Volume 31 1922 > Volume 31, No. 121 > Wahieroa and Rata. A tradition of Polynesia, translated by Elsdon Best, p 1-28
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WAHIEROA AND RATA.
A TRADITION OF POLYNESIA.
The following narrative is the superior version of the legend of Rata-ware, as preserved in the Whare-Wananga of the Takitumu district.

[THERE are a great many versions of this story of Rata, indeed the Maoris, Samoans, Rarotongans, Tahiti, Paumotu, and Hawaiians each have their separate versions, which differ so much from one another, that they cannot refer to the same individual. In fact, the genealogical tables show this to be the case.

Mr. Best now introduces us to another version, which differs very largely from those we are acquainted with. He very rightly points out at the end of his paper that there are some very peculiar discrepancies in this new version, and this certainly is correct. First of all we are told that these people lived in Tawhiti-roa, which from other writings we have little doubt is Indonesia. From there they used to make long expeditions to Whiti-kau to a place named Pariroa, and the purpose of these long journeys was to obtain certain birds' feathers, which they used for adornment, and were very highly prized by all Polynesians. My impression is that these people have mixed up traditions of New Guinea with those of the Fiji Islands, for it is clear from Southern Traditions that Whiti-kau and Whiti-anaunau are in the Fiji Group. The mention of large rivers seems to indicate a large land like New Guinea, where the birds of Paradise would form an attraction to these bold navigators. Indeed, we have every reason to believe that voyages have been made back from Rarotonga and eastern islands to New Guinea specially to obtain these feathers.

Mr. Best has already pointed out at the end of this paper several inconsistencies, and he suggests that the black people, called Paki-whara, who wore no clothes and did not cultivate the soil, were Australians or Tasmanians. We should prefer thinking them some of the people living on the north coast of Australia, many parts of which - 2 Polynesian navigators must have visited during their long sojourn in Indonesia, but there is no evidence at present to confirm this idea, and therefore we leave it there.—EDITOR.]

AT a certain time a party was organised by Manu-korihi, a chief of Ngati-Te-Ahi-uturangi, Ngati-Pakau-moana, and other clans, to proceed to a strange land. The persons who composed that party possibly numbered fifteen hundred, but our elders expressed it as “one thousand and upwards,” hence it is thought that the number may have been fifteen hundred. The members of that party were very carefully selected, only matured and hardy men being taken, those who would stand the fatigue of a long journey. It is said that the journey was a long one, and that a party starting from Whitikau, which place is at Tawhiti-roa, and proceeding to the south-west, would be travelling for four months or more, ere reaching Pariroa, which place is on the sea coast. The land and the village to which the party was going belonged to Pou-haokai, to Matuku-tangotango, and to a certain woman of rank, one Hine-komahi, a daughter of Turongo-nui. Te Rara-a-takapu, Whakaaupara and Mohokura were also chiefs of that district of Pariroa. The people living in those parts were pakiwhara, 1 that is, a people living in the open, and having no houses like the houses of these times, their huts were mere rude shelters. They did not cultivate food, but lived on fish, shellfish, birds and tree fruits, such were the foods they collected. They stayed but a short time in a place, and then moved their camp to another place, that was the cause of their not living in houses.

The cause of the journey undertaken by Manu-korihi, Kohu-wairangi, Mangamanga, Paritu, Kokau, Wahieroa, Te Kakau, Tuhoro-punga, and others of that noble company, was as follows:—“A party of travellers belonging to Te Pariroa arrived at Whiti-anaunau, that is at the home of Wahieroa, the name of the chief of that party of travellers being Whakarau. Among these folk were seen certain plumes, birds' feathers, feathers of the kakerangi, such was the name, which were of great beauty. Inquiries were made by the chiefs of Whiti-anaunau as to whether those birds, the kohirangi, were numerous, the answer being that they were.

Wahieroa enquired:—“What is the demeanour of your clans of those parts towards people of other tribes who go there; is it peaceful?”

Whakarau, the chief of the party, replied:—“If numerous, they are well received; if but a small party, it is ill treated; irresponsible low class persons are liable to treacherously assail them.”

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When Whakarau and his party were about to return to their own region, Manu-korihi enquired:—“Which would be the best season to go so as to reach there at the time when the kohirangi birds are numerous in your district?”

Whakarau replied:—“During the season of harvest of tree fruits is the time to visit such places.”

Manu-korihi remarked:—“My party will go to procure lordly plumes of your land.”

Said Whakarau:—“Proceed.” Then Whakarau returned to Pariroa.

Some time later, when the time of the ripening of fruits was nigh, the party of Manu-korihi and his previously mentioned high-born companions set forth. The men of that party were all matured, hardy and active travellers on long journeys; and these are the names of those chiefs who went with the party:—Manu-korihi, Wahieroa, Paritu, Kohu-wairangi, Mangamanga, Kokau, Te Kakau, Tuhoro-punga, Te Iwi-i-taia, and others of that party of Whitikau that went to Pariroa; I did not ascertain all their names.

The party reached Whakauranga, near Pariroa, the home of Ngati-Tokorakau, another tribe of whom Te Ngaupara was the chief. Ngaupara then enquired:—“Where are you folk going?”

Manu-korihi replied:—“To Pariroa, to the home of Matuku-tangotango and of Pou-haokai, to procure plumes of the kohirangi, a bird, to be used as ornaments.”

Said Ngaupara:—“You will not be allowed by me to proceed.” At that place was a certain river, Te-Awa-taranga by name, which flowed westward to the ocean, and here the party of Manu-korihi and his companions was stationed. The majority of his party were coming on behind; it having been arranged that they should advance in three bands of five hundred in each party. It was merely the advance party with Manu-korihi that Ngaupara saw.

Manu-korihi now enquired:—“What is the reason of your obstruction of my party?”

Ngaupara replied:—“You have disregarded me and my people, and my land, and consumed as you came the food products of my land. Your party will not be allowed by me to cross the river; you must return.”

Manu-korihi remarked:—“The way I have come is a long one, I cannot return, much better to let me proceed.”

Said Ngaupara:—“You will not pass the obstructions of Te Awa-taranga.” (Of the big river already mentioned.)

Manu-korihi said:—“I have no desire to make war against you; my desire is to go direct to Pariroa to obtain feathers of the kohirangi bird.

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Ngaupara retorted:—“I will not allow you to pass.”

And again Manu-korihi spoke:—“Very well; let us now fight it out.” Ngaupara and his party of over one hundred were now suddenly attacked and all slain. A messenger was despatched to the rear to hurry up Wahieroa and Tuhoro-punga, who were the leaders of the two rearward bands; and he said to them:—“The enemy has fallen, the Ngati-Tokorakau folk, including Ngaupara, they lie at Te Awa-taranga; advance swiftly in case they have attacked again since I left.”

The two parties pressed eagerly forward in the dead of night. When Wahieroa and Tuhoro-punga arrived with their two parties, Manu-korihi said:—“We will cross to the other side of Te Awa-taranga.” When they had crossed over, and all were collected on the southern side of Te Awa-taranga, daylight appeared. They stopped at that place in order to prepare food for themselves, and, ere long, a party of persons appeared advancing on the northern side of the Awa-taranga, the numbers of which armed force of Ngati-Tokorakau, according to appearances might possibly amount to two thousand couples. The principal chiefs of that force were Mohina and Te Korahi. On arriving at the bank of the river they were afraid to cross it on account of the water being deep; it could only be crossed by swimming. When night came, the party of Manu-korihi and his high-born companions proceeded on their journey, while the Ngati-Tokorakau people did not pursue them.

On arriving at the home of Whakarau and his people, who, as I have related, had visited Whiti-anaunau, the home of Wahieroa, they were hospitably received by those folk, who were a numerous people numbering seven thousand couples, or possibly more. The popular saying was—there they lie as numerous as cockles in a cockle bank—in regard to the numbers of the people. The women were of inferior aspect, and had flat faces and straight noses. Their eyes were restless and eyebrows projecting, the calves of their legs thin, spindle legged, their buttocks and bodies rounded, slim and tall. Most of the men were of spare build, tall and supple; of upright carriage, and having restless eyes.

Whakarau said to our travellers:—“Let us go to Pariroa to see Pouhaokai and Matuku-tangotango.”

Manu-korihi enquired:—“Can we gain any advantage at Pariroa when we arrive there?”

Said Whakarau:—“Certainly an advantage, but let us act with caution, for that division of our people is a cannibal tribe, therefore let us add to our party so as to equal them in numbers.”

When the travellers neared the place a messenger was despatched to inform Matuku-tangotango and Pou-haokai that a party of travellers from distant parts, from north-east of Tawhiti-roa, was - 5 approaching, their chief man being Manu-korihi, whom the fame of the kohirangi plumes had attracted, but who intended to return home. The messengers of Whakarau reached their destination and delivered their message to Matuku-tangotango and Pou-haokai, whereupon the latter said:—“I will not agree to persons of other tribes coming here to carry off the kohirangi plumes. Let one of you tell Whakarau to leave his party there, not to bring it here. The kohirangi plumes of the high-born chiefs of Pariroa shall never be taken as plumes for other chiefs of places other than Pariroa.” The messengers despatched by Whakarau returned to the camp of the party of Whakarau, Manu-korihi, Wahieroa and Tuhoro-punga, and repeated the remarks of Pou-haokai. Whakarau remarked to Manu-korihi and his companions:—“I will go and see Matuku-tangotango and Pou-haokai.”

Whakarau went to Pariroa and the matter was discussed, but Pouhaokai and Matuku-tangotango would not consent. Matuku said that he would consent if one hundred persons were handed over to them as a food supply. Whakarau was annoyed and said that he would conduct his party to the place where the kohirangi bird was found, and there take the feathers they wanted for themselves.

Said Pou-haokai;-“Do not act in that manner, lest the cannibal fires of Pou-haokai should flame up.”

Whakarau replied:—“What are fire flames compared with overwhelming waters”—and Whakarau withdrew. After he had gone the people of Matuku-tangotango and Pou-haokai assembled at Pariroa and discussed the question of fighting.

When Whakarau returned to the camp of Manu-korihi, the story of his reception by Pou-haokai and others, with their remarks, was discussed, and it was decided that the blade of the weapon be lifted. Manu-korihi and his companions remarked:—“We did not come here with the intention of fighting, but as your friends take up that attitude, so be it, we will greet the distant homeland and farewell our folk and the home fires.” As he concluded his greeting Manu-korihi enquired of Whakarau:—“What mode of attack do your people practise?”

Whakarau replied:—“The methods termed rangatahi and kautere matua.”

Again Manu-korihi enquired:—“And how do you dispose your forces in the forefront?”

Said Whakarau:—“In a similar manner.”

Manu-korihi remarked:—“Let my plan be adopted in regard to the conduct of the fighting. Let each attacking party consist of five hundred men, and let there be six divisions of our forces. Let them remain inactive until the shadows of our advancing enemies fall upon us, and then rise, so that when we rise to attack the enemy will be quite near.”

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To this plan Whakarau consented, and the companies were arranged, four being concealed within the channel of the river, while two were placed out in the open to lure onward the force of Pou-haokai and his people. On the morn of another day the enemy force was seen advancing like unto a forest of drift wood on the face of flood waters.

Manu-korihi proposed that two companies should take up a position in front and there perform the exercises of defiance, the two companies close together, but the individuals in open order, so that both the eyes and thoughts of the enemy should be fixed on them and not diverted toward other places, until the parties in concealment made themselves known.

The force of Matuku-tangotango and Pou-haokai advanced until head and shoulders of the company were between the ambuscades lying in concealment, and the members of the company were scattered. Then arose one of the enveloping companies, and some of the enemy fled. Another company attacked, and the force of Pou-haokai became separated; then the third company attacked, and the enemy was in serious difficulties. Then the whole of the companies attacked together and defeated the force of Pou-haokai and Matuku-tangotango. It is said that the plain of Tauwhanga was covered with the bodies of the dead. Pou-haokai, Matuku-tangotango and many others escaped, owing to the force being a large one. This defeat became known as Tahumaero.

Then Manu-korihi and Whakarau continued their journey to Pariroa that same night, arriving at that place next day. As they advanced, the people of Matuku-tangotango, when they saw them coming, fled to the ranges and forests to hide themselves.

Many of the desired plumes were obtained after the fight of Tahumaero, as also at Pariroa, where huts were plundered, and plumes and other things obtained. Then the people of the party of Manu-korihi and Whakarau returned to their own districts.

Now when Pou-haokai and others were defeated at Tahumaero some of the captives were carried off as slaves by the party of Manu-korihi. While on the march Wahieroa was murdered in his sleep by his own slave, who thereupon fled and was never found; he was slain in the night and his body was found next morning.

On arriving at Te Awa-taranga, the district of Ngaupara, Manu-korihi and Whakarau's people encountered the local folk. On reaching the bank of the river they found the Ngati-Tokorakau people assembled in great numbers on the level land at Mahapara, north-east of the river. Whakarau now sent a messenger to Kowaiwai:—“Tell him that this is the party of Manu-korihi returning to their own land. Let them proceed in peace to their own place. Through no fault of - 7 theirs did your father, Ngaupara, die; the fault was your father's. Manu-korihi was but defending himself when your father and others of your people perished.”

The messenger returned and stated that the crossing of the Awataranga would not be consented to, and if any attempt was made to cross, then the party would be attacked. Whakarau said to the three messengers:—“Go again, and say, ‘If such is your intention then we and the party of Manu-korihi will die together in your presence.’”

The three messengers reached their destination and delivered the message of Whakarau, but Kowaiwai, son of Ngaupara, said:—“What care I for Whakarau,” and he slew two of the messengers; the other escaped and returned to report the death of his companions and the remark of Kowaiwai:—“What care I for Whakarau.”

Whakarau sent for more of his men, and over five hundred came, whereupon the parties of Whakarau and Manu-korihi began making rafts or floats of bark by doubling up or bending the bark, each of which floats carried two persons. When two thousand of these floats were made, then a crossing was effected, four thousand crossed and landed; some of these returned to bring back the floats for others. The whole six thousand then attacked, and the forces of Kowaiwai were in difficulties, and thus could not prevent others crossing. Thus the whole of the forces of Whakarau and Manu-korihi crossed the river and took part in the fighting which was carried on until night, continued the next day, even unto night. In this fighting the Ngati-Tokorakau folk were defeated and Kowaiwai was taken captive. He said to Manu-korihi:—“Let me be spared by you,” whereupon Manu-korihi called out:—“O man; it is well. There is a proper time for head breaking and a proper time for the sparing of life.” Thus was the life of Kowaiwai spared.

Then the Ngati-Tokorakau folk were slaughtered, none escaped save Te Kowaiwai. The bush camps and riverside hamlets of the Tokorakau tribe were raided, and men and women were captured, including the women of Kowaiwai. Whakarau advised that all those lands of Ngaupara of the Whakaurangi district be occupied by Manu-korihi, but Manu-korihi said:—“Shall we punish twice, the slaying of men who lie spread on the ground, and now take away the land of the women and children? Let them remain here; I did not come here to fight, and only consented to do so in order to clear my path, nothing more. The way is now clear before me, so let them remain here and dwell in their homes.”

Whakarau and his people now returned to their own district, and Manu-korihi and his party came back to their home at Whiti-anaunau, bringing with them the feathers of the kakerangi, kohiwai, and kohirangi birds, such were the tail plumes obtained by them. It is said that - 8 those feathers were remarkably handsome. When they arrived at Whitikau, the home of the wife and people of Wahieroa, and they heard that Wahieroa was dead, there was much weeping and mourning.

Now at that time Rata was at his mother's breast. When he grew up he enquired of his mother:—“Where is my absent father?” The mother replied:—“He died at Pariroa, south of Tawhiti-roa, slain by Pou-haokai and Matuku-tangotango, when accompanying the party of Manu-korihi and others; while with that party your father Wahieroa was killed.

Now, when Rata heard of the men who had slain his father, he set off to fell a tree wherefrom to fashion him a canoe. He and his people felled the tree and then returned home. Next morning when Rata and his folk returned to hew out the canoe, they found the tree standing up on its own stump again. Quoth Rata:—“What can be the cause of the behaviour of this tree?”

The tree was again felled, its top cut off, and again the men returned home. The next morning Rata and his men came to commence the hewing, but arrived at the place only to again find the tree standing on its own stump. Rata now returned home and told his mother of his trouble with the tree, whereupon the mother said:—“Go to Ahuahu, to your elder Whakaihorangi, who will point out to you the cause of that action of your tree.”

So Rata went to Ahuahu to see Whakaihorangi; on his arrival his elder said to him:—“Since you have come, what is the object of your visit, lad?”

Rata replied:—“I am in trouble about my tree; three times I felled it and each time it again rose into an upright position; I am convinced that some supernatural beings are erecting that tree again, a very numerous supernatural folk, the forest is full of those weird folk.”

His elder, Whakaihorangi, said to Rata:—“Just so, lad; those are your elders.”

Rata enquired:—“Where do those folk belong to: where is their home?”

Whakaihorangi replied:—“By the bounds of Hinemoana, on mountain tops, in tapu places they roam and dwell; in lower realms giving on the spirit world, with your ancestress the Earth Mother, they roam and sport, ever joyful they move to and fro by day and night in all realms.”

Rata asked:—“And what about my tree?”

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Whakaihorangi explained:—“Go and fell your tree; when it is down cover the stump with paretao (a fern, Asplenium). Then, when the night falls come to the tuahu and wait there until I arrive.”

Rata followed the advice of his elder, felled his tree, covered its stump with ferns, and, when evening arrived, he conveyed those ferns to the tuahu, where he found Whakaihorangi standing. The elder put forth his hand, took the ferns, and waving them up and down, recited over them certain ritual which is ever employed by priests of the tuahu and ahurewa in connection with the felling of trees to be fashioned into canoes, or ridgepoles of superior houses, or carved main posts of a stockade, or cenotaphs erected in memory of highborn men and women. Such were the occasions on which this ritual was employed.

The canoe was then adzed out, hewn with adzes mentioned in the ritual, Te Haemata-o-te-rangi, Te Rakuraku-o-Tawhaki, Pukupuku-te-rangi and Manu-tawhio-rangi. The piece to lengthen the hull was hewn out, the stern, the bow, the topstrakes; finished were the thwarts, the prow piece, the stern attachment, the decking, the puneke, the utuutumatua, the carved work, and all things pertaining to a war canoe. These included the outriggers, the balers, the paddles, the crosspieces and uprights for the awning, the fore and aft beams of the outrigger frame, the sails, the cordage, the two anchors, ground and sea, the punt poles, the steering oars. When the canoe was finished, the mother said:—“Your canoe being completed, convey the semblance of it to your elder, that he may with due ceremony name your vessel and recite the charms to ensure a fair passage, that you may be taught by him the ritual by means of which whales are assembled, that they may bear your vessel onward so swiftly that your enemy can never overtake you. That you may be taught the charms that attract the offspring of Rongo-huakai, the various kinds of shark known as aupounamu, huritaniwha, makomako and wahatara, which are all man eating sharks.”

Rata having agreed to the instructions of his mother, she continued:—“You should start in the Akaakanui period of the year, when Marewa and Autahi (stars) are suspended over the horison, that you may have a long continuance of fine weather for your voyage.”

Rata remarked:—“It is well; let it be at that time you have mentioned.”

Now Hinetuahoanga went to Whakaihorangi, the priestly adept, and said:—“Your young relative Rata is about to go forth to avenge the death of his elder Te Iwi-i-taia, younger brother of Hema, as also that of Wahieroa, his father, slain at Pariroa through the connivance of Pouhaokai and Matuku-tangotango. Now then, enquire into the route of your young relative by means of divination; will he return hither, or will his party be lost yonder.”

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Whakaihorangi replied:—“Wait a while. Come back here at this time to-morrow and listen to the message of the gods, but come alone.”

At the appointed time Hinetuahoanga went to Ahuahu, the home of Whakaihorangi, and enquired:—“Has the spirit company arrived with the desired information?”

The adept of the reason replied:—“A message has arrived to the effect that the people are unsuspicious; the deaths of Te Iwi-i-taia and of the young relative Wahieroa will be avenged. You may return home, the news is good, my young relative Rata will return to us.”

When the time appointed for the departure of Rata arrived, the month of Akaaka-nui, the canoe of Rata was conveyed to the latrine of the pa of Rata, named Pariroa after the place where his elder and his father, Te Iwi-i-taia and Wahieroa, had perished. The priestly expert Whakaihorangi came and conducted all the ritual rightly pertaining to the preparation of the fighting force of his young relative Rata. When all the ritual had been chanted, the canoe was dragged down to the sea, where eight war vessels were launched. The name of the canoe of Rata was “Aniwaru,” and over it was recited the appropriate ritual.

The vessels being launched they were paddled to the region of Pariroa, the home of Pouhaokai, of Matuku-tangotango, of Hine-komahi, and their peoples. Apakura was sent along with them by Whakaihorangi to act as a controlling expert of the various supernatural beings despatched by him as a protection. December was the month in which this party of Rata-i-te-pukenga (for such was his full name) started. When they arrived off Pariroa they lay off out at sea, lest they be seen paddling along. When night arrived, Apakura performed certain magic rites in order to lengthen the period of darkness, under cover of which they proceeded to land. Having landed they proceeded to construct a fortified position for themselves, having finished which they hauled their canoes inside it. Then, as they had to act during daylight, magic arts were again called upon to prolong the hours of daylight, so that no darkness might approach while they were fighting. Now, the previous lengthening of the hours of darkness had so startled the people of the land, all the folk of that whole region, that none of them were seen. At that time those native peoples of Pariroa were suffering much from hunger. At sunrise each day all the men and women set off to search for food on the plains, in vales and forests, and on the sea coast.

The force of Rata now set out and slew all they met of the local folk roaming about seeking food. The larger parties attacked the fortified villages and took those of Kotau, Te Pokahou, Te Mangawai Kopara-kore and Hau-rarama, the latter being the pa of Pouhaokai, his daughter Hinekomahi, and her brother Kaukau-awa. Now - 11 remained Awarua, the pa of Matuku-tangotango, as also that belonging to Mahana, Paopao, Peketuarangi and Huri-taniwha. Rata said to his party:—”Seize the outlying places first and leave the inner ones to be attacked afterwards.” Hence the places mentioned by me were assaulted.

Now, when Hau-rarama, the pa of Pouhaokai, fell, the force moved against Awarua, the pa of Matuku-tangotango, ascending a neighbouring hill, a coign of vantage, whence one called out to Hau-rarama: “O Pouhaokai! Does the noise and the pervading fragrance from the ovens denote abundant food?”

Then Apakura called out:—“Are you who is enquiring Matuku-tangotango?”

The speaker replied:—“It is I.”

“The noise is that of man slaying; the odour is that of baking human flesh.”

Matuku-tangotango heard the calling, and bawled out:—“O Pouhaokai!” Apakura answered:—“Here I am.”

Matuku-tangotango shouted:—“Give me some food, human flesh.”

Aparangi called out:—“Sweep the plaza, let floor mats be spread in the house, in order that bearers of food for you, of human flesh, may proceed.”

Again the voice of Matuku-tangotango bawled out:—“O Pouhaokai!” Apakura answered:—“Here am I.”

Matuku-tangotango called:—“Let cooked human flesh be the food, O Pouhaokai! Let the food for Matuku-tangotango be cooked human flesh.” Apakura called out:—“O! Sweep the place, and lay the mats in the house, O Matuku-tangotango.”

When the plaza and house had been prepared by Pouhaokai, the people of the raiding force started and conveyed thither the baskets of food, the food in all the baskets being human flesh, and the bearers thereof numbered two hundred. The people of Matuku-tangotango opened the gate of the pa of Awarua. Apakura said to the food bearers:—“When you enter the house to deposit the food for Matuku-tangotango, let one hundred baskets be left there, and one hundred baskets deposited on the plaza. The seat of Matuku is just under the window of the house. Summons all his companions to come outside and eat, then close the door and window, and lash them securely. When the heads and shoulders of his men are bowed over the food, let men stand behind to slay them. Cook the bodies, and then open the door and enquire:—“O Matuku! Will you have as food some cooked human flesh?” When he answers and bawls out:—“Some food; some human flesh”—then carry it in and fill the central space of the house with food. When those foods are consumed, then sleep will follow, whereupon arrange three cords, one to the ridgepole of the - 12 house, which cord should be brought down to the doorway, and one to each wall, the ends of the cord to be passed outside; the pulling should be toward the rear of the house.”

Such were the instructions of Aparangi to Rata-i-te-pukenga and his men. Then the party set off, and, on entering Awarua, the pa of Matuku-tangotango, the cry of the people of the place was heard:— Welcome to the food, to human flesh. Welcome to the prepared food; the food is human flesh.”

On the arrival of the party at the plaza of the house of Matuku-tangotango, the name of which was Haohaonui, Matuku entered his house, he alone entered and remained within. One hundred baskets of food were put in the house, and one hundred baskets distributed on the plaza. When the food was placed in the house, then the window and door were closed, and both were lashed. The people ran to partake of the food, the food deposited on the plaza. At this juncture the people of Matuku were slain by Rata-i-te-pukenga, and then cooked. The members of the raiding force heard the voice of Matuku-tangotango bawling forth appreciation of his feast of human flesh. Matuku thought he was eating the flesh of persons of a party of strangers from other lands, but not so, he was eating that of his own fried Pouhaokai, and that of their own folk.

Rata-i-te-pukenga called out:—“O Matuku!”

Matuku-tangotango answered:—“Here am I lying down; food has been cooked, human flesh is my food.”

Rata said:—“Cooked human flesh is now being conveyed to the house as food for Matuku-tangotango.”

The door was opened, and persons entered and deposited food for Matuku-tangotango. One hundred of his own people were cooked bodily and handed over to be eaten. Matuku-tangotango was overjoyed at the heap of human flesh; the central space of his house was covered; his tongue kept licking his food.

When the food was deposited, Rata-i-te-pukenga called out:—“O Matuku!”

And Matuku answered:—“Here am I.”

Again spoke Rata-i-te-pukenga, as he stood outside the window:—“Eat! Eat! O Matuku-tangotango.”

Replied Matuku:—“Here I am partaking of the feast provided by you, O Tahuaroa!”

That person Tahuaroa was a younger brother of Pouhaokai. On account of the sound of the voice of Rata-i-te-pukenga, he was taken for Tahuaroa, hence the mistake.

So Matuku ate away of the flesh of his own people of his village, of Awarua. Then the back of the house was heaped (with brush), as also the two side walls and the front.

Presently Matuku-tangotango called out:—“O Tohuaroa!

- 13

Rua-i-te-pukenga answered:—“Here am I, O Matuku.”

“What is that resounding noise I hear?” asked Matuku.

Rata-i-te-pukenga replied:—“It is nothing; merely our people kindling the oven fires wherewith to cook human flesh for you, O Matuku!”

Said Matuku:—“The stomach is full, the craving for human flesh is satisfied; leave for to-morrow the desire for cooked human flesh.” Then Matuku-tangotango fell asleep, and Rata-i-te-pukenga recited a charm to render his sleep a profound one. As the charm of Rata-i-te pukenga concluded, the nose of Matuku was heard rumbling like unto thunder rumbling along the horizon. Then Rata said to his men:—“Arrange the cords of the doorway.”

The cords were arranged according to the instructions of the priest Apakura in the first place. When the cords were so arranged, then the back and side walls were kindled by means of fiercely burning fires, and the heat penetrated the house. The sleep of Matuku-tangotango was very sound, and, in the dead of night, when the evening rising stars had descended to a place where the sky hangs down, prior to disappearing, then the front of the house was set fire to. When it burned fiercely, Matuku-tangotango called out:—“O Tahuaroa! There is a roaring sound in my house.”

Rata answered:—“O, it is only Tawhirimatea (personified form of winds) and his offspring (the Wind Children).”

Whereupon Matuku-tangotango grunted; ere long a tongue of fire appeared flickering (whākapi) in the house. Then called Matuku-tangotango:—“O Tahuaroa! Here is Mahuika! Mahuika is moving within. Open the door.”

The door was struck by Matuku, and broken, he thrust his head out, the three arranged cords were pulled, and now Matuku was caught and consumed by fire, his neck strangled in the cords; he was then dragged forth and laid outside.

The bones of Matuku-tangotango, of Pouhaokai, and of Huri-whenua were brought away to serve as bird spear points, and as fishing hooks for kauwaeroa (syn. hapuku). This was the origin of the native custom of using (human) bones as bird spear points and fish-hooks.

Here the story ends. The death of Wahieroa, father of Rata-i-te-pukenga, was avenged, and Rata and his force returned to his mother, and his elder Whakaihorangi. And here this tale ends.

The above story is full of contradictions and is apparently a mixture of myth and fact. Upon confused accounts of voyages to different lands, such myths as that pertaining to the forest elves have been engrafted.

- 14

The above is evidently a tradition of the time when the ancestors of our Maori folk were dwelling in Eastern Polynesia, 2 but in course of time the relation of it has become confused with other matters. We are told that a certain people of inferior culture, who cultivated no food supplies, who constructed only rude sheds and moved about from place to place instead of having a fixed abode, dwelt in a land far to the south-west of the former home of the Maori, the journey or voyage to which land occupied four months. Yet some of these folk visit the Maori land in the far north-east, hence they must have been builders of sea going vessels, and navigators, and they could not be such without living in permanent villages and practising agriculture. Moreover the party of Rata finds them living in fortified villages, which demands permanent houses or huts, and the house of Matuku was evidently the whare maori of New Zealand.

Such savages as are described could not be found in any part of Polynesia or Melanesia, and to become acquainted with an ever wandering low-grade people ignorant of agriculture, the Maori must have visited, Tasmania or Australia, a by no means improbable occurrence. The term pakiwhara, applied to these inferior folk, seems to imply nakedness, lack of clothing, a peculiarity of many Pacific peoples. As is usual in such traditions the two far sundered peoples of totally different culture stages speak the same tongue, and converse with ease. An explanation of all these absurdities would be that this story is composed of a tradition of a voyage to the Fiji Group, with which is confused that of another to Australia. On to this confusion have been tacked old myths such as that pertaining to Hine-tuahoanga and the fairy folk.

A similar condition of confusion is noted in the traditions pertaining to the settlement of New Zealand, wherein the statement concerning degraded savages of a low culture stage is contradicted by other evidence.

As to the time occupied in the voyage between the two lands, but little notice can be taken of this, for the Polynesian was an erratic voyager and thought little of wayside sojourns running into weeks or even months. Such halts, moreover, were often necessitated by the waiting for favourable winds.

It will also be noted that the names mentioned, both personal and topographical, as pertaining to the so called savages of Pariroa, are purely Maori, as is observed in the traditions respecting the Maioriori or Mouriuri aborigines of New Zealand. All these peculiar contradictions and inconsistencies in their traditions never seem to worry the Maori at all, indeed he does not seem to be aware that they exist.

- 15

The entrance of the marvellous into the above narrative is, of course, to be expected. Such useful arts as that of lengthening day or night were firmly believed in, therefore why not insert them.

See Fornander, Vol. I., p. 34, footnote—Is Rata story a remembrance of an old-time Polynesian raid into Melanesia.

KO WAHIEROA, KO RATA.

I TETAHI wa noa mai ka ara te ope haere o Manu-korihi, he tangata rangatira tenei no Ngati-Te Ahi-uturangi, no Ngati-Pakau-moana, me etahi iwi ona, ki tetahi whenua tauhou ana i a ratau. Ko nga tangata i haere i taua ope haere e tata ana ki te mano e rima rau pea, engari i penei te kupu a nga kaumatua, kotahi mano tuma; na reira i maharatia ake kotahi mano e rima rau pea. Ko taua ope haere he mea whiriwhiri te ahua o te tangata, kei nga tangata pakeke, pakari hoki, te ahua ki te haere. He roa te ara e kii ana, ki te whakatika atu i Whitikau, kei Tawhiti-roa tenei wahi, ka ahu atu te haere whaka te tonga mauru, ka tae atu ai ki Pariroa (kei te taha moana taua kainga nei), era e pau te wha marama e haere ana ratau, neke atu. Ko te whenua me te kainga e haere atu ra te ope haere nei, no Pou-hao-kai, no Matuku-tangotango, no tetahi wahine rangatira, no Hine-komahi, he tamahine na Turongo-nui. Ko Te Rara-a-takapu, ko Whakaaupara, ko Mohokura, koia tera nga rangatira o taua takiwa o Pariroa. Ko te iwi noho o reira he pakiwhara, ara he iwi noho koraha, kaore he whare penei me te whare o naianei, he wharau te whare. Kaore e mahi kai ana, ko nga kai e mahia ana, he ika, he pipi, he manu, he hua rakau, koia ra a ratau kai e mahi ai. Kaore e roa e noho ana ka neke te pahi he wahi ano noho ai; koia te take i kore ai e noho a whare.

Ko te take o te haere a Manu-korihi, a Kohu-wairangi, a Mangamanga, a Paritu, a Kokau, a Wahie-roa, a Te Kakau, a Tuhoro-punga, me etahi atu o taua tira ariki nei—i tae mai tetahi ope haere no Te Pariroa ki Whiti-anaunau, ara ki te kainga o Wahieroa; ko Whakarau te ingoa o te ariki o taua ope haere mai. Ka kitea tetahi piki, he huruhuru manu, he huruhuru no te kakerangi, koia tera te ingoa; ka pai aua piki. Ka uia atu e nga ariki o Whitianaunau nei me he mea he nui taua manu, a te kohirangi; ka ki mai ratau he nui.

- 16

Ka mea atu a Wahieroa:—“He pewhea o koutou iwi o kona mo nga tangata haere atu o nga iwi ke atu, he pai ranei?” Ka mea mai a Whakarau, te ariki o taua iwi:—“He pai me haere nui, he kino me he ope ruarua, he kohuru na nga tangata noa iho nei.

Ka tata ki te hoki a Whakarau me tona ope haere ki Pariroa, ki to ratau takiwa, ka mea atu a Manu-koriki ki a Whakarau:—“He aha te wa pai mo te haere atu, e tupono ai ki te wa nui te manu na, te kohirangi, ki to koutou takiwa?”

Ka mea mai a Whakarau:—“Hei te ngahuru o nga hua rakau e whakatata ana ki nga wahi pera.”

Ka mea atu a Manu-korihi:—“Ka haere atu taku ope tiki atu i te piki ariki o to koutou takiwa.”

Ka mea mai a Whakarau:—“Whanake.” Ka hoki a Whakarau ki Pariroa.

Ka roa, ka tata ki te wa o nga hua rakau e whakamaru ai, ka haere te ope o Manu-korihi ratau ko ona hoa ariki i kiia ake ra e au. Haere ake te ope nei he tangata pakeke, pakari, māmā hoki ki te haere roa; koia nei aua ariki i haere i taua ope haere—Manu-korihi, Wahieroa, Paritu, Kohu-wairangi, Mangamanga, Kokau, Te Kakau, Tuhoro-punga, Te Iwi-i-taia, ara atu ano etahi o taua ope haere o Whitikau ki Pariroa, kihai i tapeke mai i au o ratau ingoa.

Ka tae te ope nei ki Whakauranga, e tata atu ana ki Pariroa, ka tae atu ki te kainga o Ngati-Tokorakau, he iwi ano tera, ko Te Ngaupara te rangatira o tera iwi. Katahi ka ki mai a Ngaupara:—“E haere ana koutou ki whea?”

Ka mea atu a Manu-korihi:—“Ki Pariroa, ki te kainga i a Matuku-tangotango, i a Pou-haokai, ki te tiki piki kohirangi, he manu, hei piki mo matau.”

Ka mea mai a Ngaupara:—“Kaore koutou e tukua e au kia haere.”

I reira tetahi awa, ko Te Awa-taranga te ingoa, e ahu whaka te mauru ana te rere ki te moana: I reira te ope o Manu-korihi me ona hoa. Ko te nuinga o te ope o Manu-korihi i muri e haere mai ana, i peratia te haere kia toru ropu te haere, he rima rau ki te ope kotahi, a ko te tira anake i a Manu-korihi i kite nei a Ngaupara.

Ka mea atu a Manu-korihi:—“He aha to take i arai ai koe i taku tira haere?”

Ka mea mai a Ngaupara:—“He takahi nou i au me aku iwi, me taku whenua, me to kai haere i nga kai o taku whenua. E kore to ope e tukua e au kia whiti i te awa nei; me hoki koe.”

Ka mea atu a Manu-korihi:—“He roa rawa te ara i haere mai nei ahau, e kore e taea e ahau te hoki, pai atu me tuku ahau kia haere.”

Ka mea mai a Ngaupara:—“E kore koe e puta i nga taratara o Te Awa-taranga”—o te awa nui ra i kiia ake ra e au.

- 17

Ka mea atu a Manu-korihi:—“Kaore aku hiahia kia tu he pakanga maku ki a koutou; ko taku hiahia he haere tika ki Pariroa ki te tiki i nga huruhuru o te manu kohirangi.”

Ka mea mai a Ngaupara:—“E kore koe e puta i au.” Ka ki atu ano a Manu-korihi:—“E pai ana. Me pakanga taua inaia nei.”

Ka hopukia tonutia a Ngaupara me tona ope kotahi rau tuma, ka mate katoa i reira tonu. Ka tukua te whakaaraara ki muri ki a Wahieroa, ki a Tuhoro-punga, ko raua hoki nga tangata taki mai i nga ropu e rua o muri, ka mea atu ki a raua—“Kua hinga te patunga, ko Ngati-Tokorakau, ko Ngaupara, kei Te Awa-taranga e taiki ana; kia tere te whanake, koi mea ka whakaeke ano pea i muri i au.”

Katahi ka kaika te haere a nga matua e rua nei i waenganui po. Ka tae atu a Wahieroa, a Tuhoro-punga, me a raua matua e rua. Ka mea atu a Manu-korihi:—“Whakawhiti tatau ki tera taha o Te Awa-taranga.” Ka whakawhiti ratau, ka rupeke ki te taha tonga o Te Awa-taranga, ka awatea hoki. Ka noho ki te taka kai ma ratau i reira; kihai i roa ka puta mai te ope tangata e haere mai ana i te taha marangai o Te Awa-taranga, e tae ana pea ki te rua mano topu te ahua o te tokomaha o te ope taua a Ngati-Tokorakau; ko Mohuia, ko Te Korahi nga tino rangatira o taua ope ra. Ka tae mai ki te taha o te awa, ka mataku ki te whakawhiti mai i te awa, he hohonu hoki te wai, he kautahoe ka whiti ai. Ka po ka haere te ope o Manu-korihi, me ona hoa ariki; kaore i haere mai ki te whai i a ratau taua iwi, a Ngati-Tokorakau.

Na, ka tae ratau ki te kainga i a Whakarau me ona iwi, i haere ake ratau ki Whiti-anaunau, te kainga o Wahieroa i kiia ake ra e au, ka manaakitia ratau e taua iwi, he iwi nui tera, e tae ana ki te whitu mano topu, neke ake pea te tokomaha. E ki ana hoki te whakatauki—“Tena, tera te noho ana me te one pipipi”—mo te tokomaha o te tangata o taua iwi. Ko nga wahine, te whakatipu he paruhi, he mata paraha, he ihu rakau te ihu. Ko nga whatu he kanae; he wharewhare nga tukemata; ko nga ateate he ateate kokau, he hema. Ko nga papa, haere ake ki te tinana, he tapuku te ahua, he roroa te tu. Ko nga tane, te tokomaha he kokau te ahua o te tu, he pari hoki he roroa, he ngawari te ahua. He matika te tu o te tangata, ko nga whatu he whatu kanae.

Ka mea mai a Whakarau ki a ratau:—“Me haere tatau ki Pariroa kia kite i Te Pou-haokai raua ko Matuku-tangotango.”

Ka mea atu a Manu-korihi:—He pai ranei mo matau kei Pariroa ina tae tatau.”

Ka mea atu a Whakarau:—“He pai; engari me haere ano tatau i runga i te tupato, he iwi kai tangata hoki tera o tatau, na reira me apiti e tatau te ope kia rite te tokomaha ki aua tangata hoki.”

- 18

Ka tata atu te ope haere, ka tukua te karere whakaatu ki a Matuku-tangotango, ki a Pou-haokai, kei te haere atu te ope tuarangi no te pu o te marangai rawhiti o Tawhiti-roa; ko Manu-korihi, na te rongo o te piki kohirangi i haere mai ai, ka hoki ano ki to ratau wa kainga.

Ka tae nga tangata o Whakarau, ka korero atu ki a Matuku-tangotango me Pou-haokai; ka mea mai a Pou-haokai:—“E kore au e pai kia haere mai nga tangata iwi ke ki konei mau ai i nga piki kohirangi. Me ki atu e tetahi o koutou ki a Whakarau waiho atu tona ope i kona, kaua hei mauria mai ki konei. E kore nga piki kohirangi o nga ariki turangi o Pariroa e mauria hei piki ariki mo etahi atu ariki ke atu o Pariroa nei.”

Ka hoki mai nga karere a Whakarau i tuku ra, ka tae mai ki te puni o te ope o Whakarau, o Manu-korihi, o Wahieroa, o Tuhoro-punga, ka korerotia mai nga korero a Pou-haokai ra. Ka mea atu a Whakarau ki a Manu-korihi me ona hoa:—“Ka haere ahau kia kite i a Matuku-tangotango, i a Pou-haokai.”

Ka haere a Whakarau, ka tae ki Pariroa, ka korero ratau, kaore a Pou-haokai me Matuku-tangotango i whakaae. Ka mea mai a Matuku-tangotango me wehe kia kotahi rau tangata e waiho hei kai ma ratau ka whakaae ai ia. Ka riri a Whakarau, ka ki atu a Whakarau, kati, ka mauria e ia tana ope ki nga wahi i noho ai nga manu kohirangi tango huruhuru ai ma ratau.

Ka mea atu a Pou-haokai:—“Kaua e pena, koi mura te ahi kai tangata a Pou-haokai.”

Ka mea atu a Whakarau:—“Hei aha te mura ahi i te wai whenua e taupoki ana.” Ka wehe mai a Whakarau.

I muri i a Whakarau ka huihui nga iwi o Pou-haokai, o Matuku-tangotango, ki Pariroa turia te korero mo te whawhai.

Na, ka tae mai a Whakarau ki te puni o Manukorihi ma, ka korerotia nga korero o te taenga o Whakarau ki Pariroa, a Pou-haokai ma, a kua tuturu te korero ka ara te rau o te patu ki runga.

Ka mea atu a Manu-korihi me ona hoa:—“Kaore matau i haere mai ki te pakanga, kati, kua pena na te kupu a o hoa, e pai ana, poroporoaki te roa whenua, te wa kainga, ki te iwi me te ahi whakatau.”

Ka mutu te maioha a Manu-korihi, ka ui atu ki a Whakarau:—“He aha te whakaeke a to iwi?”

Ka mea a Whakarau:—“He rangatahi, he kautere matua.”

Ka mea a Manu-korihi:—“A, pewhea tau whakatakoto i te waha o te pakanga?”

Ka mea a Whakarau:—“He pera ano te ahua.”

Ka mea a Manu-korihi:—“Waiho i taku he ara pakanga ma tatau; kia rima rau ki te kokiri kotahi, kia ono nga matua, me - 19 takoto kia eke rawa te ata tangata ki runga i a tatau, ka ara ai, kia ara ake ana he tata rawa.”

Ka whakaae a Whakarau, ka takoto nga matua, koia tenei te ahua o te takoto. Na, ko nga matua e wha o waho i hunaia ki roto ki te awa takoto ai. Ko nga matua e rua i roto i tu marakerake tera hei poa i te matua a Pou-haokai ma. Ka tae ki te ata o tetahi rangi, ka kitea atu e haere mai ana te ope taua nei, me te uru ngahere tera e tere ana i te wai huri rangi.

Ka mea a Manu-korihi me tu nga matua e rua o roto o te waha o te pakanga ki te tuone, kia ahua mataratara te tu a te tangata, kia urupuia ai te tu a te matua, kia whangaia nga whatu me nga mahara o te ope taua, kaore e aurara te whatu ki wahi ke ake, me nga mahara, ara ake ano he matua ohotata kei wahi ke ake e takoto ana.

Ka haere mai te ope taua a Pou-haokai raua ko Matuku-tango-tango, a ka ngaro te upoko me te tinana o te matua ki roto i nga matua tahapa e takoto ra i te wahi ngaro. Kua rauroha te haere mai a te tangata o te matua a Pou-haokai. Katahi ano ka maranga tetahi o nga matua o te whakauru o waho. Ka pakaru te matua ki reira, etahi, ka maranga hoki te matua o tetahi taha o waho, ka wehe ano te matua a Pou-haokai, ka ara te matua tuatoru, ka raruraru i konei te ope taua a Pou-haokai. Ka maranga katoa nga matua nei, ka patua, ka mate te ope taua a Pou-haokai raua ko Matuku-tango-tango. E kiia ana kapi ana te mania o Tauwhanga i te tinana tangata o te tupapaku. Ka puta a Pou-haokai, a Matuku-tango-tango, me te tini atu o nga tangata i te nui o taua ope taua. Ka aranga tenei matenga ko Tahumaero. Ka mutu tenei.

Na, katahi ka haerea touutia e Manu-karihi, e Whakarau, ki Pariroa i taua po ano, ao rawa ake te ra ka tae atu ki te takiwa o Pariroa. Ka kite mai nga iwi o Matuku-tangotango, o Pou-haokai, e haere atu ana, ka omaoma ki runga i nga maunga, ki roto i nga ngahere ngaro atu ai.

Katahi ka riro mai i te parekura i Tahumaero te taonga nei te-piki; tae atu ra hoki ki Pariroa ka murua nga taonga o roto i nga whare, me nga piki hoki, a hoki mai ana te ope haere o Manu-korihi raua ko Whakarau ki a ratau ake takiwa.

Na, i te hinganga o Pou ma ra i Tahumaero ra ka mau herehere mai etahi o nga herehere i te ope haere o Manu-korihi ma ra. Ka tae mai ki te ara, ka kohurutia a Wahieroa e tana herehere ake, i a ia e moe ana. Ka oma taua herehere, kaore i kitea. No te po i kohurutia ai, i te ata ka kitea kua mate.

Ka tae te iwi nei ki Te Awa-taranga ki te takiwa o Ngaupara, ka tupono atu a Manu-korihi me nga tangata o Whakarau, e tata ana pea ki te rima mano, hei awhina i te ope o Manu-korihi. Ka tae atu ki te taha o te awa, e noho mai ana taua iwi a Ngati-Tokorakau, kapi tonu te raorao o Mahapara, o te taha marangai rawhiti o taua awa, i - 20 taua iwi. Ka tonoa atu e Whakarau tetahi tangata ki a Kowaiwai:—“Me whakaatu ko te ope tenei o Manu-korihi e hoki ana ki tona whenua, me tuku pai atu e koe kia hoki pai ratau ki to ratau whenua; e hara i a ratau te he i mate ai to papa, a Ngaupara. Na to papa ake tera he, he karo patu ta Manu-korihi i mate ai to papa, me etahi o o iwi.”

Ka hoki mai taua karerc, ka mea mai kaore ia e whakaae kia whiti atu ki tera tarawahi o Te Awa-taranga, ki te whiti atu, ko te wa tonu tena o te pakanga. Ka mea atu a Whakarau ki nga karere tokotoru:—“Haere ano, mea atu ki te pena to whakaaro, me mate tahi matau ko te ope a Manu-korihi ratau ko ona hoa ki to aroaro.”

Ka tae nga karere tokotoru nei, ka korero atu i taua kupu a Whakarau. Ka mea mai a Kowaiwai, tama a Ngaupara:—“Hei aha maku a Whakarau.” Ka patua e ia tokorua, ka oma mai tetahi o aua karere, ka whakaatu mai kua mate ona hoa, a ko te kupu a Kowaiwai—“Hei aha maku a Whakarau.”

Ka tonoa e Whakarau etahi o ona tangata, ka tae mai nga tangata o Whakarau, e rima rau atu hoki. Ka huri te ope o Whakarau me Manu-korihi ki te mahi mokihi, he rangiura rakau, he mea koko, tokorua ki runga. Ka oti nga mokihi e rua mano, katahi ka whakawhititia i te atea; ka kau atu e wha mano, ka u atu ki uta. Ka hoki mai te tangata o etahi o nga mokihi nei ki te whakahoki mai i nga mokihi mo etahi. Ka ara te pakanga a nga mano e ono, ka raruraru ki reira te taua a Kowaiwai. Ka whiti katoa atu nga tangata o Whakarau, o Manu-korihi, ki te waha o te pakanga whawhai ai, a po noa, ao noa te ra, po noa. Ka hinga a Ngati-Tokorakau i konei, ka mau herehere a Kowaiwai i konei. Ka karanga ake a Kowaiwai ki a Manu-korihi:—“Kia ora ahau i a koe.”

Ka karanga atu a Manu-korihi:—“E tama! E pai ana, he ingoa te upoko pakaru, he ingoa ano te whakarauora.”Ka ora a Kowaiwai i konei.

Katahi ka patua te iwi, a Ngati-Tokorakau, i konei, kore rawa tetahi kia ora te patu, ko Te Kowaiwai anake. Ka tikina nga kainga noho ngahere o te iwi o Tokorakau, i nga tahataha o taua awa, ka riro nga wahine a Kowaiwai me te tini o te tangata, tane, wahine.

Ka mea a Whakarau me whakanoho e Manu-korihi taua whenua katoa, te rohe katoa o Ngaupara o taua whenua o Whakauranga.

Ka mea atu a Manu-korihi:—“Kia rua, ko te patu i te tangata e hora nei, ko te tango hoki i te whenua o nga wahine, o nga tamariki. Waiho kia noho ana; kaore au i haere mai ki te pakanga, engari i whakaae ai au ki te whawhai kia watea taku ara, ka mutu; kua watea nei te ara, waiho kia noho ana i o ratau kainga.”

Ka hoki a Whakarau me ona iwi ki tona takiwa. Ka hoki mai a Manu-korihi me tona iwi ki to ratou nei kainga, ki Whiti-anaunau, - 21 me nga huruhuru o nga manu nei o te kakerangi, o te kohiwai, o te kohirangi, koia nei nga huruhuru humaeko i riro mai i a ratau. He nui te pai o aua huruhuru e kiia ana, te huatau. Na, tae mai ki Whitikau, ki te kainga o te wahine a Wahieroa me ona iwi, ka rongo kua mate a Wahieroa, he nui te tangi, te uhunga.

Na, e kai ana a Rata i te u o tona whaea. Ka pakeke a Rata, ka ui atu ki tona whaea:—“Kei whea toku papa e ngaro nei?”

Ka ki atu te whaea:—“I mate ki Pariroa, kei te pu o te tonga o Tawhiti-roa; na Pou-haokai, na Matuku-tangotango i patu, i ta ratau ope haere ko Manu-korihi me etahi atu, koia tera te ope i mate ai to papa a Wahieroa.”

Na, ka rongo nei a Rata i nga tangata nana i patu tona papa, ka haere ia ki te tua rakau hei waka mona; ka hinga i a Rata ratau ko ona iwi te rakau ki raro, ka hoki ratau ki te kainga. I te ata ka haere mai a Rata me ona iwi ki te tarai i te waka, kua tu ano taua rakau ki runga i tona putake ake. Ka ui a Rata:—“He aha te take i penei ai te rakau nei?”

Katahi ka tuaia ano ki raro takoto ai, ka hinga ki raro, ka kotia te kauru, ka motu, ka hoki nga tangata ki te kainga. I te ata ka haere mai ano a Rata me ona tangata ki te tarai, tae rawa atu kua tu ano taua rakau ki runga i tona putake ake. Na, ka hoki a Rata ki te kainga, ka korero ki tona whaea i tona raru i tona rakau. Ka ki mai te whaea:—“Haere ki Ahuahu, ki to tipuna ki a Whakaihorangi, mana e whakaatu mai ki a koe te take i pena ai to rakau.”

Ka haere a Rata ki Ahuahu kia kite i a Whakaihorangi; ka tae atu a Rata, ka mea mai te tipuna ki a Rata:—“He mate toku i taku rakau; ka toru aku tuanga ki raro, me te ara tonu ki runga tu ai, a kua kite au he atua kei te whakaara i taku rakau, he iwi atua nui noa atu, ki tonu a ro ngahere i taua iwi atua nei.”

Ka mea mai te tipuna, a Whakaihorangi, ki a Rata:—“E hara, e tama aku, ko o tipuna ena.”

Ka mea atu a Rata:—“No hea te iwi nei, a kei whea to ratau na kainga?”

Ka mea atu a Whakaihorangi:—“Kei nga tupaki o Hine-moana, kei te tihi o nga maunga, kei nga wahi tapu e haere ana, e noho ana, kei raro kei te Muriwai hou ki Rarohenga, ki to ratau tipuna ki a Papa-tuanuku e takaaroaro ana, he rehia, he harakoa ta ratau na mahi, he haereere noa i te ao, i te po.”

Ka mea a Rata:—“A, me pewhea ra taku rakau?” Ka mea atu a Whakaihorangi:—“Haere, tuaia e koe, ka hinga ki raro ka uhi e koe te putake ki te paretao. Kia ahiahi ka haere mai koe ki te tuahu, ka whanga mai kia tae atu au.”

- 22

Ka peratia e Rata, ka hinga te rakau nei, ka uhia ki te paretao te putake o taua rakau. Ka ahiahi, ka mauria nga paretao e Rata, ka tae atu ki runga i te tuahu, i reira a Whakaihorangi e tu mai ana. Ka toro mai nga ringa o Whakaihorangi, ka mau ki nga paretao, ka poaia (? poia) ki runga i nga ringa, ka karakiatia e Whakaihorangi, koia tenei tona karakia i runga i te tuahu:—

“Whiwhia, whiwhia
Tau atu ki nga tupaki, ki nga tihi
O Hine-moana, o Tuanuku
He aro, he aro tipua, he aro atua
Tenei au he uhenga a nuku, he uhenga a rangi
Ki tenei pia, ki tenei taura
He aro tipua no runga no te toi huarewa
No runga no te toi matua
No te toi atua ki tenei pia
He pia tipua, he pia atua no nga rangi tatara
Ki te pu, ki te weu, ki te akaaka rangi .. e .. i
Tenei au he uriuri, he pia no nga rangi tatara
Ki take rangi, e Io .. e .. i
Tau tika, tau aro mai ki to pia
He pia tipua, he pia atua nou, e Io .. e .. i
Tenei au kei te uruuru tapu
Kei te uruuru rangi
Kei te uruuru i te waotu a Tane
Ki te pungakengakenga o tautika, o tauaro
O tau mai ki tenei tama nau, e Ruatau .. e .. i
Hapai ake nei au i taku toki
Ko te Haemata o te rangi
Hapai ake nei au i taku toki
Ko te Rakuraku o Tawhaki
Hapai ake nei au i taku nei toki
Ko Pukupuku te rangi
Hapai ake nei au i taku toki
Ko Manu-tawhio-rangi
He toki tipua ariki, he toki tipua rangi
He toki tipua no nga atua
Ka whakapiritia ki a koe, e Tane-tuturi
E Tane turere, e Tane whirikaha
E Tane torokaha, e Tane puhau rangi
E Tane te waotu—e!
Tenei ka tau, ka tau ki raro ki tenei tipua
Ki tenei ta whito, ki tenei pia uriuri nou
E Tane matua .. e .. i.”

Ka mutu te karakia nei. Na, ko tenei karakia e waiho ana e nga tohunga tuahu, ahurewa, hei karakia ina tuaia tetahi tino rakau - 23 hei waka taua, hei tahu whare whakanoho whakairo, hei rakau take whakairo mo tetahi pa tuwatawata ranei, hei tiki tupapaku ariki, kahurangi, marei kura, rangatira whakaheke iho ranei. Koia tenei nga take e hapainga ai tenei karakia e nga tohunga.

Na, ka mahia te waka, koira nga toki i taraia ai te waka, a ka oti te tarai te haumi, te kei, te ihu, nga rauawa; ka oti nga taumanu, te tauihu, te rapa me te karaho, te puneke, te ihu, te utuutu-matua, te whakarei o te kei, nga mea katoa mo te waka taua, nga korewa, nga ta wai, nga hoe, nga whiti, nga tokotu, nga huapae, nga ra, nga taura, nga punga e rua, whaka-whenua, nga punga korewa, nga toko waka, nga hoe whakaara o te ihu, nga hoe whakatere o te kei.

Ka oti te waka nei ka ki atu te whaea:—“Ka oti to waka, kawea te ahua o to waka ki to tipuna, kia kawaia e ia te ingoa o to waka, kia hoaia te ara o to waka, kia akona mai ki a koe te karakia taki mai i nga kauika pakake, i a tutara kauika, i a te wehenga kauki, hei amo i to waka kia kore ai e mau i to hoariri. Kia akona hoki ki a koe te karakia taki mai i nga mokopuna a Rongo-huakai, te mango aupounamu, te mango huri taniwha, te mango makomako, te mango waha tara, he mango kai tangata katoa enei.”

Na, ka whakaae a Rata ki nga tohutohu a tona whaea. Ka mea atu ano te whaea:—“Waiho hei te Akaakanui o te tau koe haere ai, kia tarewa mai a Marewa, a Autahi, ki runga o te paehuakai, kia roa ai te paki Matariki hei haerenga mou.”

Ka mea atu te tama, a Rata:—“E pai ana, waiho i tau he wa.”

Na, ka haere a Hine-tua-hoanga ki a Whakaihorangi, ki te tohunga o te tau, ka mea atu;—“E haere ana to mokopuna, a Rata, ki te ngaki i te mate o tona tupuna, o Te Iwi-i-taia, taina o Hema, raua ko Wahieroa, ko tona papa i mate ra ki Pariroa i a Pou-haokai raua ko Matuku-tangotango. Tena, torona te ara o to mokopuna, ka hoki mai ranei, ka oti atu ranei tona ope taua.”

Ka mea mai a Whakaihorangi ki a Hine-tuahoanga:—“Tawika! Kia penei ātahi ra ka hoki mai koe ki te whakarongo i te aparangi, ko koe anake e whano mai.”

I te ra i rite ai ka haere a Hine-tuahoanga, ka tae atu ki Ahuahu, ki te kainga o Whakaihorangi. Ka mea atu a Tuahoanga:—“Kua tae mai ranei te ope aparangi me te kupu i torona atu ra?”

Ka mea mai te tohunga o te tau:—“Kua tae mai te kupu e whakawaiwai ana te noho, ka ea te mate o Te Iwi-i-taia me te mokopuna me Wahieroa. Haere, he pai te rongo, e hoki mai ai taku mokopuna, a Rata, ki a taua.”

Ka tae ki te wa e rite ai te haere a Rata ki te kaupeka o Akaaka-nui, ka kawea te waka o Rata ki te whakaheke o te pa o Rata, ki Te Pariroa, he ingoa no te wahi i mate ai tona tipuna me tona papa, a Te Iwi-i-taia, a Wahieroa. Ka tae mai te tohunga, a Whakaihorangi, ka whakahaerea e te tohunga nga karakia katoa e - 24 tika ana hei mahi mana i te ope taua a tona mokopuna a Rata. Ka oti nga karakia katoa te mahi, ka toia te waka ki te moana, mānu ake nga waka taua e waru. Ko te ingoa o te waka o Rata ko Aniwaru, na te tohunga i tua; koia tenei te karakia mo te waka nei:—

“Tau ake nei au i taku nei tau
He tau tika, he tau aronui
He tau matua, he tau tipua, he tau arorangi
He tau ka wheau mai nou
E Ruatau! E Aitupawa .. e .. i
Tumatauenga tau tika mai ki tenei uriuri
No Rangi nui tamaku rangi .. e .. i
Tenei ka tau, ka tau ki tenei pia
Ki tenei tama na Tane nui a rangi .. e .. i
Tau ake nei au i taku nei tau
He tau tika, he tau aronui, he tau tipua
He tau na to aro, e Tumatauenga .. e .. i
Whai ake nei au i taku nei whai
Kia tau mai nga tipua
Kia tau mai nga atua kai tipua
Kai atua, kai tangata
Ki tenei tama nau, e Tamakaka
E Tama torokaha .. e .. i
Tenei to ara he ara tipua, he ara atua
He ara no to uriuri, he ara no to tama
Ko Aniuwaru kia tau tika
Kia tau atu ki tuawhenua
Ki Pariroa i te pu o te tonga .. e .. i
Tenei ka whakamau atu taku aro ki nga tipua
Ki nga atua kai tipua, kai atua, kai tangata
Kia ihi nuku, kia ihi rangi
Kia ihi to tinana, kia ihi o mata
Kia ihi o taringa; kia ihi o niho
Kai tupua, kai atua, kai tangata
Wheau atu ai ki muri o Tuaropaki-rangi,
O tuaropaki nuku
Ngau atu ki Tupari
Ngau atu ki Tuamatua
Ngau atu ki a Hine-one
Ngau atu ki a Hine-kirikiri
Ngau atu ki maunga tutumaiao
Ka tatau te po turuturu
Ka tatau atu te po tamaki rangi
Ka tatau te po ka wheau atu
Ki te po tiwha oti atu .. e .. i
- 25
Ko Rata ihi nui, ko Rata ihi roa
Ko Rata ihi tipua, ko Rata ihi atua
Ko Rata ihi tangata ki te po
Ka wheau atu ki Rarohenga
Ki te Muriwai hou oti atu .. e .. i
Hau mai to rongo, he rongo tipua
He rongo atua, he rongo tangata
Ka mau te hu waiora ki nga rangi
Ka mau te hu waiora ki tapatu o nga rangi
Ka mau te hu waiora ki te wa ki nga mata kainga
Auroki aumoe ana mai Matuku-tangotango
Aumoe ana mai Pouhaokai
Aumoe ana mai Hine-komahi e Rata .. e .. i.”

Ka manu nga waka nei, ka hoe ki te takiwa ki Pariroa, ki te kainga o Pou-haokai, o Matuku-tangotango, o Hine-komahi me o ratau iwi i noho ai. Ka tukua a Apakura e Whakaihorangi kia haere hei tohunga whakahaere i nga atua i tukua e Whakaihorangi kia haere hei whakaputa i te taua nei kia u atu ki uta. Ko Akaaka-nui te kaupeka o te tau i manu ai te ope o Rata-i-te-pukenga, koia nei te roanga o tona ingoa. Ka hoe atu, ka tae atu ki Pariroa, ka tau atu i waho o te moana, koi kite mai te tere e hoe atu ana. Ka po, katahi ka hoe atu, katahi ka tu a Apakura ki te kukume i nga po kia po anake nga ra, a u noa atu ratau ki uta. Ka u ki uta, ka mahi pa mo ratau, kia oti rawa ka totoia nga waka ki roto i o ratau pa. 'Tahi ka tukua kia awatea, ka kuwea nga awatea kia roa, kia kore ai he po i a ratau e whawhai ana. Na, i te kumenga i nga po ra ka ohere katoa te taanga whenua, nga iwi o taua takiwa katoa, kore rawa i kitea atu etahi o o ratau pa ake.

Na, he nui te mate kai i pa mai ki aua iwi tangata whenua o Pariroa. No te putanga o te ra ka haere noa atu te mahi a te tangata, a te wahine, ki te kimi kai haere i nga mania, i nga awa-awa, i ro ngahere, i te taha moana.

Ka whakatika te taua a Rata, ka patua haeretia nga tangata e haere ana ki te rapa kai haere. Ka kokiri nga tino matua ki nga pa patu ai; ka hinga nga pa hawai (?), a Kotau, a Te Pokahou, a Te Mangawai, a Kopara-kore, a Hau-rarama, te pa tenei i a Pou-haokai raua ko te tamahine ko Hine-komahi, me te tungane, a Kaukau-awa. Na, ka toe ko te pa i a Matuku-tangotango, ko Awarua, ko te pa hoki i a Mahana, i a Paopao, i a Peke-tuarangi, i a Huri-taniwha. Ka mea a Rata ki tona ope taua:—“Kapohia i nga whetu kai rangi o waho, waiho nga pa kai haohao kia tu ana mo muri ka whakaeke ai.” Koia i patua haeretia ai ko nga pa i kiia ake ra e au.

Na, ka hinga ra te pa a Pouhaokia, a Hau-rarama, ka eke nga tangata ki runga o Awarua, te pa i a Matuku-tangotango, ka piki, ka - 26 eke ki runga i te matairangi, ka karanga iho ki Hau-rarama:—“E Pouhaokai e! He kai ranei te haruru nei, te tuhi nei te kakara o te umu.”

Katahi a Apakura ka karanga ake:—“Ko Matuku-tangotango koe e whakaui nei?”

Ka mea iho te kai karanga:—“Ko au! Ko au!”

“He patu tangata te haruru nei; he umu tangata te tuhi nei.” Ka rongo a Matuku-tangotango, ka whakapakari iho te waha, ka mea a Matuku-tangotango:—“Pouhaokai e!”

Ka mea ake a Apakura:—“Tenei au.”

Ka mea mai a Matuku-tangotango:—“He kai, he tangata maku.”

Ka karanga ake a Apakura:—“Tahia te marae, wharikitia te whare, kia haere atu te kai kawe kai mau, he tangata te kai.”

Ka whakapakari iho ano te waha o Matuku-tangotango, ka mea iho:—“E Pouhaokai E!”

Ka mea ake a Apakura:—“Tenei au.”

Ka mea iho a Matuku-tangotango:—“Hei te kai tangata maoa he kai ma Matuku-tangotango.”

Ka karanga ake a Apakura:—“E! Tahia; wharikitia te whare; Matuku-tangotango—e!”

Na, ka oti te marae, te whare, te tahi e Pouhaokai. Katahi ka whakatika te ope taua nei, ka mauria nga kono kai, he tangata nga kai o roto o nga kono katoa, e rua rau te ope. Ka tuwhera te tatau o te pa o Awarua i nga tangata o Matuku-tangotango. Ka mea a Apakura:—“E tae hei ro whare takoto ai te kai ma Matuku-tangotango kia kotahi rau nga kono, a kia kotahi rau hei te marae. Ko Matuku-tangotango kei te matapihi o te whare tona nohoanga. Me tono katoa mai ona hoa kia puta mai ki waho kai ai, ka tutaki te tatau, te matapihi, here rawa e koutou kia mau. E tuohu te poko-hiwi me te upoko o ona tangata ki te kai, kia tu nga tangata ki muri patu ai. Ka tao e koutou, ka huaki i te whatitoka o te whare, ka ui e koutou, “Matuku-tangotango e! He maoa he kai he tangata mau, e Matuku e!” Ka mea mai ia, “He kai he tangata.” Ka whakapakari mai tona waha, ka kawe ano kia ki tonu te awarua i te kai. Ka pau ena kai, katahi ka moe; ka tatai nga taura e toru, kotahi ki te tahu o te whare ka whakaheke iho ai ki te whatitoka; kia kotahi ki tetahi pakitara, ki tetahi pakitara tatai ai, ka whaka-puta i nga pito o nga taura ki waho, me kukume whaka te tuarongo te kumenga.”

Koia tenei nga tohutohu a Apakura ki a Rata-i-te-pukenga me ona tangata. Katahi ka haere, ka tae ki roto i Awarua, te pa o Matuku-tangotango; ka pa te karanga a te tangata o te pa nei:—“Haere mai, e te kai, he tangata e, haere mai e te kai ka maoa e, he tangata te kai.”

- 27

Ka tae ki te marae o te whare o Matuku-tangotango, o Hao-haonui, ka tomo a Matuku-tangotango ki roto i tona whare, koia anake i tomo ki roto noho mai ai. Ka tukua te kotahi rau kono ki roto i te whare, kotahi rau kono kai ki te marae toha ai. Ka rupeke te kai ki roto o te whare, ka tutakina te matapihi, te whatitoka hoki, ka hereherea te whatitoka, te matapihi hoki. Ka rere te mahi a te tangata ki te kai, te kai i takoto ra ki te marae. Katahi ano ka patua te iwi o Matuku i konei e Rata-i-te-pukenga, ka mate, ka taona. Ka rongo atu nga tangata o te ope taua e whakapakari ana mai te waha o Matuku-tangotango i te reka o ona kai o te tangata. Mahara ana a Matuku-tangotango he tangata ope hou mai no etahi whenua ke atu e kai ra ia, kaore ko tona hoa tonu ia ko Pouhaokai me o raua iwi tonu ia e kainga ra e ia.

Ka karanga atu a Rata-i-te-pukenga:—“Matuku, E!” Ka karanga mai a Matuku-tangotango:—“Tenei au kei te takoto, he kai ka maoa, he tangata he kai maku.”

Ka mea atu a Rata:—“Tenei te mauria atu nei he tangata maoa hei kai ma Matuku-tangotango ki roto i te whare mauku.”

Ka tu whera te tatau, ka uru te tangata ki roto whakatakoto ai i te kai ma Matuku-tangotango. Pau tonu tona iwi kotahi rau nei te tao puku tonu, ka hoatu kia kainga. Ka koa a Matuku-tangotango ki te nui o te whakatihi o te tangata, kapi tonu te kauwhanga o tona whare, ka mitimiti mai tona aero ki ona kai.

Ka takoto te kai nei, ka karanga a Rata-i-te-pukenga:—“E Matuku—e!”

Ka mea ake a Matuku:—“Tenei au.”

Ka mea iho ano a Rata-i-te-pukenga, e tu ana i waho o te matapihi, e karanga iho ana:—“E kai! E kai! E Matuku-tangotango—e!”

Ka mea ake a Matuku:—“Tenei kai te kai i te hakari nau, e Tahuaroa, e!”

Ko tera tangata ko Tahuaroa he taina no Pouhaokai; ka mahara ki te tangi o te reo o Rata-i-te-pukenga ko Tahuaroa, koia i pohehe ai.

Ka kai a Matuku i tona iwi tonu ake o tona pa ra, o Awarua. Katahi ka taiputia te tuarongo o te whare, nga pakitara e rua me te whatitoka. Ka karanga a Matuku-tangotango:—“Tahuaroa, e!”

Ka karanga a Rata-i-te-pukenga:—“Tenei au, e Matuku, e!”

Ka mea mai:—“He aha tenei e haruru nei?”

Ka mea atu a Rata-i-te-pukenga:—“E hara, ko o taua iwi me o taua apa e tahu umu kai tangata ana mau, e Matuku.”

Ka mea mai a Matuku:—“Ka puru ka ki kopu, ka makona hiakai tangata, waiho apopo hiakai maoa tangata.”

- 28

Ka moe a Matuku-tangotango, ka mea a Rata-i-te-pukenga:—“E moe ko te moe na Whakarehua ki te po ka wheau atu, ka wheau mai ki tenei tama, e Matuku-tangotango .. e .. i.”

Ka mutu te karakia a Rata-i-te-pukenga, ka rongona atu te ihu o Matuku, e whakahoro ana tera me te mea tonu tera ko Whaitiri-papa tera e horo ana i te huapae o te rangi.

Ka mea a Rata ki ona tama:—“Tuata; whakaronatia nga taura o te whatitoka.”

Ka tataitia nga taura pera me te tohutohu a Apakura tohunga i mea ai i te tuatahi ra. Ka oti nga taura te tatai, katahi ka tahuna mai i te tuarongo, i nga pakitara, ki te ahi kaha te ka, kaha hoki te mahana o roto o te whare. Ka au rawa te moe a Matuku-tangotango, ka tae ki waenganui po, ka whakaheke nga whetu rere ahiahi ki te taepatanga o nga rangi whakaeroero ai, ka tahuna te whatitoka, ka kaha te mura, ka karanga a Matuku-tangotango:—“Tahuaroa e! Kei te haruru a roto o taku whare.”

Ka mea a Rata:—“E hara, ko Tawhirimatea me tana whanau.”

Ka ngunguru a Matuku-tangotango i konei, kaore i roa ka puta te arero o te ahi ki roto whakapi ai.

Ka mea a Matuku-tangotango:—“Tahuaroa, e! Ko Mahuika! Ko Mahuika e haere nei ki roto. Huakina te tatau.”

Ka paoa mai e Matuku te tatau, ka pakaru, ka puta mai te upoko, e kumea ana i nga taura e toru kua oti ra te tatai, kau mau a Matuku-tangotango i konei, ka pau i te ahi, ka nonoti hoki te kaki i nga taura nei; katahi ano ka toia mai ki waho takoto ai.

Ka mauria mai nga iwi o Matuku-tangotango, o Pouhaokai, o Huri-whenua, hei tara wero manu, hei matau hi ika kauwaeroa. Ko te timatanga o te waihotanga i te iwi hei tara huata wero manu, hei matau hi ika, a te iwi maori.

Ka mutu. Ka ea te mate o te papa o Rata-i-te-pukenga, o Wahieroa; ka hoki mai a Rata-i-te-pukenga me tona ope taua ki tona whaea me tona tipuna, a Whakaiho-rangi. Ka mutu tenei take korero i konei.

1   Cf. Pakiwara, a Maori word meaning “naked.”
2   Western—EDITOR.