Volume 2 1893 > Volume 2, No.4, December 1893 > The coming of Te Arawa and Tainui canoes from Hawaiki to New Zealand, by Takaanui Tarakawa, translated by S. Percy Smith, p231-252
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- 231

WHEN the Tainui and Arawa canoes were ready to start from Hawaiki, from the beach of Whenuakura, and after all had been arranged, Tama-te-kapua, Tia, Oro, Maka and Hei returned to take farewell of their old father Tuamatua and his son Houmai-tawhiti. Tama-te-kapua turned on one side and beckoned secretly to Whakaoti-rangi, Ruaeo's wife. Whaka-oti-rangi came outside her house, - 232 followed closely by Ruaeo. Tama-te-kapua then hastened his return to the canoe, whilst his friends went straight on to present their heart-felt love to Tuamatua and Houmai-tawhiti. They saluted him and the old man returned their greeting. Tuamatua then asked “Where is the varigated cloud?” Oro knew at once that the expression referred to Tama-te-kapua, who like the clouds of heaven constantly changed his aspect, sometimes red, sometimes black, or sometimes many-hued, such was the character of the thoughts of Tama-te-kapua. He was the man of supreme knowledge in that generation. It was through this great knowledge he saved himself at the battle of Te Karihi-potae, where he alone of all the chiefs escaped in that massacre; it was he only who understood how to step upon the upper rope of the fishing net, and hold the lower rope to which the stone sinkers were fastened. He held it fast with his hands and then jumped outside, right over the net, and so escaped whilst all his companions were caught. The strategem of Ihu-motomotokia was his idea, and he prevailed on Ngatoro-i-rangi to adopt it. There are other notable doings of his besides.

Oro and the others therefore knew to what Tuamatua referred, and the former replied; “He turned off to the dwelling of Ruaeo, probably he has returned to the sea-shore ere this.” So the old man hobbled down (towards the beach) but his son Houmai-tawhiti objected, saying; “Stay here, I will go and bid farewell of thy relatives and thy grandson Tama-te-kapua.” When they reached the sea-shore, Tama-te-kapua was urging the men who were launching Tainui, to aid in also launching the Arawa. When Tainui was afloat, all hands joined in dragging the Arawa down to the sea. Whilst the crew of Tainui were loading her, Tama' turned towards them and called out to Hotu-awhio—who was the son of Hoturoa, captain of the Tainui—to say to his father; “Delay your paddling, let us all start together.” This was told to Hoturoa, who consented as he did also to the request of Tama-te-kapua, that the latter should take Ngatoro-i-rangi and his wife Kearoa on board the Arawa. Tama' saw that Kearoa had embarked, whilst the old man (her husband) was still standing on the shore. So the Arawa was put afloat at the same time as Tainui. Tama-te-kapua then ordered the embarkation, and whilst the crew were getting on board, he went to try and persuade Ngatoro-i-rangi, saying;”Let both of us embark on board the Arawa. There is no man who knows so well the rites of our old man Tuamutua—you alone possess the knowledge of the priestcraft, and of the power of Tuamatua, hence I abjure you to come with me in that canoe.”

The old man (Ngatoro-i-rangi) felt compassion at these words, and therefore called to him his wife who had already embarked on Tainui, and settled down in her place. So Kearoa jumped ashore, and came along the sands to the Arawa; the distance of the two canoes, as they floated, along the beach was about two chains according to report. So soon as Tama-te-kapua saw that Kearoa had waded ashore he urged his crew to hasten aboard the Arawa; and as he did so he glanced at Whaka-oti-rangi. He then saw that her husband Ruaeo was there also. He approached Ruaeo and said; “Friend, be quick, fetch my comb, which is hidden below the window of my house, it is stuck into the wall, and let your search be effectual that you may find it.”

Ruaeo went and finding the house open, entered. Whilst there he heard the voice of Houmai-tawhiti, biding farewell to the voyagers, - 233 saying; “Oh my sons, Oh Hei, Oh Oro, Oh Maka, Oh Tia! greeting, proceed on your way. When you arrive at the land to which you are going, be steadfast; in indolence there are all kinds of death. Rather hold by war in which is glory and honorable death.”1

The chiefs understood the words to mean, that it is better to die in battle, rather than in the ordinary way, or in slothfulness, which is the death of dogs and the thoughtless.

The canoes had by this time reached some 20 chains from the shore, whilst Ruaeo assiduously sought for Tama-te-kapua's comb. After Ruaeo had been sent away by Tama' the latter advanced towards Whaka-oti-rangi and said; “O, go on board the canoe and arrange a position for yourself, at the third thwart from the stern, i.e., at the platform. Lo, my place is just beyond, let us be there together.” When all hands had gathered on board, Tama' and Ngatoro' were left below (on the sands). Said Tama' to Ngatoro' “Let us shove off the canoe,” so they pushed her off, and both jumped on board together, whilst at the same time the sails were hoisted, of which there were two.

When the old fellow—Ruaeo—came forth from the house, those who had been down to take farewell of the voyagers had nearly reached their homes; so he ran down to the shore expecting to find there his wife Whaka-oti-rangi. When he reached the sandhills of the beach, the sails of Te Arawa were disappearing in the distance.

It was enough, poor old man; the tears glistened in his eyes. Then he reflected and said to himself; “No wonder there was no comb where I searched for it; it was a blind, whilst Tama-te-kapua carried off Whaka-oti-rangi. Ah! presently you will be put to confusion by me!” Indeed Ruaeo afterwards met with Tama-te-kapua on this side of the sea, when they quarrelled, and Tama was put to shame.2

So the canoe sailed on, and after a time Ngatoro-i-rangi caused it to descend to Te Waha-o-te-parata;3 in consequence of the evil conduct of his friend Tama-te-kapua towards him.4 Ngatoro-i-rangi invoked the aid of the gods, Maui-mua, Maui-roto, Maui-taha, Maui-pae, and Maui-taki-taki-o-te-ra; these were the gods who responded to the gloomy feelings of the old man. When the waters reached midships, the Arawa was on the point of foundering and Kearoa called out—“O! Toro, O! Kearoa's pillow has fallen!” But the old man gave no response—twice, thrice—there was no response. It was not until the voice of his nephew, (son of his sister) named Uenuku-whaka-roro-nga-rangi, was heard calling on his uncle in these words; “Tana nui, O! thou hast the the power, return thy people to the world of light,” that the heart of Ngatoro-i-rangi was touched, and he caused the canoe to emerge.5 All the goods on board fell overboard, but Whaka- - 234 oti-rangi had presence of mind to dive for and save her basket of Kumaras.6

They sailed on, and finaily reached Ratanui in the district of Tikirau7 on the East coast of the Bay of Plenty, where they saw the Rata tree in bloom, (December was the month in which they arrived).

Tama-te-kapua said to Ruarangi-murua and Ika, “Let us throw away our kuras, overboard, for see, the trees bear them in this country.” His friends consented and threw away their kuras. The names of those kuras were Tu-he-po and Tu-he-ao. After the canoe had passed on, the kuras drifted on shore and were found by Mahina. Hence this “saying” for a thing found; “O! it is a drifted kura of Mahina's; thy property will not be returned to thee!” I have seen those kuras; on the death of Hikareia Ngamoki, chief of Te Whanau-apanui, they were fetched from the sepulchral cave in which they were kept. The name of that chasm (or cave) is Moaha, and it is there that the chiefs of the tribe are buried.8

Te Arawa came straight across from there past the side of Whakaari, or White Island, to Moehau, or Cape Colville, on the Western side of the Bay of Plenty. When she entered Tikapa, or Hauraki Gulf, Ngatoro-i-rangi said; “Let our canoe's course be turned, that we may approach the island there, so as to allow our ara9 to touch the soil of this main land.” The reason of this was a certain stone (which Ngatoro' had brought with him). So the Arawa returned and drew near to the island which stands off Poihakena (Port Jackson, a few miles south-west of Cape Colville); the name of that island is Te-poito-o-te-kupenga-o-Taramai-nuku, or The-float-of-the-fishing-net-of- - 235 Taramai-nuku.10 After the stone had been left, Tama-te-kapua asked: “What is the meaning of leaving this stone here?” Ngatoro' replied, “Thou art left here, O stone! that thou mayest be embodied in the incantations of the descendants of the people on board this canoe, as a mauri, or heart, or soul, in the invocations to ward off evil.” When Tama' learnt that that was to be the mauri for all on board the Arawa, he conceived a desire to return to that neighbourhood and live there. So Tama' arose, and addressing the seventy chiefs said, “Listen all of you, whatever part of this mainland our canoe may finally arrive at, I shall return here; the mountain top yonder shall be my home.” At the same time he pointed to the summit of Moehau mountain—whilst all the people remained in silence. He then added, “My body shall rest here in this place for ever.” After this the canoe was detached from the island, and all on board the Arawa whispered to one another, some saying, “Whenever our canoe reaches the land, hasten to arise and take possession of a portion, behold the example of our friend, who directly took possession of yonder mountain.” Others said, “O, that was not the reason of his taking possession of this part as a permanent residence, but rather in consequence of the explanation in reference to the stone, that it should be our mauri, for us and our descendants—that was the reason.” Now let me explain; there are five mauris in this island which are used (or invoked) in the prayers (or invocations) for defence against evils. The first is the stone left at Moehau; the second is the manuka tree at Whakatane11; the third is the rengarenga (or lilly) on the altar, or sacred spot, at Whangara; the fourth is the flint-stone which Ngatoro-o-rangi stuck into the summit of Tongariro which caused the volcano of Ngauruhoe to burst out on top of the mountain; and the fifth is the altar, or sacred place, at Kawhia, Maketu, the name of which is Ahurei.

To proceed; the Arawa came straight on, (towards the south-east) and touched at an island off Ahuahu, or Great Mercury Island, the name of which is Reponga, or Cuvier Island; here were left the celebrated birds, Mumuhou and Takereto. The occupation of those birds is, to foretell the winds, the north-east wind, the signs of fine weather, the wind when the sea will be calm.

The canoe then sailed on; at daylight she was between Matarehua and Wairakei12 and the shore was distinctly to be seen. Tama' at once sprang up and called out, “That point there (Maketu point) is the bridge of my nose.” Tia eagerly arose and said, “That hillock to the south there, and hitherward to the mountain, is the belly of Tapuika.”13 Hei, interrupted the proclamation of Tia by saying, “From behind the mountain there, extending to that other range of mountains indis- - 236 tinctly seen in the north, is the belly of my son Waitaha.”14 Hei's possession thus extended northwards to Kati-kati. Rotorua could not be seen by them, so that Tama-te-kapua was not justified in saying, “Rotorua-nui-a-Kahu-mata-momoe,” or Great Rotorua-of-Kahu-matamome.15 Rather is this proverbial saying correct, “Rotorua-kite-a-Ihenga,” or Rotorua-discovered-by-Ihenga, as will presently be explained.16

The Arawa then entered the mouth of the river at Maketu, and the bows struck the shore at Ongatoro.17 The stern anchor was then let go, hence probably the allusion to the stone in that place, “that is the anchor of the stern.” The painter of the bows was then fastened to a great rock, the name of which is Toka-parore. Some of us say that rock was the anchor, others say that the Arawa was upset on it. I uphold the latter theory, because the stone is native to the place according to my idea. When this had been done all the people landed.

After a time Oro, Maka, and Uruika came to the conclusion that they would proceed further south in search of lands, because all that district had been annexed by the three men named above. At day-light therefore, they took the canoe, Ngatoro-i-rangi having gone on board, and sailed south. They discovered the Awa-a-te-atua river, and entered it, and landed above a place called Niao, where the canoe was draw on shore by the aid of the invocations of Ngotoro-i-rangi. The people then went away (inland), i.e., Kurapoto and others, whilst Ika and Mawete came in this direction (towards the west). Ika and his offspring Tua hastened their journey and came out at Lake Rotoehu; they crossed this, then followed along the side and came out at Rotoiti Lake, where Ika said to his offspring—“Behold thy dwelling place; follow up to the end of this lake.” So they went on, and came out at Rotorua, where Tua settled down at the deep pool just underneath Ngongotaha Mountain, at the end of the lake-shore beach.

Ngatoro-i-rangi went by way of the Tarawera river until he arrived underneath Rua-wahia Mountain; there he found a certain man dwelling whose name was Tama-o-hoi. Said Ngatoro' to him, “At what time did you arrive here?” Within him, the heart of Tama-o-hoi, was full of anger—not a word did he say in reply. Ngatoro' at once divined that the other was trying to bewitch him. So he said—“I am well aware that you are trying to kill me and my spirit (hau), but my spirit will not succumb to your incantations. You are of the Hapu-oneone, I am of Heketanga-rangi.”18 Then the demon (tupua) - 237 retreated backwards, plying his sorcery and repeating his incantations as he went. Thus Ngatoro' learnt the words of the incantations and spells (and was able consequently to counteract them); he called out—“Thou shall die by my hand immediately; the power is mine that rests on all the people of my side.” The man was alarmed at this, for he recognised the truth, that great power rested with Ngatoro'; so he disappeared into the ground. Ngatoro' then proceeded on his journey. After he had left behind him the Paeroa Mountains, he beheld before him Lake Taupo and Mount Tongariro, and he was seized with a desire to visit the lake and ascend to the summit of Tongariro. You have all heard this story before perhaps? Nevertheless I will continue.

When Ngatoro' arrived at the base of Tongariro, he at once commenced the ascent, but had only reached half way up when his body began to feel intensely cold. He however climbed on, and eventually arrived at the top, where he was nearly frozen to death in the snow. He then broke off a portion of his flint-stone—the other portion having been left at Moehau—and charmed it with a prayer; it bored its way into the earth.19

Now, as Ngatoro' climbed the mountain, his sisters, who had remained in Hawaiki when the Arawa left there, were troubled with anxiety on his account. Kuiwai went to Haungaroa and said, “Our brother is stricken with some calamity, let us go.” So they embarked on a block of pumice-stone, and after a time landed at Te-matau-a-Maui, or the Fish-hook-of-Maui, in the district of Napier,20 and thence travelled by way of the Titi-o-kura saddle and came out on to the Kaingaroa plains. Thence they went straight to Tongariro; arrived there the volcano had already burst forth on the summit of Tongariro—i.e., Ngauruhoe.

Behold; there are two most potent things left by Ngatoro-i-rangi entire in the world—that at Moehau and that one which fumes on the top of Tongariro.

From Tongariro he and his sisters returned to Maketu, but whilst they were at Tongariro the Arawa canoe was burnt—the people being all away at Rotorua at the time. It was the companions of Ngatoro' who returned the Arawa to Maketu, after it had been left at Te-awa-a-te-atua. Tia was at Titiraupenga; Hei was at Hikurangi mountain just inland of Katikati; Oro, Ika, Mawete, Ruarangi-murua, Uenuku-whaka-rongo-nga-rangi, Maka and Hatupatu were scattered over the face of the land; Tama-te-kapua was at Moehau fulfilling his project of taking possession of that place. A sure sign (of some evil) came to Hatupatu at Mokoia, at Rotorua. He at once dived under the waters of the lake and came out at Ohau on the northern shore, and from thence walked to Maketu where he found the ashes (of the burnt canoe) quite cold. (By this time) Raumati—who burnt the Arawa—had reached a point opposite Maungatawa.21 Hatupatu hastened his pace, and came out at Wairakei,22 and as Raumati drew near to - 238 Maunganui hill at Tauranga, East Head, the former caused the earth to open by aid of his incantations, so that he could crawl along under-ground. He knew that the other would not otherwise be caught by him, so he went under-ground and came up at Panepane on the further side of Waikorire, on the west side of the mouth of Tauranga harbour, and awaited there the crossing of Raumati. Here he caught him, cut off his head, stuck in a post, and left the head on top of it. From that time down to the present has that name Panepane23 been spoken of to the world, even to this generation. Behold, the burning of the Arawa was avenged: the payment of his sin was the sinner himself.

So Ngatoro-i-rangi and his sisters arrived at Maketu, and looked in vain for the ancestral canoe, and cried at the loss of it, and for the waste of so fine a vessel. Said Kuiwai, “I struck my foot against a branch of a tree inland there, my belief is that there is a large tree beneath the soil; let it he seen to, it is not so very far.” Ngatoro' asked her, “In what place is it?” The hand of his sister pointed to Kopunui. So Ngatoro', together with his son Tangihia, went to search, and found the heel marks (of Kuiwai). They then dug down, and soon knew they had found a totara tree suitable for a canoe. The son then returned to fetch Kuraroa, Uruika, Maka, Mawete, Tama-nui-te-ra, and Waitaha, and they all gathered together, fathers and sons, to rejoice over their find. Kurapoto was there also with his axe—he and Kahu, the second born son of Tama-te-kapua, that is to say, Tuhoro was the eldest, Kahu came after. Tama-te-kapua, and his son Tuhoro, and the latter's sons Ihenga and Tama-ihu-toroa, were all at Moehau, at the land annexed by Tama-te-kapua. He had returned to that mountain to live there.

So the company of chiefs went to work at the canoe, to hew it into shape, accompanying their work with incantations to hasten the completion. The very master-hand that shaped out the Arawa was there—Kurapoto. When the canoe was finished, Mawete—he and Kurapoto were the master-builders—said to the company, “Listen, my masters, I propose that we shall name this canoe Te Arawa, from a feeling of love towards our treasure which was consumed by the fire of this Rerewhaiti.” (This expression was intended for the slave Raumati who burnt the Arawa.) Not a sound proceeded from the mouths of the thirty chiefs. Then replied their great and powerful chief Ngatoro-i-rangi, who was the first-born of the first-born, that is to say, his father Rakauri was the first-born of Tuamatua24 the offspring of the Heketanga-rangi or “Descendant of Heaven”; this is the noble line of descent, Ngatoro-i-rangi and Tama-te-kapua, from across the seas even to this island. All the descendants of these men know that most of the people of this island are the offspring of these men, they are of the ancestral line of the Heketanga-rangi. Behold, Ngatoro-i-rangi opened his mouth to all the chiefs and said, “Listen, O my younger brethren, O my parents, O my children, I will reply to the words of Mawete, in which he expresses his wish to name this canoe Te Arawa. This name is a very sacred name; it was not we who applied the name to that canoe, rather was it your father and grand-father Tuamatua. Carefully consider that name of Te Arawa, it was the means by which we obtained all our possessions, that were longed - 239 for by me and by you—everything that we wished for; if it is to be (as Mawete wishes) I shall take those possessions by the road that leads to the principal altar at Te Hauhanganui. Behold, the power rests with me, with Hatupatu is another part, and with Tama-te-kapua another. As for this, by a woman was the tree found; call its name Totara-Keria (the totara dug out of the ground). Hence is the name of this canoe, Totara-Keria. When it afterwards went to Hawaiki, the result was the battle of Ihumotomotokia. On its return, Ngatoro-i-rangi was followed up to Motiti Island, in the Bay of Plenty. The people sailed hither over the sea. Ngatoro-i-rangi called out to them, “Anchor outside, let us fight together in the morning.” To this the chief of the Tini-o-Manahua consented, so Ngatoro went to Matarehua to build an altar by himself so that no man might see him, and when finished he arose and offered his incantations to Maui, to Tawhiri-matea, to Kahukura, and at the same time called on Tangaroa of the sea to agitate, and cause the sea to be like a whirlpool. He also called on Maui to draw out the winds of Pungawere. So his call was responded to by those whose names have been recited. The people (in the fleet of Te Tini-o-Manahua) were overcome with sleep. At midnight appeared their destroyer,—the result was Maikukutea, the defeat at Motiti.25

The cause of the battle of Ihumotomotokia was a curse, the effects of which reached even this island. It was on account of the following words spoken to the sisters of Ngatoro-i-rangi: “Is the firewood at Waikorora a pillow of your brother's that you do not bring it for use?”26 The words were spoken by their husband, hence was the heart of Ngatoro-i-rangi pained. The result was, thousands of men were killed in payment for those words. It was long after the Arawa and other canoes had left that those words were uttered. So the sisters came, as already related, and told their brother of the words spoken. It was presumption on the part of that people to use such words, for their position was an inferior one, and during the residence of Tuamatua and his tribe in those parts they lived in a constant state of dread. It was on account of this that Ngatoro punished them but lightly in their defeat at Ihumotomotokia; but when they followed him to this island then the old man really showed his anger, hence the destruction at Maikukutea, at Motiti Island.

All the people then settled permanently within the following boundaries, commencing at Te-awa-a-te-atua, thence by way of the Tarawera river, straight over Ruawahia mountain, to Rere-whaka-itu lake, to Nga-ti-whakawe-a-Ngatoro-i-rangi,27 thence straight on to Runanga on the Napier-Taupo road, where it turns to the west and passes by the south side of Tongariro coming out at inland Patea, - 240 then straight on to Karioi, where it turns and comes along by the west side of Tongariro, Titiraupeuga, and Whakamaru mountains, by way of Maungaiti, then crosses the Tokoroa plains and follows down the course of the Waihou or Thames river, passing beneath Te Aroha mountain to Ohinemuri and out to Tararu at the mouth of the Thames, after which it follows the sea coast to the summit of Moehau, to the grave of Tama-te-kapua, and from thence follows the sea coast and closes on to Te-awa-a-te-atua. This is the proper boundary of the descendants of the chiefs (who have been mentioned) without including those who spread out to this place and that place—such as those who joined the Whanau-apa-nui tribe, where is to be found the firstborn line of Tama-te-kapua (whose descendant is the chief), Te-Kani-a-takirau, or those with Te Apatu and Kopu-parapara tribes of the east coast. However, my (ancestor) was the elder—Turirangi. Te-Toko-o-te-rangi was senior of all and was the ariki, Wahi-awa came after—with Te-Kani-a-takirau's tribe (are the descendants of) Te-toko-o-te-rangi.

Now when Tama-te-kapua drew nigh unto death, he said to his son Tuhoro, “Be very careful to purify thyself correctly28 when thou comest to bury me, lest my spiritual influence should harm thee.” But Tuhoro did not purify himself properly when he officiated on Tama-te-kapua, so he told his sons Ihenga and Tama-ihu-toroa that he was overcome by the influence of their grandfather, that he had not conducted the ceremonies properly. “Hereafter, when you officiate for me, return your otaota, or wand, that your uncle—Kahu-mata-momoe—may conduct your purification. You will find your joint heirloom, Koukoumatua,29 hidden beneath the window of his home, it belonged to your own grandfather, Tama-te-kapua; it is an ear-drop made of greenstone. During a quarrel between your uncle Kahu and myself, I tore it out of his ear. But I was sorry for it, and hid it. The torn ear (of your uncle) will be a sign by which you may know him; do not delay your journey.”30

After a time Tuhoro died, and when the young chiefs had completed the necessary ceremonies connected therewith, they left Moehau and proceeded to Maketu, where their uncle, Kahu, lived. They asked of some children, “Where is the house of Kahu?” This was shown to them, and they went straight on to it, leaving behind them the gateway of the fence of the pa, whilst the people of the other houses looked on, wondering why they did not halt at the fence.31 Arrived at the entrance of the house, they saw inside the stone enclosure where was the (sacred) pillow of Kahu. Ihenga at once got on to the pillow within the enclosure. The people called out in astonishment (at the transgression of the sacred place by a stranger) and said, “Thy pillow has been trodden on by a man! Whence can these men be?” The son of Kahu—Tawake-moe-tahanga—ran up, and there saw the young - 241 fellows sitting in the sacred precents; so Tawake halted and awaited the coming of Kahu, who on his arrival stopped at a distance thinking, “Whence are these men who are so brave as to sit on my sacred pillow?” Ihenga knew what both Kahu and Tawake were thinking of, for he had seen the torn ear and recognised his uncle. He then placed the otaota or wand on top of the pillow, and arose and said, “Approach, but let us greet presently; here is the otaota of thy elder brother Tuhoro; take us to the altar and cleanse us.” So soon as they heard this, the old man and his son began to weep, for they recognised the sons of Tuhoro; so they cried over one another for some time.

In the evening they were taken to the altar, or sacred place, and it was arranged that eight days should be the duration of the tapu; for Kahu was aware that the spiritual influence of both Tama-te-kapua and his son Tuhoro was present, hence the unusual number of days of restriction. In the end that spiritual influence was transferred to Kahu; probably had not Tuhoro told his sons that Kahu should purify them, this spiritual influence of Tama-te-kapua, would have permanently remained with them; so it was however, and hence the spreading out of the descendants of Ihenga to other districts. Another reason was, the eight days were not fully accomplished, when their sacred dwelling was entered by Kakara,32 daughter of Kahu, and sister of Tawake-moe-tahanga. The girl had seen the attractive appearance of her elder cousin Ihenga. In vain the father reproved her—the girl would not listen. He said to her, “O daughter! do not desecrate the sacred house of your cousins, three days of the restriction are passed, five remain; after that, enter freely. This is the hurihanga takapou (lit. “turning of the mat,” it means the last stages of the cleansing ceremonies) of thy uncle Tuhoro, the dimunition also of the spiritual influence, and the great sacredness of thy grandfather Tama-te-kapua, which has come to me through their otaota, which they brought to me.” (The name of the thing which is called otaota, is found in incantations or invocations, it is the “tree of life” to them, and the power and prestige of the dead is contained in it; it is used in the invocations to ward off all evils of the world, and in invoking the Pae o Kahukura—? the throne of the god Kahukura.)

These were the words of Kahu to his daughter Kakara; but her heart heeded it not being exalted by the attractive face of the young fellow Ihenga. And so their house was eventually freed of restrictions, and then Ihenga and Kakara were married. There was born unto them, first, Tu-ariki, and afterwards Puriritaua. Behold, then, Kahu and his offspring dwelt permanently at Maketu down to the times of Rangitihi, five generations after the arrival of the Arawa canoe.

The commencement of the wars at Maketu, Rangiuru and Te Puke, under Te Moemiti, grandson of Te Puhipuhi.

In order to fix the approximate dates of the events herein related, the following genealogical tables are inserted as supplied by Timi - 242 Wata Rimini and Takaanui Tarakawa, and some additional ones will be found at the end.

Family tree. Tuamatua, married Karika (both dwelt in Hawaiki)., 1 Hei, Waitaha, Naia, Te Manutohi-kura, 5 Tohikura, Te Onekura, Rakautauru-nui, Te Houpara, Rangikouruao, 10 Te Kumikumi, Tupuaki, Koroipu, Ngauru, Te Moemiti, 15 Pare-hirangi, Rauru, Tarakawa, Takaanui Ta-rakawa, 19 Pirangi, The Waitaha tribe., =Ngatai-wha-kahi, =Te Ngaruhora, =Hinepiki, =Oneroa, =Puhia, =Kotuku, =Hine-i-puhia, = Te Aohau, =Punohu, =Haraki, =Hineraka, =Pare, =Ngatarawahi, =Hinehou, =Turanga-i-te-whatu, =Te Aokapu-rangi, = Te Whakau-mata, Houmai-tawhiti, (remained in Hawaiki), 1 Tama-te-kapua, Kahu-mata-momoe, Tawake-moe-tahanga, Uenuku-mai-rarotonga, 5 Rangitihi, Tuhourangi, Uenuku-ko-pako, Whakaue, Tawake-hei-moa, 10 Te Rangi-we-wehi, Tawake, Te Puhipuhi, Ngatarawahi, Te Moemiti, 15 Pare-hirangi, Rauru, Te Hihiko & 20 Hariata, Tarakawa, Takaanui Ta-rakawa, 19 Pirangi, 1 Tia, Tapuika, Tukutuku, Te Reinga, 5 Whango, Tahuri, Mokaiureke, Te Ahoroa, Makaturoa=, 10 Marukukere, Kopura, Uenuku, Te Mataurua-hu, Te Urepara-whau, 15 Te Kuruki, Te Kauwhata, Te Kuruki, Ihakara, Aporo-te-Ia, 10 Puriti, Moko-ta-tan-gata-tahi, Te Apuranga-a-hongi, Te Rangitua-pake, Te Makana, 15 Te Koru, Whanganui, Rarunga, Te Koata, Te Iripa-te-koata, Te Aruhe, 21 Wi, Hapi, The Tapuika tribe.

The figures show the number of generations from those who came to New Zealand in the Arawa canoe. Hei, Tama-te-kapua and Tia, were all immigrants by that vessel.

  • 1. Tia (of the Arawa canoe)
  • Tapulka
  • Makahae
  • Tawake
  • 5. Marukohaki
  • Ruangutu = Pare
  • 7. Tatahau
  • Maru and Punohu

In the time of the descendants of Rangitihi, the people of the Arawa first began to remove to the lake district, and not long after there came an invasion of a different people with a different power (to the Maketu district) under Te Rangi-hou-whiri. The descendants of Tia were found living there under their chief Tatahau, whose daughter Punohu was murdered by the new comers.33 Hence arose the first war in these parts. The descendants of Tia, and Hei raised an army and fought the invaders at Te Ruinga, with the result that the death of Punohu was avenged, and the new power driven out, and forced - 243 to migrate to Tauranga. (It will be seen from the marginal table that this event occurred in the 7th and 8th generations from the arrival of the Arawa.)

After the above events another invasion of a strange tribe with a different power came to Maketu. Ngariki was the name of that people, and the Arawa tribes fought them, some fell on both sides, eventually Ngariki were beaten and scattered abroad.

Again came another tribe and its own power to Maketu, named Ngati-whakahinga. In the meantime the descendants of Te Rangi-hou-whiri had increased greatly at Tauranga. Ngati-whakahinga were fought by the descendants of Tia and Hei and Tama-te-kapua, and this was a very severe war, neither gained any advantage.

Then came another strange tribe, who came from the south-east; the names of those people were To Raupo-ngaoheohe and the Tururumauku; they advanced on Maketu, where they found all the hillocks there occupied by the pas of Ngati-whakahinga. They were addressed by the chiefs of the Ngati-whakahinga thus:—“This people is dwelling here through conquest, beyond there are the people whose country this is, go, and fight with them and conquer their country for your-selves.” The strange tribes agreed to this, and assaulted the Tapuika tribe, when Marukukere fell together with his cousin Tawake-hei-moa, the battle was fought at Omaro-poporo. (See genealogical table ante, this was in the tenth generation from the arrival of Te Arawa.34) Sub-sequently these people fought again when the conduct of the war was assigned to Moko'—Moko' was greatly pained at the death of his uncles, Tawake-hei-moa and Marukukere; they were elder brother (and cousin) to his mother Puriti (see table ante). In the fight that followed, that people was beaten by Moko and the remnants scattered35 All this time Ngati-whakahinga remained in quietude (at Maketu) the angry feeling of Tapuika and Waitaha towards them had ceased, and both had agreed to cease fighting with one another. It was by the hands of that other interloping tribe that the chiefs of Tapuika fell.

And so it came to pass that the Tapuika and Waitaha tribes, went constantly and in safety to Maketu (still occupied by Ngati-whakahinga) to obtain fish and shell-fish for food, and Ngati-whakahinga made return visits to Rangiuru and Te Puke making feasts and giving presents to the Tapuika and Waitaha tribes. Their relations were very amicable, so much so that the tribes intermarried with one another, and each tribe felt a mutual regard for the other. A report at this time reached the young chief of Ngati-whakahinga—Turanga-i-tewhatu by name—the son of the principal kametoa (commodore) of that tribe, whose descent was from Tama-te-kapua through his son Tuhoro, by the male line down to Ranga-whenua. It was through his (Ranga-whenua's) wife that he was drawn to Ngati-whakahinga, she being related to that tribe, and the mother of Turanga-i-te-whatu, Hinetapu by name.36

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So Turanga-i-te-whatu heard of a beautiful girl of the Waitaha tribe, who was a virgin and daughter of one of the principal chiefs of the tribe named Te Moemiti—her name was Pare-hirangi. Her father was descended from Kahu'—his mother being a descendant of Waitaha.

When Rangawhenua had satisfied himself that he (and Te Moemiti) were both descended from Tama-te-kapua—Tuhoro being the elder son from whom he descended, and Kahu being the younger son from whom descended the father of the lady—he set out on his road, and finally reached the pa of Te Moemiti, named Hapaitataura. He entered the house of Te Moemiti at night and explained his errand, which was to demand Pare-hirangi for his son Turaugi-i-te-whatu.

Te Moemiti said to Rangawhenua “Which is your canoe, and what your descent, down to yourself?” Rangawhenua replied, “We are both descended from Tama-te-kapua,” and then fully explained his descent to the satisfaction of the other, who then gave his consent—he had been under the impression that Rangawhenua was a pure Ngati-whakahinga—so it ended in their children being married.

A long time elapsed during which the two tribes entertained friendly relations with one another, when there arrived some canoes at Maketu from Motiti island.37 Ngati-whakahinga asked them, “Where is this party bound for?” Turourou shouted out, “It is I! It is I! Turourou. We are going inland for some knots of tawhara.”38 The party then paddled away up the Kaituna river. Now, the Waitaha tribe was at Matarehua coming down stream to Te Karaka to catch fish as a relish to be eaten with their fern-root; they met at Te Rotoparera. It is true that the party of Turourou were going to gather tawhara when they met, and each party caught sight of the other. Te Moemiti told the chiefs of his party of Waitaha, that they should land. Ngati-whakahinga (or Te Patuwai tribe) probably did not see that the others had landed, so they did the same, and immediately there was a rush (towards one another) and “the teeth were grinning above the spears.” Turourou, who had left his pouwhenua, or battle-axe, at a distance, where they landed, had hardly caught sight of Te Moemiti with his spear four fathoms long, when he found himself transfixed by the spear; as soon as he was wounded the rest fled. Hence is this battle called Waikekakeka.39 The remnants fled to Tauranga.

After this there arose another chief named Te Rangi-iri-hau,40 who boasted that he would take Te Moemiti. This fight took place at the pa of Te Tapuae, belonging to Makino (brother of Te Moemiti). Te Moemiti and he had joined their forces and both occupied one pa. Te Moemiti thought it would be best to fight outside, but Makino contended that they should remain in the pa, and here they were assaulted by the enemy. Te Rangi-iri-hau advanced from one side and Kaingiti from the other and the latter secured the matangohi or first blood; - 245 then the elder brother To Moemiti jumped up, and Te Rangi-iri-hau “rested in the middle of his spear.” The enemy fled, the conquerors chasing and killing them. The name of this battle was Te ara-pakiaka, it was fought in a valley, and the dead reached midway up the cliffs. After two battles Te Rangi-hou-whiri's descendants had enough of fighting and returned to Tauranga. All this time Ngati-whakahinga remained quietly at Maketu.

Some time after the above events a dog belonging to the Ngatimoko41 tribe of Tapuika was killed by the Ngati-rere-a-manu sub-tribe of Waitaha. As soon as this became known, the latter tribe were attacked and two men killed in payment for the dog. When the news of this reached Makino and the Waitaha, they advanced to make war on the Tapuika tribe, and Waitaha was defeated with a loss of seventy men and Makino himself. The name of this battle was Te Rahui. The principal fighting chief of Waitaha—Te Moemiti—was at Rotorua, on account of news that reached him that his younger brother Wihau had been killed by Ngati-whakaue42 in a fight on the beach at Te Opu. The escapees from the defeat at Te Rahui went straight to Te Moemiti to tell him of the battle lost by Waitaha. Ngauru, the mother of Te Moemiti, belonged to the Waitaha tribe, and his father, Ngatarawahi, to the Ngati-rangi-wewehi;43 he was eighth in descent from Rangitihi.

Then Te Moemiti organised a war party of Ngati-rangi-wewehi to avenge his relative's death, Nuku and Te Weu being the principal warriors. They advanced to the pa of Tapuika, at Te Paraiti,44 and on their arrival Te Moemiti called out, “We do not come to make war, but give me the head of Makino that I may cry over my younger brother.” So the head was brought to him by Taura-herehere, a young chief of Tapuika, and it was set on a post whilst Te Moemiti addressed it thus: “Behold, my younger brother, in consequence of your mistaken guidance of the tribe and of its power you have been placed in the oven of a strange tribe45; by me was our name preserved, as well as the tribe, the authority, and our lands.” The reason of these words was a quarrel the brothers had about the death of Te Rangi-iri-hau, when Makino boasted that he had killed him; so they disputed and threatened one another. Their father, Ngatarawahi, interfered, and reproved them, saying, “Oh my sons, you and your younger brother, here is the judge of your quarrel, you shall both be taken to the tuahu (altar) to the Kaha, so that your feet may tread on it.” So Ngatarawahi and Kairongoua took them there, and Makino's (omen) fell whilst Te Moemiti's stood upon the Kaha. They then returned to the courtyard of the pa and Kairongoua proclaimed to them the decision of the god as to their discussion, “Your man was killed by your elder brother Te Moemiti.”46

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After this Te Moemiti went to Rotorua, and subsequently returned with his war party as related above. Leaving the pa of Tapuika, he crossed over to Haikaipuku. At the place where the path branched off to Te Tapuae, the pa of Makino's people, he barred it,47 preferring to attach Ngati-rere a-manu, which tribe had dared to kill the dog which was the prime cause of Makino's death. To this Nuku consented. So the war party came on, and found their enemies lying in wait for them. The war party dashed forward on to the pa and scaled it, but Te Moemiti felt that the people of the pa would escape, so struck with uplifted weapon, calling out, “Hew them to death; my heart sinks to hades, whilst his emerges to life.” One of his sons sprang forward and felled Te Namu, another rushed to the front and killed Tuhuatahi and Whetu, but in the end the war party retreated. The despondency of Te Moemiti was not appeased, and he returned gloomily to Rotorua. Two nights after his arrival he proceeded to Maketu to his own daughter, Pare-hirangi, who was married to Turanga-i-te-whatu.

When he reached Maketu, and the numerous tribe of Ngati-whakahinga heard of it, they assembled in the courtyard of their son Turanga-i-te-whatu. Then arose Te Huakanga-o-te-rangi to speak, and to ask the reason of Te Moemiti being seen amongst them. He was followed by Whiri, then by Wanawana, then by Tamahere, then by Rangawhenua. They all spoke in the same strain. Te Moemiti then arose and spoke: “Yes! it is through affliction that I am seen in the aristocratic home of my first-born Pare-hirangi, she who is the fullness of my own prestige. The first effort of my strength in this world was my war with Tapuika; a dog was the cause, and those who killed the dog were killed by me. Whilst inland at Rotorua I heard that Tapuika was about to descend (the river) to Te Karaka to set their fishing-nets. This is all I have to say to you.”48 Up rose Turangaiti at once, “Yes, I will gratify your appeal to us and our elders; it is your first appeal to my power. Another thing, it is a great matter that the people with the power should hear from you (of your) abasement.” And so all the chiefs of Ngati-whakahinga consented.

Not long after, the smoke of Tapuika—who were mistaken in thinking that things were as of old—their former relations having been friendly, was seen at Te Karaka. The host of Ngati-whakahinga advanced, and were not seen by Tapuika until they were surrounded by the hundreds, and found themselves in their midst—all the sandhills were covered (by Ngati-whakahinga). Tapuika and Ngati-moko were sorely stricken, and their great chiefs killed, amongst them Toararunga, whilst Te Koata was taken prisoner. Te Moemiti called out to his son-in-law Turanga-i-te-whatu, “Let us save that man's life.” “For what reason?” asked the son-in-law. Te Moemiti replied, “For generosity, his farther, Tarawhiti, was saved at Te Rahui.” So Tamahere fetched Te Koata and saved him alive.

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Subsequently to this Te Moemiti returned to Rotorua with his daughter, son-in-law, and her parents, and after a long time Te Koata was allowed to proceed to Hauraki Gulf to fetch a war-party to obtain revenge for his defeat. There came with him Te Puhi and Ahurei. When they arrived Ngati-whakahinga were separated in different places, at Te Kaokaoroa near Matata, at Whaka-tane, at Rangitaiki, and at Tarawera, none but old men were left to guard the pa at Maketu when it was assaulted by the war-party of Te Koata.

A long time elapsed after that and then the Pakeha arrived; the year 1777 witnessed the last return of Captain Cook on his third voyage. Now, the reason why this country of Maketu was fought for again, was, that it might revert to the descendants of those who came in the Arawa canoe49

This paper explains the truth of what has previously been said, that the descendants of those who came in the Arawa canoe spread out to all parts of Aotearoa or New Zealand; but that which the tribes whose anscestors came in the Tainui canoe allege, to the effect that Whaka-oti-rangi came with them, is a mistake—she was abducted by Tama-te-kapua, and was the wife of Ruaeo as has been related. These are the names of the men whose descendants went to distant places and left their offspring with other tribes. Tuariki was a descendant of Tama-te-kapua's (fourth in descent from him) his offspring went to the south, and one was an ancestor of Te Kani-a-takirau, through Te Toko-o-te-rangi who married a descendant of Hauiti-a-taua. The younger brother of Te Toko-o-te-rangi was Wahiawa, who was father of Tama-te-rerewa and Turirangi—who was my ancestor. Afterwards came Hikairo whose descendants are with Te Whanau-apa-nui and Ngatiawa tribes. Puha-te-rangi was the last, his descendants are with Te Apatu, Te Kopuparapara and Ngati-Kahungunu, and Tauheki's descendants are with Te Whanau-apa-nui. By another of Turirangi's wives, Rongomaihuatahi, was Apa-nui-haua, whose descendants dwell within the same limits. Tauruwao was sixth in descent from Tama-te-kapua and an offspring of Rangitihi, and his descendants are with Te Whanau-apa-nui.

Tuparahaki was a descendant of Hei, his second marriage was with one of the descendants of Hoturoa of the Tainui canoe, and his descendants are at Taranaki which was the limit of his travels. Now, Ihenga, grandson of Tama-te-kapua went north to Kaipara and left descendants there, named Tamareia and Ruangu.50 The descendants - 248 of Tama-te-kapua spread out to different parts of the country more than the others—to Hauraki, to Waikato, with Tawhiao—these were the descendants of Rangitihi, the fifth in descent from Tama’. Rangitihi has also descendants with Ngai-te-whatu-i-apiti tribe, i.e., his son Tuhourangi, whose sons were Maru and Hangaroa; their descendants are with Ngati-kahungunu. The descendants of Ngatoroi-rangi, did not spread so much to other lands, a few only went to Waikato and to places within the boundaries which have been described as commencing at Te Awa-a-te-atua, thence to Patea, by the west of Tongairiro, by Hauraki, and round by Moehau.

Now the statement which is made regarding the Ngapuhi tribe that they are “the plumes of the Arawa canoe,” is a mistake. I have heard that the expression refers to the plumes of their own canoe, and I have also heard that Puhi-moana-ariki was a man from whom that tribe derives its name, and who came in the Mata-atua canoe, which was taken by him and Taneatua and Rahiri to the north where the canoe was wrecked.51 Toroa (captain of the Mata-atua canoe) Welka, Hikaroa and Nuiho, together with Toroa's daughter (Wairaka) and his sister Muriwai remained at Whakatane. The following however I believe to be correct because I am acquainted with the well-known canoes that came over the “great ocean of Kiwa.” There were six canoes of our ancestors which came from over the seas, though some of the people's names who came in them are not known. The following are the names:—No. 1, Te Arawa; No. 2, Tainui; No. 3, Mata-atua; No. 4, Kurahaupo; No. 5, Tokomaru; No. 6, Takitumu. I know all about the histories of some of these canoes, and am able to trace my descent from those who came in them. But enough, let my words end here.52


No. 1. The following information has been supplied by Timi Wata Rimini and Takaanui Tarakawa, in addition to that given in the latter's paper.

In Vol. I., page 221, of this Journal, Major Gudgeon gives the names of chiefs known to have come in the Arawa canoe. The following list is confirmatory of it, and adds some additional names:—

  • Tama-te-kapua (captain)
  • Ngatoro-i-rangi (priest)
  • Hei
  • Kurapoto
  • Uruika
  • Ika
  • Tia
  • Maaka
  • Oro
  • Rongopuruao
  • Uenuku-whaka-roro-nga-rangi
  • Ruarangi-murua
  • Hatupatu
  • Mawete
  • Rongomaiwhaia
  • Kawauri
  • Kuraroa
  • Kawatea
  • Tuhoro-mata-kaka,son of Tama-te-kapua
  • Waitaha ” ” Hei
  • Tuarotorua ” ” Ika
  • Tangihia ” ” Ngatoro-o-rangi
  • Tamata-te-ra-nui ” ” Tia

There are six names in Major Gudgeon's list not mentioned in this, which makes, with these, 29 names of men known to have come in the Arawa, without counting the women or common folk.

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No. 2. The following are genealogies of many people mentioned in the preceding paper, in addition to those given on page 242:—

Family tree. Tuamatua = Karika, Houmaitawhiti, 1 Tama-te-kapua = Tuhoro-ma-ta-kaka, Ihenga, Tuariki, 5 Wahiawa, Turirangi, Tama-te-rerewa, Te Tawhiro, Kapua-i-te-rangi, 10 Te Amonga, Te Auhi, Umuroa, Te Awhe-o-te-rangi Kahu-mata-momoe, Tawake-moe-tahanga, Uenuku-mai-rarotonga, 5 Rangitihi, Kawatapua-rangi, Pikiao, Tutaki-a-koti, Te Heheu, 10 Ingo, Paretira, Ngamakini, Te Awhe-o-te-rangi, Te Awhe-o-te-rangi, Te Rangi-tuakoha, 2 Rimini, Te Rangi-tuakoha, 2 Rimini, 15 Mita Te Rangi-tuakoha, Takuira Mita, Timi Wata Rimini, Mere Wakana Timi Wata, 15 Mita Te Rangi-tuakoha, Takuira Mita, T. W. Rimini, M. W. T. Wata, 2 Te Rimini, H. Matehaere,
Family tree. 1 Tama-te-kapua, Tuhoro-mata-kaka, Ihenga, Tuariki, 5 Wahiawa, Turirangi, Apanui, Tukaki, Kimihanga, 10 Tuakaka, Tahei, Te Kakapaiwaho, Rangawhenua, Turanga-i-te-whatu, 15 Rauru =, Te Hihiko, Te Hihiko 2 Poto, Mihimera, 3 Ketu, Te Ngaro, 4 Tarakawa, Takaanui Tarakawa, Pirangi

The future historian who attempts to write a connected history of New Zealand under the old Maori regime, will find much useful information as to the ancestors of these various peoples in Vol I. of this Journal, pages 212 to 232, and Vol. II., pages 109 to 112.

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No. 3. The following incident in the history of the tribes, the story of which has been written above by Takaanui Tarakawa, has been supplied by Timi Wata Rimini. The incident occurred in the times of Marukukere (see genealogical table page 242) who is referred to on page 243.

Ko Huimanuka, he pa no Kahu. Ko te take i heke atu ia, a Kahu, i konei, mo tana patunga i te kuri o Marukukere. I nga wa e timata ai te mahi kumara, ka whakamana te ko ki te waha o te kuri o Marukukere, a, ka haria e te kuri ra ki a Kahu ratou ko ona iwi. Ka mohio a Kahu ki te tikanga o taua mea, he whakataka i a ratou ko ona iwi ki te ohu i te kumara a Maru kukere, a, ka haere a Kahu ratou ko ona iwi ki te mahi i te kumara a Marukukere. Pena tonu te mahi a Marukukere i nga tau katoa, he tuku i tana kuri ki te tiki i a Kahn ma hei mahi i ana Kumara. Huimanuka was a pa belonging to Kahu. The reason that Kahu migrated from these parts was his killing the dog of Marukukere. At the time of year when the kumara was harvested, Marukukere used to fasten a wooden spade in the mouth of his dog, which carried it to Kahu and his people. Kahu understood the meaning of this, it was an intimation to him to organise a company to come and harvest Marukukere's kumaras, so Kahu and his people went and gathered in the harvest. Marukukere continued to act thus for many years, always sending his dog to fetch Kahu to work at the kumaras.
I tetehi tau ka whakaaro a Kahu, he tikanga whakaiti tenei na Marukukere i a ia, ka waiho tonu tona kuri hei tiki mai i a ia ki te mahi. Ka ki atu a Kahu ki etehi o ona hapu; “E puta mai hoki taua kuri ki te tiki mai i a tatou, patua iho taua kuri.” Ano ka tae noa ki te wa e tukua mai e Marukukere taua kuri, tona taenga o taua maia kuri ra, patua iho ana e taua hunga. I muri ka haere mai a Marukukere ki te arataki mai i tana kuri, hopukia atu ana hoki a Marukukere, patua iho. At last on one occasion Kahu began to think this custom was intended by Marukukere to degrade him, by sending a dog to fetch him to the work; so Kahu said to some members of his tribe, “If that dog comes again to fetch us, kill it.” When the time came, the dog was sent on its errand by Marukukere, and on the arrival of the intelligent animal at the village, it was killed by the people. Soon after Marukukere went in search of his dog, so he was also caught and killed.
Ka tupu i konei te pakanga; na Moko, i ngaki te mate o Marukukere, ka mate nga iwi o Kahu, ko tona hekenga atu i konei, ngaro tonu atu. Kei konei kei te takiwa ki Maketu etehi o taua iwi nei ano, ko Ngati-kahu te ingoa hapu o ratou—no Tapuika katoa aua iwi nei. Out of this grew a war, during which Moko (nephew of Marukukere) took revenge for his uncle's death, and drove out Kahu and some of his people, who have since been lost. There are, however, in this district of Maketu, some of Kahn's people, whose sub-tribal name is Ngati-kahu—they were all members of the Tapuika tribe however.

Huimanuka is an old pa, not far from Te Paraiti, Te Puke, Maketu. T. W. Rimini informed me that Kahu above mentioned was descended from the Waiohua tribe, who formerly occupied the Auckland Isthmus and built all the great pas there. The incident shows how slight a cause gave rise to a war in former times, this being the second case mentioned in this paper in which the killing of a dog caused the death of numbers of men. It also throws some little light on the intelligence of the Maori dog, about which we know so little.

No. 4. On my asking the Author where he supposed Mahina, the finder of the Kuras, came from, seeing that he was in the country before the arrival of the Arawa canoe, he replies: “About Mahina, his ancestors came to this country on board Te Ara-tawhao, the canoe of Toi-kairakau; you must understand that canoe came here in very ancient days. Toi's food was eaten raw, such as mamaku (the heart of the fern-tree), pikopiko (young fern sprouts) and nikau (palm tree); he did not possess fire; hence his name, Toi-kairakau (the wood eater). His genealogical table extends far back to ancient times. From Toi' to my child there are twenty-four generations as shown in the table below, where is also to be seen the branch to Mahina. Tama-o-hoi's ancestors also came in Te Ara-tawhao canoe.

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Family tree. Toi-kairakau, Ohomairangi, Ruarangi, Kaiawa, Rongotope=, Te Oneone = Te Hikirangi=, Tama-kotuku, Te Rangi-tahana, Te Rangi-maramarama, Te Rangi-i-waho, Mutu-rangi, Tane-pawhero, Wahi-awa, Turirangi, Tama-te-rerewa, Te Tawhiro, Kapua-i-te-rangi, Te Amonga, Te Hine-tapu, Turanga-i-te-whatu, Ngauru-o-te-rangi, Tarakawa, Takaanui Tarakawa, Hipera Rauru Mahina (who lived in N.Z. at the time of the arrival of the Arawa).,

The above is however a very short line from Toi' compared with others; it suffices to show the belief of this section of the Maori people in the existence here of a branch of the Polynesian race prior to the great heke.

No. 5. The author adds the following note in reference to the death of Tama-te-kapua, and the mistake made by his son Tuhoro in the ritual customary on such occasions. It is necessary to add perhaps that the omission of a word in a karakia, or a mistake of any kind, lead to the most serious consequences according to the Maoris' belief. In this instance the omission of certain words is believed by the Maoris to have been the cause of Tuhoro's death.

Ae, ka mohio a Tama-te-kapua kua tata ia ki te hemo, ka mea ake ki tona tama, “Kia tika te whakaepa i taku mana, a, kia tika hoki te whakaputa i a koe”—ara, horohoro—“to whakanoa i a koe”—mo te raweke, takainga, tanumanga. Na, ka hemo, ka tanumia e Tuhoro a Tama-te-kapua. Na, haere ana ki te wai taka ai i a ia. Na, ko nga kupu enei i mohio ai ahau:— Yes, when Tama-te-kapua knew that he was near his death he said to his son, “Be exact in the casting off of my spiritual influence, and accurately perform the deliverance of thyself”—that is, the ‘swallowing’ or ‘purification’—“thy removal of the tapu or restriction from thyself,” meaning in the handling, wrapping up, and burial. So he died, and Tama-te-kapua was buried by Tuhoro. Then he went to the stream to perform upon himself the accustomed rites. Now these are the words as known to me—
“Tena tapu nui, “The great sacredness,
O te atua nui, Of the great god,
O Tu-mata-uenga, Of Tu-mata-uenga,
O Kahukura i te Pae; Of Kahukura at the Step;
O Maui-mua, Of Maui the first,
O Maui-roto, Of Maui-within,
O Maui-pae, Of Maui-by-the-side,
O Maui-tikitiki-a-Taranga. Of Maui-topnot-of-Taranga.
Tapu nui, tapu roa, Great sacredness, enduring sacredness,
Ka whakahokia atu e au, I return thee,
Ki nga pae tua-ngahuru o Hawaiki, To the tenth steps of Hawaiki,
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Kei reira nga Pu, nga Take, Where are the Sources, the Origins,
Nga Weu, nga Wananga, nga Tohunga. The Chief Priests, the Mediums, the Priests.
I tupu mai ai, Thus grows up,
Te Mauri, The soul,
Te Mauri nui, The great soul,
Te Mauri roa, The enduring soul,
Te Mauri ka whakaea, The soul uprisen—
Ka whakaputa ki te whai-ao, It comes forth to the world of being,
Ki te ao-marama. To the world of light.
Tena te whakaputa, This is the deliverence,
Na nga Pu, na nga Take, By the Sources, by the Origins,
Na nga Weu, na nga Tohunga.” By the Chief Priests, by the Priests.”
Na, ka tipoka i konei, ka mahue tona matua, a Tama-te-kapua; ka mea:— Here he omitted one part, he left out the name of his father, Tama-te-kapua; and said:—
“Na nga Tohunga, “By the Priests,
Naku, na tenei tauira, By me, by this disciple
Ka puta ki te whai-ao, Shall come forth to the world of being
Ki to ao-marama." To the world of light.”
Ka mutu. Erangi me penei:— Here he ended. He should have said:—
“Na nga Tohunga, “By the Priests,
Na Tama-te-kapua, By Tama-te-kapua,
Naku, na tenei tauira, By me, by this disciple,
Ka puta nei tenei tama, Shall this son emerge,
Ki te whai-ao, To the world of being,
Ki te ao-marama.” To the world of light.”
Koinei te take i mate ai a Tuhoro, i peke ko tona whakaputa i a ia. Kore rawa i roa kua mohio a Tuhoro kua mate ia, ka ki ake ra ki ona tama ki a Ihenga raua ko Tama-ihu-toroa, “Ki te oti ta korua raweke, patua he otaota ki toku uru, ka mau ai ma ta korua papa, ma Kahu korua e whakaputa, ka tahi ka oti tika korua. Ko te mana o to korua koroua—o Tama-te-kapua”—nana ia i patu, ara, a Tuhoro. This is the reason that Tuhoro died—he jumped over, or omitted part of his purification. It was not very long before Tuhoro knew that he would die, so said to his sons, Ihenga and Tamaihu-toroa, “When you have finished handling me, strike a wand on my head, then take it to your uncle Kahu, so that he may purify you from your tapu, then will you be delivered correctly. It is the spiritual influence of your grandfather, of Tama-te-kapua,” which killed him, i.e., Tuhoro.

The Herohoronga, or swallowing, alluded to above, was a part of the ritual for the removal of the tapu, and consisted in the offering of the leaves in which the sacred kumara was wrapped to the figures representing the ancestors, who were supposed to swallow them—hence the name.

The word Pae occurs more than once in the above karakia, and is translated “step;” for I believe it to be a reference to the stone-faced steps of the ancient Maraes found in Tahiti, Marquesas and elsewhere, which were called Paepae, and on which the so-called idols, the visible representation of the gods, were kept. I have translated the word Mauri by soul: it equally means the heart, the origin of life, and the medium to which the tapu was transferred in certain ceremonies.

1  See Sir Geo. Grey's “Nga mahinga a nga tnpuna Maori,” page 82, where exactly the opposite advice is given. The language used in Houmai-tawhiti's advice, is mostly obsolete and the translation perhaps not quite correct.
2  See “Nga mahinga,” p 76, for an account of Ruaeo's revenge on Tama-te-kapua.
3  Te Waha-o-te-parata, the mouth of Parata; the latter is supposed to be a monster that resides at the bottom of the ocean; each time he inhales or exhales his breath it causes the tide to flow or ebb.
4  For particulars of Tama's evil conduct, and a full account of this scene, see Sir Geo. Gray's “Nga mahinga a nga tupuna,” page 71
5  The Karakia, or invocation used by Ngatoro, on this occasion will be found at page 318 of “Nga Moteatea.”
6  The descendants of those who came in the Tainui canoe, claim this lady as a passenger in their canoe, and quote this saying in proof:—Te roki-roki o Whaka-oti-rangi.” “The little basket of kumaras of Whaka-oti-rangi,” which planted as seed, produced the stock of kumaras for her descendants down to this day.
7  Tikirau is the Native name of Cape Runaway, just north of Whangaparaoa Bay.
8  The Kura was a red head-dress, made of feathers, the brilliant red Rata flowers, deceived the voyagers. In answer to my questions thereon, the author says: “In reference to the kuras, the make or appearance of them is like a very large tawhara (flower of the Freycenetia), but they are red or brown, like the colour of a man's skin (a Maori's skin). If the house is closed so that it is quite dark within, the redness is quite strong in the darkness. Their appearance is like wood in some respects, but the form is just like the tawhara-kiekie which men eat.”
“But the paua is most I know most about, it is exactly like quartz; the name of that paua is most carefully cherished by the people of this coast; it is called Te Whatu-kura-a-Tangaroa. It is carefully preserved together with the kuras in the chasm of Moaha. It is only the great chief's bodies which are laid alongside the kuras within the sepulchre. On the death of Paora-Rangi-Paturiri and Paora-Ngamoki during the war between Te Whanau-apanui, and the Ngatai tribes, my father, who was related to both, requested that the kuras should be brought forth and placed upon the dead chiefs as they laid in state. It was only on account of this relationship that the tribe consented to my father's wish, and it was then I saw them in either 1857 or 1858. You know the custom the Maoris have, that when a chief dies, all his weapons and valuables, such as Mere-pounamus, Tikis, Mere-paraoas, &c., are exhibited on the bier as a sign of his chiefainship.” Paua, is the name of the Haliotis shell in New Zealand but in the Pacific it is the name of the giant Trydacna shell. It would seem from the author's account that their valued paua “like white quartz” is one of the white shell ornaments used by the Polynesians and made of the white Trydacna shell, which is very like quartz in appearance. See Appendix No. 4 as to Mahina.
9  The word ara used here is explained to mean a stone. There are other traditions that Ngatoro, left a carved stone in the neighbourhood of Moehau. Ara in Tahiti means “a hard black stone,” possibly identical with the Maori Kara, a black basaltic stone. It is the only case I have heard of this word being used for a stone. Could one get at the real meaning of leaving this stone on the island there would probably be light thrown on the means the Polynesians had of guiding their course across the sea.
10  It is now called Takapou, and is celebrated for the hapuka fishing ground just off it. Its English name is Passage rock.
11  See “Nga Moteatea,” page 26, for a reference to this manuka at Whakatane.
12  Wairakei, is a little stream falling into the sea about half-way between Tauranga and Maketu in the Bay of Plenty. Matarehua is on Motiti Island.
13  Tapuika was the son of Tia, generally named Tapuika-nui-a-Tia, from whom the Tapuika people of Te Puke take their name.
14  Waitaha was the son of Hei, surnamed Waitaha-nui-a-Hei, and from him the Waitaha tribe, which still occupy that country, derive their name.
15  Kahu-mata-momoe was Tama-te-kapua's son; see particulars further on in this narrative.
16  The author however does not explain, but the history of the discovery will be found in Sir Geo. Grey's “Nga mahinga a nga tupuna,” page 78, where it will be seen that Ihenga, Tama-te-kapua's grandson, claimed the discovery of the lake.
17  The proper name of this place is Te awa-o-Ngatoro-i-rangi, it wasgiven by the crew of the Arawa canoe on their arrival, and was named after their great priest, or tohunga—Ngatoro-i-rangi.
18  The word hau, is difficult to find an English equivalent for—spirit is perhaps as near as any, but it means more. Ngatoro's remark to the effect that his enemy was of the Hapuoneone—“the earthly tribe”—whilst he himself was of the “Descendants of Heaven,” is interesting, and illustrates the well-known fact that the Arawa tribes (descendants of those who came in the Arawa canoe) claim for themselves a divine descent through Tawhaki, who tradition says ascended into Heaven. The Hapuoneone is believed to be one of the original pre-maori tribes. Tama-o-hoi was a descendant of Toi-Kairakau—so the author tells me—and his ancestors came here in Te Ara-tawhao canoe. (See appendix No. 4.)
19  The author, like so many nativie writers, knowing the story so well, often leaves the tale only partly told. It should be added to make the narrative complete, that the dashing of this charmed flint into the summit of the mountain gave rise to the volcano of Ngauruhoe. Such is the Maori story. The heat of the volcano saved Ngatoro's life.
20  The rocks lying off Cape Kidnappers, some 15 miles south-east of Napier, are said to be the remains of the fish-hook with which Maui fished up New Zealand.
21  A mount, about 4 miles west of Tauranga on the road to Maketu.
22  See note 3, page 235.
23  Pane, means a head; Panepane is a well-known place on the sand-hills, about a mile within Tauranga harbour on the western side of the entrance.
24  Tuamatua, the old man left behind at Hawaiki, see page 231.
25  The author has passed over with slight detail, the destruction of the fleet of Manaia of the Tini-o-Manahua tribe at Motiti island in the Bay of Plenty. This tribe followed Ngatoro-i-rangi back from Hawaiki to New Zealand to seek revenge for their defeat at his hands and those of Tama-te kapua in the battle of Ihumotomotokia fought in Hawaiki. For full particulars see Sir Geo. Grey's “Nga mahinga a nga tupuna,” page 83, and vol. I. of this Journal, page 213.
26  The enormity of the curse consisted in connecting the pillow on which the sacred head rested, with firewood used in the preparation of food, ever considered noa, common or unclean, by the Polynesians.
27  Nga-ti-whakawe-a-Ngatoro-i-rangi, is the name of a group of large Ti trees (Cordyline Australis) growing on the Kaingaroa plain, which the Maoris believe to advance and accompany any party travelling over the plains for a certain distance.
28  Whakaputa, the purification, or cleansing from a state of tapu or restriction after contact with a dead body, with which were connected many karakias an ceremonies. The personal mana translated by “spiritual influence” for want of a better term was considered to be baneful.
29  This celebrated eardrop of precious jade or pounamu, after being handed down through twenty generations, became—I believe—the property of Sir Geo. Grey, and has been, it is said, deposited in the Public Library, Auckland, by him.
30  See Appendix No. 5.
31  It was customary to wait outside a pa or village until invited by the inhabitants to enter. Only near relatives would dare to act as the young men did.
32  This was a serious infringement of the laws of tapu, that a woman should enter the sacred house when men were under the strict law of tapu or restriction.
33  Some few further particulars of the murder of Punohu will be found in the able work of our lamented Honorary member, Dr. Ed. Shortland, M.A., entitled “Traditions and Superstitions of the New Zealanders,” page 16. Te Rangi-hou-whiri and his people belonged to the Ngatiawa tribe, whose ancestors came here in in the Mata-atua canoe. After their occupancy of Tauranga they took the name of Ngai-te-rangi, some members of which tribe live there still. The author says that Te Rangi-hou-whiri migrated from Hakuranui to Maketu, and adds that it is well known that Hakuranui is situated between Te Kaha and Raukokore on the east side of the Bay of Plenty. For reference to this name see this Journal, vol. II., p. 49 and also p. 109. I have used the words “with a different power” above more than once, but the Maori equivalent means much more—i.e., people with different traditions, different gods, and different ancestors.
34   It is not clear whether this irruption of the two tribes named occurred prior to or after the fall of their pa Pukehina at the hands of Maruahaira (see vol. II., p. 43 of this Journal) but it is not at all unlikely that it was before, and at a time when the power of these two aboriginal tribes had not yet been broken by Maruahaira. The fall of Pukehina occurred about ten generations ago, as did the events related above.
35  See note at end of translation as to death of Marukukere.
36  See the genealogical connection of Hinetapu, Journal of the Polynesian Society, vol. II., p. 110.
37  Motiti Island was at that time occupied by the Patuwai tribe nearly related to Ngati-whakahinga. See Journal of the Polynesian Society, vol. II., p. 112.
38   The tawhara is the female flower of the Kirkie, or Freycenetia Banksii, the beautiful white waxy petals of which were esteemed a delicacy by the Maoris. The long green leaves are gathered up round the flower to protect it in carrying and tied in a knot, hence the use of the word pona, a knot.
39  Waikekakeka, the “stream of folly,” no doubt so called on account of the foolish and unexpected fight between the two friendly tribes.
40  Te Rangi-iri-hau belonged to the descendants of Te Rangi-hou-whiri, or, as they are now called the Ngai-te-rangi tribe.
41  Ngati-moko, descendants of Moko-ta-tangata-tahi, see genealogical table ante.
42  Ngati-whakaue, the tribe which now occupy Ohinemutu at Rotorua.
43   Ngati-rangi-wewehi, the tribe which lives at Te Awahou north-west shores of Rotorua.
44  Te Paraiti, the present village of Tapuika, near Te Puke settlement, on the road from Tauranga to Maketu.
45  Referring to the custom of preserving the heads of friends and foes, which was done by steaming them in a native oven.
46  The narrative is a little obscure here, but it is intended to describe the relegation of the cause of quarrel to the decision of the god by aid of divination, usually performed by sticks cast one against another after they have received the names of the individuals interested. This is usually called niu. The word Kaha above, is possibly the line on which the niu or rods are placed.
47  To bar or close a road by placing a stick or branch across it was a sign to his followers not to take that road, in fact the doing so under certain circumstances made such a road tapu, a thing very frequently done, much to the inconvenience of travellers.
48  The speaker leaves it to be inferred, that he thereby asked Ngati-whakahinga to join him in attacking the Tapuika tribe at Te Karaka.
49  The author here refers no doubt to the final conquest of Maketu by the combined tribes of Te Arawa, in which Ngati-whakahinga were disposessed of that part of the country—and it reverted to the descendants of the original immigrants from Hawaiki—an event which occurred in 1836, when Te Tumu Pa, near Maketu, was stormed and taken with great slaughter.
50  Our corresponding member, The Rev. Hauraki Paora of Kaipara, supplies the following names of the descendants of Ihenga, in that district. Both lines are remarkably short compared to those preserved by the Arawa tribes. The names of Ihenga's sons were Ruangu, Tamareia, Tarakete, and Kumikumi, the descendants of the two latter are as follows:—
Family tree. Ihenga=, Tarakete, Tumupakihi, Mihinga, Taua, Koangi, Waerakau, Paora Kawharu, Hauraki Paora, Kumikumi, Tamatepo, Mangakaraka, Ruru, Tu-orea, Tamaka, Whanga-Kaipara, Waimapuna, Paora Kawharu, Hauraki Paora
51  Ngapuhi—I think—will only allow this as part of the truth, and Ngatiawa claim that Puhi-moana-ariki conquered his way northward overland.
52  2. The author has certainly left out the names of other well-known canoes, whose histories are as well preserved as his own, Aotea and Mamari for instance, besides others.