the besieging Ngatimutunga. It exhibits some features somewhat uncommon in a pallisaded pa, inasmuch as there are two towers, one six, the other four stages high, built up of wood, from which projectiles could be thrown, or muskets fired on the enemy. Taumaihi was the name given to these towers, but they rarely were of the height shown in the sketch.—Editors.
3 His younger brother Te Kaurapa was killed by the Ngaitahu at a fight which took place at Oraumoa in the South Island; hence his elder brother took the name in commemoration of the incident. He was a great warrior, and his loss was much lamented.
4 Raumoa and Ngamate (the father of Te Ahipaura) were kinsmen; hence the “sonship.”
5 There is some doubt as to the exact date at which the teachers from New Zealand landed at the Chatham Islands. His Lordship the Primate of New Zealand (then the Rev. O. Hadfield) who sent them there informs us that he cannot fix an accurate date, but that he “baptized the principal chief, Wi Piti Pomare, at Waikanae, on the 7th April, 1844. To the best of my recollection, he arrived there with the three teachers I had sent to Chatham Islands about two months before that date. The teachers were there for two or three months at the most.” See Note 2 at the end of this paper.—Editors.
6 According to Mr. Printz's account, their arrival at the Auckland Islands was either in October or November, 1842. See Note 2 at the end, where the fact of their having potatoes is accounted for in another way.—Editors.
7 His daughters married to Tapae and Matioro.
8 Pitoone, former name. He took the new name in commemoration of the death of his relative Ngakare, shot in the war with Ngatitama.
9 This must be incorrect for Governor Enderby and his party landed at the Auckland Islands, 4th December, 1849. See Note 3 at the end.—Editors.
10 Really “the pet pig named after your son Pepe.”
11 Toenga managed to kill two Moriori slaves belonging to Matioro. Both parties entrenched themselves during their quarrel. Mr. F. R. Chapman in his interesting paper “On the Islands South of New Zealand,” Tran. N.Z. Inst., Vol. XXIII., p. 500, says: “On the point opposite this (Ewing) island there was a large Maori pa when the Enderby settlers arrived. . . . . They were numerous enough to alarm the settlers, but kept the peace and left when the settlers abandoned the place.” This pa is on the eastern headland of Port Ross.—Editors.
12 At page 389 of Sir G. Grey's “Ngamoteatea” will be found an old Maori waiata, or song, which Sir George alludes to in the following note:—“In 1852, when the European settlement on the Auckland Islands was about to be broken up, the Natives sent this song in a letter to Sir G. Grey, to indicate their hope that he would still occasionally visit the islands; although, from their deserted state, when such an unexpected visit took place, it was doubtful how many of them might be alive.” Three of Her Majesty's ships visited the Auckland Islands during the time the Maoris lived there, viz., the Fly, the Havanah, and the Fantome, the latter in 1852. Mr. Ro. Carrick tells us that “In a short narrative of the cruise of H.M.S. Fantome, written by Dr. E. R. Malone (London, 1854), it is stated that in the year 1852 the ship visited the Auckland Islands for the purpose of attending upon the breaking up of the Enderby settlement, and that during her stay the Maoris applied to be taken off the island and landed in New Zealand, but were refused.”—Editors.