Volume 32 1923 > Volume 32, No. 125 > Tetahi wahi o te whakaakonga i roto i te whare-wananga, na Nepia Pohuhu, p 1-9
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TETAHI WAHI O TE WHAKAAKONGA I ROTO I TE WHARE-WĀNANGA NA NEPIA POHUHU.

HE kupu atu tenei naku ki a koe, kia marama ai koe ki nga whatu—te whanau-puhi, i korerotia ake ra e taua—a Tama-nui-te-ra, te marama, me o raua taina, ko Koria, ko Te Ahu-rangi, Te Rangi-taupiri; ko ratou nga Pou-tiri-ao; kei a ratou e tauhere ana te marama.

Ka mea a Tāne-matua, “Tukua ki te marama te tauhere o te timu, o te pari mai o te tai.” Ka mea a Tupai, “Ko ‘Tuahiwi-nui-o-Hine-moana’ hei tatai i nga tuatea, kia ngawari ai te whakahoro mai ki tenei taha, ki tera taha hoki.” Ka tono hoki a Tupai ki a Tāne kia poua nga whetu hei hoa mo te marama ki ‘Tuahiwi-nui-o-Hine-moana.’

Kia marama ano koe: He wa to nga mea katoa—to Papa, to Rangi. Kaore he mea e taea te ki no Papa anake, no Rangi anake. Kua oti nga mea katoa i a raua me to raua whanau te whakatau ki tāna wahi, ki tana wahi, o ia ahua, o ia ahua. Koia i na rawa ai katoa nga mea katoa—nga whetu, te ra, te marama—he wahi enei no Papa, no Rangi. Pera hoki kei nga rangi 11 (? 12). He ao hoki nga whetu, te ra, te marama, he wahi no Papa-tua-nuku. No te wehenga i a Papa, i a Rangi e tu iho nei, ka hoatu e Tāne me nga Pou-tiri-ao he ahua ke mo ratou. He Pou-tiri-ao to ia whetu, to ia marama, to ia ra. Pera hoki ra to nga rangi 11 (? 12).

Na Tāne me nga Pou-tiri-ao i hoatu he ahua mo nga mea katoa, i tona ahua, i tona ahua ano. I hoatu e Tāne me nga Pou-tiri-ao te wai, te ahi, hei taki, hei whakatipu, hei rauhī, i nga mea katoa, ahakoa otaota, rakau, ngarara, ika, me te tangata—koia tera te kaitiaki i a ratou katoa.

Ki te kore te wai, ko te ahi anake, he mea mate nga mea katoa. Ko Papa-tua-nuku ia te whare hei whakaahuru, hei manaaki, e toitu ana te ora o nga mea katoa. Otira, ki te kore nga Pou-tiri-ao hei tiaki i te turanga o ia mea, o ia mea, te haere a ia mea, a ia mea, te mahi a ia mea, a i mea, na konei i toitu ai nga mea katoa. Mei kore nga Pou-tiri-ao kua tau-patupatu nga mea katoa ki a ratou ano.

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Ka whakaaro a Io koi whakamarama nga Pou-tiri-ao ki tana mahi, ki tāna mahi, ka tupu ake he mea he; i te mea ko nga Pou-tiri-ao te ariki o nga mea katoa. I a Papa-tua-nuku, i a Rangi-nui, ka tukua mai e Io-mata-ngaro nga Whatu-kura, hei tiaki hei awhina i nga Pou-tiri-ao. I konei ka hiki te mana-ariki ki nga Whatu-kura; i te mea kua mau te mana-ariki ki nga Whatu-kura, kua takahautia nga Pou-tiri-ao katoa i a Papa-tua-nuku, i a Hine-moana, i a Rangi-nui, i nga kapua. I te kauwhanga o Rangi, o Papa, ka waiho nga mea katoa i nga Whatu-kura, ka waiho nga mea katoa e nga Whatu-kura i a Io-mata-ngaro anake te mana-arikitanga me te atuatanga. No reira kua waiho nga Whatu-kura hei hoa mo nga Pou-tiri-ao, hei tomotomo i nga rangi ngahuru-ma-rua, nga Whatu-kura, me nga kauwhanga 11, me Papa-tua-nuku tae atu ki Te Muri-wai-hou, ki Raro-henga.

Ka tuturu nga mea katoa—i te whenua, i nga wai, i nga rakau, i nga otaota, i nga kowhatu, i nga kohu, i nga kapua, i nga whetu, i nga marama, i nga ra o nga ao katoa i roto i nga rangi nga-huru-ma-rua. Ko nga Whatu-kura me nga Pou-tiri-ao ki tāna mahi, ki tāna mahi, i tona tūnga, i tona tūnga. E whakamau katoa ana nga whatu o nga Whatu-kura ki a Io-taketake. Koia i riro ai te mana-atua o nga Pou-tiri-ao i nga Whatu-kura, koia i riro ai te mana-atuatanga o nga Whatu-kura i a Io-te-waiora.

Ka kite koe, kua whaiti te atuatanga ki a Io anake; koia i riro ai Te Toi-o-nga-rangi hei tapu. I te mea kei a Io-mata-ngaro anake te mana o nga atua katoa, koia i kiia ai enei ingoa ki a ia:—Io-nui, Io-wānanga o nga rangi, Io-te-waiora o nga mea katoa, Io-taketake o nga mea katoa, Io-matua o nga mea katoa. Na enei ingoa katoa, e tauhere ana i nga mea katoa i nga rangi-tuhaha, tae mai ki Te Muri-wai-hou, ki Rarohenga, i a Io anake. I konei ka kiia tetahi o ona ingoa, ko Io-matua-te-kore, ko ia anake ia. No reira kaore he mea e tu rawaho ana i a ia. Kei roto i a ia nga mea katoa.

Kati tenei whakamarama aku ki a koe. Kua whakaatu au ki a koe, na te wai, na te ahi nga mea katoa i tipu ai, i ora ai. Otira, ki te kore te whenua hei rauhī, hei whare mo nga mea katoa, kaore e taea e te wai e te ahi te pupuri te ora o nga mea katoa. Ka marama i konei ko te whenua te matua o te wai, o te ahi, me nga mea katoa. Otira ki te kore a Rangi i moe i a Papa-tua-nuku, e kore e whai ahua nga mea katoa. No reira, na te tāne, na te wahine i whai ahua ai nga mea katoa. Otira, mehemea kaore nga Whatu-kura, kua kore he mana-atua mo nga mea katoa. Ki te kore a Io hei paihere i nga atuatanga katoa, kua tau-patupatu he (? te) haere a nga mea katoa. Na Io ka tika; na Io i wehewehe te mana-atua ki nga mea katoa, i te ahua ano o nga mea katoa. Kaore hoki e tika kia kiia, he mea nui anake nga mea katoa; no reira he mea iti ano i roto i - 3 nga mea katoa. Ka rite te titiro a Io i konei ki nga mea katoa tae noa ki te mea iti rawa o nga mea katoa.

I konei ka marama tatou katoa, he wairua to nga mea katoa, he ora to nga mea katoa, he mate to nga mea katoa. Na, kua kiia e au, ko te oneone te whare o nga mea katoa, ko ia te matua o nga mea katoa. I runga i tenei, e tika ana he uha ta nga mea katoa, hei whare mo nga mea katoa, i tona ahua, i tona ahua, i tona turanga, i tona turanga. Ki te kore te uha, kua kore he uri o nga mea katoa. No konei, na te uha nga mea katoa i tipu ai, i ora ai, kia whai mana ai te atua ki roto i nga mea katoa.

Koia nei hoki te take o nga Marei-kura i Te Toi-o-nga-rangi, he whare whakatipu i nga Whatu-kura. Pera hoki nga Pou-tiri-ao. No reira kia marama, ahakoa he kowhatu, he tipu tona, he ora tona, he ahi tona, he wairua tona i tona ahua ano. Ki te kore enei i roto i te kowhatu e kore e hoatu he ahua-a-kowhatu ki a ia—koi moumou. He aha te painga o nga tinitini whaioio o nga Pou-tiri-ao, o nga Whatu-kura, o nga Marei-kura, o nga Apa-wahine, ki te whakaahua noa i tetahi mea, kaore nei ona painga. No reira kia marama koe: He painga to nga mea katoa—i te iti tae rawa ki te mutunga o nga mea rahi. Mehemea kaore; ka moumou te tu o nga Pou-tiri-ao, me nga Whatu-kura, me nga Marei-kura, me nga Apa-wahine o nga rangi-tuhaha, ki te whakahaere, ki te tiaki i nga mea katoa. He wairua nei hoki enei no Io-mata-ngaro. Kati taku whakamarama mo tenei.

Kia tuturu i konei, ka waiho te mana-ariki, te mana-tapu te mana-ora, te mana-atuatanga, ki roto ki te ringa o Io. Ka whaiti nga mea katoa i konei ki tona aroaro i roto i nga rangi ngahuru-ma-rua tae noa mai ki a Papa-tua-nuku, tae noa ki Te Muri-wai-hou, ki Rarohenga. Kati tenei.

Ko te mate, he mea pokanoa; i te mea kaore ano nga Pou-tiri-ao i tae noa ki tona turanga, ki tona turanga, kia tau-patupatu nga mea katoa ki a ratou ano. Koia te ngarara i whakatakoto pakanga ai ma ratou; te otaota o te whenua, he pakanga ano tana; te moana, he pakanga ano tana; nga ika, he pakanga ano tana; he wai, he ahi, nga kapua, he tangata, te marama, te ra, nga atua, te mate, he pakanga katoa a ena. Koia i whakaaro ai a Io-matua i te mea ko ia te matua o nga mea katoa, ka wehewehe nga Pou-tiri-ao me nga Whatu-kura, kia tauwehe i nga mea katoa, kia hangai te haere, me te mahi o nga mea katoa ki tāna mahi, ki tāna mahi. Ahakoa ko te kirikiri ko te mea iti ra, he mahi ano tana. Koia i tika ai te haere a nga mea katoa. Engari, i te mea kaore ano nga Pou-tiri-ao me nga Whatu-kura, kua kai ano ratou i a ratou ano; kua patu hoki ratou i a ratou—tē ora nga mea katoa o te ao.

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Koia te take i pakaru ai nga Pou-tiri-ao, ko etahi ki te pakanga, ko etahi ki te maunga-rongo. Ka riro i a Whiro me ana hoa te mana o te pakanga me te mate. Ko te mana o te maunga-rongo me te ora ka riro i a Tāne. Ko nga mea katoa e whakaae ana ki te pakanga ko Whiro-te-tipua te kai-arahi; nga mea katoa e whakaae ana ki te maunga-rongo ko Tāne te kai-arahi. Ko nga Whatu-kura te kai-paihere o te maunga-rongo me te ora. Kaori i mau enei pakanga no reira mai tae mai ki naianei. Engari he wa to nga mea katoa i te aroaro o nga Pou-tiri-ao, o nga Whatu-kura.

Ka marama koe i konei, kotahi te ariki, ko tahi te atua, kotahi te wairua; kei a ia e mau ana te maunga-rongo, te ora. He mea tenei i heke mai i a Io ki nga rangi-tuhaha tae noa mai ki a Papa-tua-nuku. Ko te mate kua pangaia ki tenei ao, ki waho i nga rangi-tuhaha. He wa to te mate, he wa to te ora, pera nga mea katoa.

He Whakaatu tenei naku ki a koe koi awangawanga koe ki tenei kaupapa korero—he mea tuturu tenei no te Whare wānanga. Koia tenei te kaupapa o te wānanga. Mau e korero ki a Te Matorohanga raua ko Te Oka-whare, ma raua e whakahangai, e whakauru ranei, e takiri ranei. I a Te Matorohanga hoki te ahi-komau o te Whare-wānanga, he whakaahuru taku.

E Ta! ka pau nga kai o roto o te rua, ka tuwhera noa te tatau, he hau te kai o roto. Pera hoki te whare whakanoho; ki te tuwhera noa te tatau, he kainga mahue, he hau te kai o roto. Ina nga korero a ou tupuna a ou matua ka pau i a matou te wetewete atu ki a koe; ko matou he papa mo tenei mahi, na matou i haere i runga i te tutira ka takoto. Ka mutu nga korero a Nepia Pohuhu, o Wai-rarapa.

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THE MAORI PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE AND MATTER, ACCORDING TO THE TEACHING OF NEPIA POHUHU.
No. I.

THE Whare-wānanga was in ancient times the house of teaching, of learning—the Maori College in fact—in which young Maoris selected for their mental activity were taught the ancestral lore, and all manners of customs, etc., which went to form the education of the chiefs and the priesthood.

Nepia Pohuhu, who dictated to a couple of young and intelligent Maoris the following matter, was educated in all the learning of the Whare-wānanga, and passed all the examinations and ordeals considered necessary in that institution. A reference should be made to our “Memoirs,” Vol. III., for particulars of the mode of teaching in the Whare-wānanga, and in that publication is to be found much matter dictated by this same Nepia Pohuhu, besides other tohungas or priests. The following matter is adduced as a confirmation of much that is to be found in the volume quoted above; and it also shows the attempts made by the Maoris of old to explain life, the nature of things generally, and some of their beliefs.

To those who do not possess the volume quoted above, it is necessary to explain that the teaching of the Maori College proclaimed one supreme god, Io, with many attributes; a sky-father and earth-mother, who were the parents of the seventy minor gods; a number of other gods, or beings, called Whatu-kura, and their female companions the Marei-kuras, both being guardian gods of the twelve heavens—more like angels, if the term is allowable. There were also many Apa, or Messenger-gods, who communicated with the seventy gods—offspring of the sky-father and earth-mother. The Pou-tiri-ao were also guardian spirits of every thing in nature, on the earth and the heavens, subservient to the Whatu-kuras.

There are many things in what follows that are difficult to put concisely into English by adhering strictly to the original Maori language, and, therefore, many notes are added in the text within brackets [] to make the matter clearer, and in this the translator has had the assistance of one of those who took the matter down originally—now an old man of seventy-eight years of age. But even then one must remember what has been frequently told by learned men from various parts of the island, that the words used in these old stories have not always the meaning that is now placed upon them. - 6 This is probably the case. If it is remembered that those teachings have been going on for untold ages, expressed in the same words—for it was wrong to deviate from them—no wonder meanings may have changed. At one time Maoris, Rarotongans, Tahitians, and others, spoke exactly alike, but 500 years of separation has so changed the dialects that they are mutually understood only with difficulty. All languages change, who among us can read Saxon, the basis of so much of our English?

TRANSLATION.

“This is my word to you in order that you may be quite clear as to the whatu—the Whanau-puhi which we have already discussed—that is, Tama-nui-te-ra [the sun], Te Marama [the moon], and their younger relations, Koria, Te Ahu-rangi, Te Rangi-taupiri, who were the Pou-tiri-ao [guardian spirits]; it was they who held [governed] the moon [in its phases].

[We shall hear a good deal about the Pou-tiri-ao later on. Every thing in heaven and earth had its Pou-tiri-ao, which is best translated by ‘a guardian spirit.’ The Whanau-puhi includes the sun, the moon and the stars.]

Said the god Tāne-matua [Tāne-the-parent, so called because he formed the first woman; he had many other names], ‘Leave it to the moon to govern the ebb and flowing tides of the sea.’ Tupai [one of the gods] replied, ‘Let ‘Tuahiwi-nui-o-Hine-moana’ guide the waves of ocean, so that it may be easy for them to break on this side and on that.’ Tupai also begged Tāne to place some of the stars as companions for the moon at Tuahiwi-nui-o-Hine-moana. [This latter name translated as ‘The great ridge of Hine-moana,’ the last name being emblematical for the ocean, is supposed to be a certain place in the ocean between New Zealand and Tahiti from whence came the ancestors of the Maoris, where fierce storms are met with. But it is also supposed to be a name signifying the Milky Way in the skies].

You must also be quite clear on this point: Everything has a space of its own—of the earth (Papa) and of heaven (Rangi). There is no thing of which it can be said it belongs to the earth alone, or to the heavens above. Everything has been assigned a place by those two and their family, of whatever kind it may be. Hence all things belong to them, the stars, the sun, the moon—all of these are places belonging to them. It is the same with the eleven heavens. 1 The stars, the sun, the moon, are all worlds, they are places of Papa-tua-nuku [the earth-mother]. When Papa and Rangi were separated, Tāne and the Pou-tiri-ao gave them a separate appearance—each - 7 star, each sun, each moon has its own Pou-tiri-ao [guardian spirit]: each of the eleven 2 heavens has its guardian spirit.

It was the god Tāne and the Pou-tiri-ao who gave to each thing its separate appearance [nature, properties]. They also gave the water, and the fire to guide them, cause growth, and refresh all things, whatever their nature, whether vegetation, trees, lizards, fish and also man; those were their guardians.

If there is no water, only fire, all things would die. Papa-tua-nuku [the earth] is the house which gives support and entertains, thus allowing life to all things. But it is the Pou-tiri-ao that guards each thing in its position, in its conduct, its work, and hence all things remain [in each one's position]. If it were not for them each thing would constantly strive against the other.

The supreme god Io decreed that each Pou-tiri-ao should not [be at liberty to] determine its own functions, or things would go wrong, for they were the lords [directors] of every thing. In the times of Papa-tua-nuku [the earth-mother] and Rangi-nui [the sky-father], Io-mata-ngaro [Io-the-hidden-face—the supreme god] appointed the Whatu-kura [higher class of guardians] as rulers and helpers for the Pou-tiri-ao. Thus the măna-ariki [over-lordship] was placed on the Whatu-kura, and since this is so, the Pou-tiri-ao became subservient to Papa-tua-nuku, Hine-moana and Rangi-nui and the clouds. In the plane [? region, abode] of Rangi and Papa everything was given over by the Whatu-kuras to Io-mata-ngaro [supreme god], the over-lordship and the functions of a god. And hence the Whatu-kuras became the companions of the Pou-tiri-ao, and had the entry of the twelve heavens and the eleven kauwhanga [planes], the earth, even to the Muri-wai-hou at Raro-henga [hades].

[The functions of] all things are determined—on the lands, the waters, the trees, the weeds, the stones, the mists, the clouds, the stars, the moons, the suns, of all the worlds within the twelve heavens. The Whatu-kuras, the Pou-tiri-ao, each had its own duties in each of their own spheres [of action]. Each Whatu-kura looked to Io-taketake [the supreme god] and thus the god-functions of the Pou-tiri-ao were taken by them, and the power of the god-functions belonged to Io-te-waiora [the supreme god].

You now see that all god-like functions centred in Io alone, and thus is it that Te Toi-o-nga-rangi [uppermost heaven] is so tapu. In consequence of the powers of all the gods being vested in Io-mata-ngaro [supreme god] alone, he had the following names: Io-nui, Io-wānanga-o-nga-rangi, Io-te-waiora-o-nga-mea-katoa, Io-taketake-o-nga-mea-katoa, Io-matua-o-nga-mea-katoa. By these names are - 8 ‘bound’ everything in the conjoint heavens—even to Te Muri-wai-hou at Rarohenga [Hades]; they all belonged to Io alone. And now another name becomes his, Io-matua-te-kore [Io-the-parentless], he is self-created. Hence there is nothing without him; within him are all things.

Enough of this explanation to you. I have told you already that it is by water and fire that all things grow and live. But with the earth to refresh and be a ‘house’ for all things; water and fire alone could not preserve all things. It is thus clear that the earth is the parent of water, fire, and all things. But had not Rangi [the sky-father] married Papa-tua-nuku [the earth-mother] nothing would have possessed ahua [form]. And from this [it may be gathered] that it is through the male and female that each thing has its [separate] form. But without the Whatu-kuras nothing would have possessed the mana-atua [god-like influence]; and without Io to bind [restrain] all god-like functions, there would be constant strife its all things. By Io all things go right, and it is he that allocates to each thing its [share of] god-like powers, and their duties. It is not right to say that everything is great, important; because there are small and unimportant things in everything; and everything great and small, is subject to the oversight of Io.

Now, it is clear to us that everything has a spirit of its own, as well as life and death. I have already said that earth is the parent [? foster-parent] of all things; and from this it is true that each thing has a female kind which acts as a ‘house’ [receptacle] according to its different kind and purpose. Were it not for the female there would be no descendants [propagation] of anything; it is through the female that things have life and growth, and thus allows the god to possess power within them [? as to last few words].

This [the above] is also the reason for the Marei-kura [female gods] within the Toi-o-nga-rangi [the uppermost heaven], they are a sacred ‘house’ in which the Whatu-kuras are bred, and it is the same with the Pou-tiri-ao. Be clear on this: Whether it be [even] a stone, it has its growth, its life, its fire, and a spirit of its particular kind. If the stone did not contain these, properties, it would not have a stony nature—it would be wasted. What would be the good of the innumerable Pou-tiri-aos, Whatu-kuras, Marei-kuras, and the female Apas, forming anything without utility? Hence be ye clear! Everything has its good [its use] even from the tiniest thing to the very largest. If it were not so it would be superfluous to appoint the Pou-tiri-aos, the Whatu-kuras, the Marei-kuras and the apawahine of the conjoint heavens to supervise and guard everything. For all these are spirits of Io-mata-ngaro. Enough of my teaching on this subject.

It is now finally determined that the măna-ariki [over-lordship], - 9 the măna-tapu [the sacred power], the măna-ora [power of life], the măna-atuatanga [the power of god-ship] are all held within the hands of Io. All things in the twelve heavens are gathered within his presence as are those of the earth, even unto Te Muri-wai-hou at Raro-henga [Hades].

Death is an interloper; were it not for the Pou-tiri-aos in each of their separate functions, all things would be at strife with one another. The reptiles, the vegetation, the ocean, the fish, the water, the fire, the clouds, mankind, the moon, the sun, the gods, death, all [would] have their mutual strife. Hence Io-matua, as the parent of all things, decreed that the Pou-tiri-aos and the Whatu-kuras and all things should be separate [have separate functions] so that all should be orderly, each performing its own work. Even the tiny gravel has its functions. Thus is it that everything is orderly. But, were it not for the Pou-tiri-aos and the Whatu-kuras, each thing would prey on its kind; they would kill one another; nothing in the world would live.

Thus it is that the Pou-tiri-aos were ‘broken up,’ some to strife, some to peace-making. Strife and death were relegated to Whiro [the evil spirit, or god of Hades]; whilst that of peace and life was the function of the god Tāne. All things that consent to [believe in] strife, Whiro-te-tipua is their leader; those who consent to peace, Tāne is their leader. The Whatu-kuras are the ‘binders’ [restrainers] tending to peace and life. All this strife has existed [from the wars of the gods] down to the present time. But every-thing has its own place in the presence of the Pou-tiri-aos and the Whatu-kuras.

You will now be quite clear; there is one lord, one god, one spirit, in whom are vested peace and life; and this [belief] has descended from Io through the conjoint heavens even down to the earth. Death was cast out from the conjoint heavens to this world; both life and death, as all things, have their own sphere [of action].

I am explaining to you this line of teaching lest you should have any doubt; all of it is the true teaching from the Whare-wānanga; this is the ‘platform’ of learning. You can ask Te Matorohanga and Te Oka-whare; they can apply it [this teaching] and confirm it—or reject it. Te Matorohanga has possession of the permanent fire of the Whare-wānanga; mine is simply the warmth.

O Son! where the contents of a rua [store-house] are consumed and the door left open, there is nothing but air inside. It is the same with a dwelling, if the door is left open, it means an abandoned house—nothing but air inside. In like manner the teaching of your ancestors, of your parents, has been unfolded to you; we are the foundation of this teaching, and we follow the [true] line laid down.”

[Nepia Pohuhu's teaching ends here—adds the Seribe.]

1   There are twelve heavens, but the highest is not included. In this last dwelt Io the supreme god.
2   There are twelve heavens, but the highest is not included. In this last dwelt Io the supreme god.