Volume 34 1925 > Volume 34, No. 134 > Supplementary Tongan vocabulary, by E. E. V. Collocott, p 146-169
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SUPPLEMENTARY TONGAN VOCABULARY.

[The publication of vocabularies has been viewed as one of the most useful activities of the Polynesian Society, hence we welcome the following contribution from Mr. Collocott. Those acquainted with the Maori dialect of the far-spread Polynesian language will recognise many words in the following list, albeit concealed to some extent by certain letter changes. Some of the words included are of special interest, such as the following:—

Ala-folau, canoe house; Fakafolau, migratory birds. Here we have the Polynesian word folau “to travel,” “to voyage,” from which come the Maori wharau, a canoe shed, a rude hut erected by travellers, as also wharau-roa, the cuckoo, the far-travelled or migratory bird. Farau and halau denote a canoe shed in the Tahitian and Hawaiian dialects. Tahitian tafarau and Maori tawharau mean to shelter a canoe by placing it in a shed.

Baniolo is probably the equivalent of Maori Paniora=Spaniard.

Buonoono, nose flute. Here bu is probably the Maori pu, as in pu kaea, pu torino, etc., well known wind instruments. Fagufagu would probably be whangowhango in Maori.

Fai, to pluck, recalls Maori whaki, as in Maori whawhaki, to pluck off.

Matatuna, top of cocoanut. Possibly an allusion to the well known myth concerning the origin of the cocoanut and Tuna, the eel.

Hila, lightning, is uira in Maori, uila in Samoan, while uhila is a Tongan form. The Maori has also, apparently, preserved the form hira, to flash, as in “Hira mai te whekite o te rangi,” a phrase met with in certain old formulæ.

Hina, the moon, is far-spread as Hina and Sina, the female personified form of the moon.

Lei mangamanga is probably connected with the rei of Atiu, described by Colonel Gudgeon at p. 210 of Vol XIII. of this Journal.

Mauli, alive, is another far-spread term in its various forms, mauri, tamauri, mouri, moui and maui. Life, living, life principle are meanings attached to it.

Matofi, a phase of the moon, compares with Maori Rakau-matohi.

Tolo is marked doubtful, but tolo and toro, to generate is a far-spread word, and appears in Tiki-toro, Tiki the Generator. In connection with plant life the term tinaku was employed, hence the name of the “mother” of the kumara, Pani-tinaku.

Tubua. The meanings of “sacred, wonderful, ancient,” assigned to this highly interesting term throw more light on some puzzling uses of the word in ancient compositions. The general meaning in our local Maori dialect is “supernormal, uncanny.”

Under Counting we find that kauika denotes 20 in counting fish, and here we have the old Polynesian term kau, an assembly, a multitude, etc., te kau being an old term employed to denote 20.—Editors.]

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THIS small list of Tongan words is intended to supplement the well known dictionary of Dr. Shirley Baker, which is founded on that of the Rev. S. Rabone. This is referred to in this list as Baker. The French and Tongan Dictionary of the Marist Mission is referred to as Dictionnaire Toga-Français. No attempt has been made to include here all words which occur in the latter dictionary but not in Baker, though some few words which have been encountered casually in other places, but which are included in the Marists' publication, are inserted here, sometimes with meanings taken from their book. A few words which occur in Baker have also been included when it has seemed possible to add something to his explanation. It is not to be presumed that this supplementary list taken in conjunction with the two dictionaries referred to form an adequate Tongan dictionary. This is merely an attempt to contribute my very small quota to the task of the future dictionary-maker by putting in permanent and easily accessible form words which I have from time to time encountered in conversation, and in the reading of Tongan poems and tales, some of them in manuscript and some printed, mainly in Koe Makasini, the Tongan magazine founded, and long edited, by the late Rev. Dr. Moulton. Much of the manuscript material to which I have had access was collected by him.

Although some words are included from easily accessible printed sources, for example, Mr. E. W. Gifford's Tongan Myths and Tales (Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu, 1924), and a very few from the masterpiece of Tongan composition, Dr. Moulton's Translation of the Bible, no effort has been made to include all words from sources which are in no danger of disappearing or being overlooked. The few words from the Bible are such as have casually come under my notice. If the highly desirable task of compiling a satisfactory and adequate dictionary of the Tongan language be ever undertaken there is little likelihood of words printed in the Bible, or in Hymn Books, being missed.

Too frequently I have had to admit my ignorance of the meaning of a word. This illustrates one of the disadvantages of compiling, or completing, such a list at a distance from the country where the language is spoken. Where I have marked a word as of uncertain meaning it is not to be presumed that the word is rare. “Meaning uncertain” is - 148 merely a confession of my own ignorance. This list is not the fruit of systematic collection of words. It has been compiled more or less casually, and doubtless as much has been missed as is included.

Through the inspiration, and under the guidance, of Mr. A. R. Brown and the Hon. William Tungi, a committee was formed in 1918 to compile a dictionary, but, for various reasons, ceased to function after a few meetings. The need that a dictionary should include all forms in which a root is found will be readily appreciated by those who have noted the readiness with which consonants drop out in the Oceanic languages. There are, moreover, in Tongan, as in all languages, words which do not lie on the surface, some of which perhaps are obsolete or obsolescent, whilst others, though well known to the native, do not come within the ken of the foreigner even after years of use of the language. Until dictionaries are compiled including all words conclusions as to distribution of various streams of migration may rest upon insecure foundations insofar as philological evidence is relied upon.

There are words included in this list which are felt by the Tongans to be loan words, largely from Fiji; there are other words which by their form suggest borrowing from Fiji or Samoa, but are not felt as loan words by the present-day Tongan. Bards seem frequently to embellish their compositions with such evidences of foreign erudition. My purpose has been, not to settle all the difficulties which the dictionary-maker will meet, but to ensure that he will have at his disposal the small amount of material which I have collected, and to afford some slight assistance to anyone who may desire to read the Tongan poems and tales, and also to indicate the meanings of words which one may hear in conversation but not find in his dictionary.

In orthography I fear that I have not lessened the confusion that already exists. Two consonants have had especially harsh treatment in Tongan, b or p, and s or j. B and p are both used by Mariner who was in the group at the beginning of the 19th century, b alone is used by the English Methodist Mission, and p alone by the French Catholic Mission. Dr. Baker used both. The dictionary committee of 1918, which included representatives of the Government, and of the English and French mission bodies, decided, undoubtedly correctly, to employ but one symbol for - 149 a sound which it is sometimes difficult to distinguish as voiced or unvoiced. The practical difficulty of deciding whether it was to be b or p remained unsolved in the few meetings that were held. I have written b, not as an expression of my opinion that it is the better symbol to employ, but because it is used in by far the most important part of existing Tongan literature. As a matter of personal preference I have come to think that if a fresh start could be made p would be the better symbol.

The English Methodists wrote j, and the French Catholics s to indicate a sound which Mariner writes ch. This sound is always followed by i, and corresponds to the Samoan ti; but the pronunciation ch, which I have heard from an elderly Tongan, has practically disappeared, and in present-day Tongan the sound is hardly, if at all, distinguishable from English s. There are also words in which s is not followed by i, some of which may be genuine Tongan words, whilst others may have come later into the language, probably from Samoa and Fiji. I have in this list provisionally written s throughout, although the 1918 committee decided to use j before i, and there was even, if I remember rightly, a proposal to try to revive the old pronunciation ch. Such an attempt to arrest the progress of phonetic change would probably prove abortive. Should the dictionary-maker decide to employ j to represent the old pronunciation ch examination of Samoan cognates will generally settle the question of s or j. All occurrences of s not followed by i will be examined bearing in mind the possibility of their having come late, or very late, into the language, though it must be noted that Mariner uses s in a few words; but this, of course, does not rule out the possibility of borrowing.

The stop ('), which is too often neglected in writing Tongan, I have endeavoured to put in. One feels, however, the disadvantage of absence from the country in dealing with a matter which requires such delicate discrimination, and quite probably I have committed errors both of omission and inclusion. Indeed, the whole paper abounds with indications of my ignorance, and other workers will, doubtless, find many inadequacies.

To the list of words I have added a note on measuring and counting, which, although not wide enough to include - 150 all the specific words used in counting and measuring various classes of objects, will, I hope, illustrate the principles sufficiently clearly.

A few proverbial expressions also are added. My friend the Rev. John Havea and myself collaborated in a collection of proverbs which was published by the Bishop Museum (Proverbial Sayings of the Tongans, Honolulu, 1922), and the proverbs appended here are some that have come to hand since the publication of that paper. As in the larger collection I have translated each Tongan phrase literally, and added some explanation of its use. My obligations to Tongan friends are innumerable, especially to the Revs. John Havea and John Kuli, Miss Alice Ahio, Hon. William Tungi, and to several of the youths who were my pupils at the Tubou College, Nafualu. A number of published works have been consulted, but especial use has been made of Edward Tregear's Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary (Wellington, 1891). Hazelwood's A Fijian and English and an English and Fijian Dictionary (Waterlow and Sons, Ltd., London, 1914), Pratt's Grammar and Dictionary of the Samoan Language (Samoa, 1911), the Marist Mission's Dictionnaire Toga-Français et Français-Toga-Anglais (Paris, 1890), and the Rev. Shirley W. Baker's An English and Tongan Vocabulary, also a Tongan and English Vocabulary (Auckland, 1897). There are a few references in the vocabulary to a paper on Tongan Astronomy and Calendar (Bishop Museum Press, Hawaii, 1922). A visit to Niua Fo'ou in 1922 gave me a few words of the dialect of that island, which differs somewhat from that spoken in the main portion of the Tongan Group. These have been included in the present vocabulary. Some brief notes on this dialect appeared in the Journal of the Polynesian Society, Vol. XXXI., No. 4.

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    A.
  • 'A, preposition or case particle used before common and proper nouns and pronouns, indicating the commonest of all relations with verbs, viz., those of subject and object. Should both object and subject be expressed 'a is used before the object and 'e before the subject or agent. Before common nouns 'a coalesces with the article e.
  • A'alo-loto, man who rows amidships. Seems to have been practically a technical term as applied to the middle man in the crew of the tafa'aga.
  • Aasi, look, search.
  • Ai, who (Niua Fo'ou). Ko ai? Who?
  • 'Ai, sometimes placed between subject pronoun and verb, emphasising the verb. Te ke 'ai 'alu koe? Are you going?
  • Aituo, meaning uncertain, possibly a joyful shout, especially in connection with a wedding. There is a Tongan text which uses the word of a chief absconding secretly with a girl.
  • Aivalu, meaning uncertain, possibly eight-fold.
  • Ao, (i) face, smooth side, of mats; (ii) forked stick to catch fish; (iii) circular rib in basket; (iv) useful (cf. aoga).
  • 'Ao, thy.
  • Aofaga, fold of turban.
  • Aofaga-tuku, final thing, completion.
  • Aofi chief's taovala (cincture worn as sign of respect).
  • Aofi-vala chief's taovala (cincture worn as sign of respect).
  • Aofaki, include; name certain individuals and be understood to include others whom the named individuals represent.
  • 'Au, cut off, lop (cf. 'au'ulu, 'auhani, prune, 'au'uno, scale fish).
  • Aua, don't (Niua Fo'ou).
  • 'Aua, A'aua, talk about, talked about. Same root appears in A'au, Fakaa'au, Fakaa'aua. Hoto hiki 'aua, or a'aua, my being bandied about in conversation.
  • Aue, an exclamation. Alas, oh dear.
  • Auu, to remain for a long time in water; to be completely immersed.
  • 'Au'ulu, to cut the leaves from a tree; also applied adjectivally to a tree with the leaves cut off, especially a cocoanut.
  • 'Aufoe, 'Au'aufoe shedding dead, decayed, parts; used either as verb or noun. It is applied, for example, to the falling of leaves from a dead tree.
  • 'Aufua, a word used in the game of lafo, to throw a piece which does not strike against other pieces.
  • 'Aulala, to take off outer hard bark of bamboo to serve as a knife.
  • Aumai, bring here (Niua Fo'ou).
  • Aumama, chewed (applied to kava prepared in the old way by grinding with the teeth).
  • A'umanoa, gone to the full length of the cord (manoa); gone away, gone as far as possible. Manoa is the cord by which the decoy pigeon was tied. There are frequent figurative uses of expressions such as this. Expressions relating to the pigeon, lube, are often used of women.
  • Auta, meaning uncertain. Suggested by some that perhaps the word means tattooers, in which case it would be the Samoan form of a word whose Tongan form would be kau-ta. The best tattooers are said by the Tongans to come from Samoa.
  • Autafa, edge (cf. tafa'aki). Used in one text of the edge of the sea; Bea 'alu 'a Havea he autafa, And Havea went along the edge.
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  • Auto, fly down, settle.
  • Abaaba, space in house between mat and wall.
  • 'Abiaga, agreement, in agreement.
  • 'Abisia, a word applied to such a ceremony as a marriage or funeral, and indicating apparently its close connection with, and great importance to, the home ('abi).
  • Afa, last fruits of the baogo (species of pandanus).
  • Afi, lit, fire, sometimes applied abusively to the eye.
  • Afuafu, damp, sweating.
  • Agaagakehe, strange, different (cf. agakehe, Baker).
  • Agatoka, meaning uncertain; perhaps, calm, subdued. Bea agatoka e otu Talava, Bea oku agatoka 'a Futuna.
  • Agavale, euph. for break wind.
  • Agavalea, unbecoming, bad (rather a mild and respectful word fit for application to chiefs).
  • Agiagi-fano, shifting breeze.
  • Ahe'ia, an exclamation, found in some poems marking a change of topic.
  • Ahoia, overtaken by day. Kuo nau faikava 'o ahoia, They drank kava till daylight. Applied also to certain phases of the moon.
  • 'Aka, move the feet, go.
  • 'Aka'aka, mischievous, unpleasant, evil. Bulotu 'aka'aka, unfriendly land of death.
  • 'Aka-fute, kick wildly.
  • Akaluku, stir.
  • Ake, (i) come ashore; (ii) construct, build.
  • Akea, come ashore.
  • 'Akivao, meaning uncertain.
  • 'Akivava, surround.
  • 'Aku, my.
  • Ala, road (Niua Fo'ou).
  • Alafolau, canoe house.
  • Alamea, one form of sweet-smelling wreath, or necklace.
  • Alelea, discuss, confer (cf. alea).
  • 'Aliki, chief. Hau 'aliki, chiefs (Niua Fo'ou).
  • 'Alo, privates of the Tui Tonga.
  • 'Alo'iloa, know, expect, anticipate; generally, if not always, preceded by a negative.
  • Aloua, a star name, seems to mean Two-oared.
  • Alofaga, rowing, paddling.
  • Ama, windward side of a boat.
  • Amoga, star name. (For Samoan Pratt gives this as the name of Orion's Belt.
  • Amu. desire, wish.
  • Amuamu, desire, wish.
  • Anaua, longing for.
  • Asi, those who stay at home in house set apart during fishing expedition, fale siu, and prepare reception for the fishermen.
  • Asi seems sometimes to be equivalent to hou'eiki, chiefs, e.g., asi toutai, the chiefs, gentry, who are fishing (cf. Fij. Andi, which is applied to ladies of rank, Sam. Ati, chiefs).
  • Asi occurs in Tongan as part of some chiefly women's names, and may also be used as a common name meaning chiefly woman, e.g., Asi mei Nukualofa, Chiefly lady from Nukualofa.
  • Asihau, attendants (lahi) of king.
  • Asili, (cf. asi, reach, penetrate), increase (see Baker), happen, result. Bea asili ita ai 'ae fonua, And the land became the more angry; Asili ai ene buke, His sickness grew worse.
  • 'Atafaga, strand, beach.
  • Atahala, know, imagine, dream of, 'Oku 'ikai teu atahala, I wouldn't dream of it (syns. Ma'alifekina, mahafehafea, v. Baker).
  • Atea, complete destitution, complete failure, having nothing.
  • Ato, appear, approach, come to land.
  • Atua, spirit, god (Niua Fo'ou).
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  • Atumalie (i) when the atu (albicore) rise to the surface; (ii) frequently used as a nick-name (higoa fakatenetene) of the chief fisherman.
  • Ava'i baka, hole (ava) where the baka (a shell fish) lives. Ava'i may mean “hole in,” or “hole for.” Baker has examples of both uses.
  • Avaui, name of a place in Mua where there was a sanctuary (hufaga).
  • Ava-loa, big opening, may be either a wide, or a deep, opening.
  • Aveave, a plant (codiaeum variegatum).
  • Avi, complete one's preparations.
    E.
  • E, mark of address, or exclamation used in calling anybody.
  • E, definite article. Very often obscured by coalescence with prepositions (or case particles), ko (absolute), 'a (nom. and accus.), 'a (gen.), 'o (gen). There are occurrences of e which are difficult of analysis, the simple article standing where we would expect something to mark a genitive or locative, e.g., He koe levenivaka e kalia, For 'tis the women passengers of the kalia double sailing-canoe), e is genitive. See he.
  • E, time particle, usually indicating the future. Pratt, for Samoan, describes it as indicating the present tense, and implying that which is always the same, and cases are not infrequent in Tongan where its use approximates very closely to the Samoan usage, indicating time contemporaneous with that of the preceding clause. Ko Basikole koe tama e ula, Basikole (is, was) the man (showing himself) wise. Note, however, that in this and similar cases e may possibly be the def. art.
  • 'E, preposition, or case particle, used before proper and common nouns, and pronouns, indicating the agent.
  • E au (eu), I shall (Niua Fo'ou).
  • E e, yes, of course (Niua Fo'ou). Syn. Aua, Tongan.
  • Ei mai, give me (addressed to highest chiefs).
  • Eo, this word occurs in one text, and its meaning seems to be unknown. Compare Mangareva eo, to infect; to exhale a strong smell; Hawaiian, eo, reply, respond. A similar meaning to the Haw. would suit the Tongan passage in which the word is found.
  • 'Eua, pull, drag, tow.
  • Eba, mats presented at a wedding; mat dais on which bride and bridgegroom sit.
  • 'Efihaga, package carried under the arm. Cf. 'efi'efii, to carry under the arm.
  • 'Ele, desire, longing.
  • Emo, your (dual).
  • Ene, imminent.
  • Esi, those who put all their energy into a task, applied especially to young men and women.
  • Evehekina, taken about (cf. eva).
  • Evehia, go for a walk (?).
    I.
  • Ia, occurs frequently in Tongan, and more frequently in Niua Fo'ou, in positions in which it seems to emphasise verbal force of word it follows.
  • 'I-'ate, lit. pain in the liver, pained, grieved.
  • Iiki, small (cf. iki).
  • Ifi, a Tongan treatment for bad eyes.
  • Ifi-lele, blow bubbles. A strand of cocoanut fibre is bent into a loop and dipped into the sap of a tree. The film of sap which forms over the loop is blown, and thereby a bubble formed and detached.
  • Ifo, down (Niua Fo'ou).
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  • Ihu-vaka, long nosed (lit. nose like a boat).
  • Ila, of chiefly birth by one parent only. To say that a person is 'ila to a chief means that he is that chief's child by a common woman.
  • 'Ilo, eat, drink, smoke, etc. (applied to chiefs).
  • Ina, not found in Tongan, but used freely in Niua Fo'ou in way analogous to, but apparently with less definite meaning than, its use in Samoan.
    O.
  • O, name of a fish, belonging to same species as bokumei and leleva.
  • 'Oa, a kind of basket.
  • Oie, an interjection.
  • Oisouke, Oiseuke, exclamations approaching in force the English, Good gracious, Great Scot.
  • 'Ou, and I ('o au).
  • Ousoufo, with all one's might, at full speed.
  • Obe, (i) projecting edge of covering stone of burial vault; (ii) a person buried outside the vault under this projection.
  • Obea, carried by the waves.
  • 'Obo'obo, to turn the ends of the strips of bark cloth inwards to make an edge of uniform thickness.
  • Ofeaki, wavering, uncertain, bent (?).
  • Ohai, flame tree.
  • Ohofua, assault in force, rush strongly.
  • 'Okou, 'oku ou, sign of present tense and 1st. pers. sing. pron.
  • O-kona, to place in the fold at the top of the native kilt (kona); treasure, equivalent to 'ai kona.
  • 'Oku, mine.
  • Ola-vaha, kava bowl placed with hanger toward man who is making the kava instead of toward the chief (?)
  • Olo, go (dual and plural, Niua Fo'ou).
  • 'Oloua, second born. (Its use in I Sam. XV. 9, where RV translates “fatlings,” apparently follows, in dealing with a difficulty in the Heb. text, an explanation which regards young animals of the second birth as superior to firstlings.)
  • Olobubulu, hampered, delayed by the slowness of others.
  • Ololafoa, outwitted.
  • Ololani, a shrub bearing red flowers (foreign)
  • Olovaha, space between windward and leeward canoes in double sailing canoe.
  • Omo, your (dual).
  • Omoko, name of a plant (syn. fatai).
  • 'Otua, spirit, god; there is a text in which the word is applied to two men, Logoboa and Kae, members of a crew which set out for Bulotu, and there is also a line of a poem in which it is used of the Tu'i Toga, Koe Tu'i 'o mama mo 'otua.
  • Otu muomu'a, lit. front chain of islands. Applied in Vava'u to the southern islands, which are also called Otu Motu-lalo, and also by the people of Haapai to their southernmost islands, Nomuka and adjacent islands.
    U.
  • Ua, lit. two, second, is used in sense of mate, similar, like.
  • U'a, to eat.
  • Ua-lulu, a club, of which the striking end is shaped like an owl's head.
  • Uamulia, go back, delay, attend to things behind (cf. uimui B).
  • Uasi, raise by lever.
  • Uatau, noise.
  • 'Uoi, an exclamation approaching in force the English Oh, Ah.
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  • 'Uoiseuke, an exclamation of much same meaning as Oiseuke (q.v.).
  • U'ui, name of a small poisonous shellfish.
  • Ube, lullaby.
  • Ufia-taufia, eat, swallow.
  • Ugakikiva, name of a shellfish (Tongatabu name, called U'u in other parts of Group).
  • Ugako, “A small marine sessile animal with sharp spines dangerous to the feet.” (Gifford, Tonga Place Names, p. 9.).
  • Uhuaki, go in the morning; visit, especially with presentation of food and kava, to a chief (cf. Bogibogi).
  • Uhuekina (uhuaki), taking of food presentation to chief or god.
  • Uku-umea, wash the head with clay (a not very respectful term). See talaumea, taalofaki (Baker).
  • Ukufaki, dive for (cf. uku).
  • Ukufi, dive (cf. uku).
  • Ulualo, scented, sweet-smelling.
  • Ulu-ku, maimed hand.
  • Umesi strike (highest chiefly Umeumesi word).
  • Umiumi-noa, shamed, abashed.
  • Unnoi, name of a tree.
  • Unufo, thoroughly, strongly (cf. hokafo).
  • Usi, posteriors. (The king Mataele Ha'amea was called Mataele Usi-tea, Mataele Pale-rump, because he was not tattooed.)
  • Usulou, one type of spear (belonging apparently to Futuna).
  • Uta, landsman.
  • Uta'aga, a frequented place, place where one delights to be, a person to whom many resort.
  • Utu-feolo, a kind of mat (?)
  • Utufia, baled out (?)
  • Utu-kauga, a kind of mat.
    B.
  • Ba'aga-galu, farthest point to which the waves reach, hence, generally, extremity.
  • Baolo, meaning uncertain. (v Paolo Sam. shade, protection, name of a wind).
  • Ba'ulu, roar.
  • Ba'umutu, harlot. (Ba'u perhaps same word as Haw. Pau, a woman's garment, in which case ba'umutu would mean literally, short-skirt.)
  • Ba'utu, steep rock, cliff.
  • Babaga-eiki, many chiefs present.
  • Babakina, broken (baki).
  • Baba, floor mat.
  • Babai, a kind of necklace, or girdle. Perhaps name of plant of which it was made.
  • Babatu, strike (?)
  • Bagaikafa, red bark cloth on which no design is printed.
  • Bakagugu, crunch (Gifford, Tongan Myths and Tales.)
  • Bakakaua, explained as applied literally to a pigeon which strikes against the frame of the net and so does not enter the net, or to a pigeon which strikes the perch instead of alighting cleanly on it. Whilst exact explanation is doubtful context in which word occurs indicates that it means a pigeon (in this case as so often, a girl) who refuses to be easily caught.
  • Baki-moe-toi, pluck and drip, i.e., sweet - scented flowers from which sap drips when they are plucked. The expression is found also as a sort of nickname of the village of Mua.
  • Bakisi, thin, lean.
  • Bala'i-maea, piece of rope, especially piece of rope trailed overboard in rough weather as a life-saving device.
  • Balabala, new, recently-arrived, fresh, beautiful.
  • Balabu, blow gently (wind).
  • Balagi, name of a plant (its flower and leaf are used for scenting oil).
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  • Balakau, one type of leaf and flower neck wreath.
  • Balavi, rocky beach.
  • Bale, take away.
  • Bale, dress head with lime (chiefly word).
  • Bale-ao, bind head with turban.
  • Bamata, tender, sore.
  • Baniolo, a corruption of, probably, Hispaniola, and applied to some of the whaling ships which used to visit the Pacific groups.
  • Banu, good.
  • Basa, equal, in line with; Ta'aga basa, equally good poem.
  • Basabasa, very light in weight.
  • Bata, rejoice.
  • Batato, striking, rattling.
  • Bate'i, skilled, accustomed.
  • Bate-hobo, raised scar.
  • Batu-tau, stamp with rage.
  • Beau, i.e., bea au, and I.
  • Beau kula, great wave, tidal wave.
  • Bebetea, seems to mean literally white butterfly, and has been explained as referring to the white foam flying from the crests of wind-swept waves. Used figuratively p. 165, Gifford, Tongan Myths and Tales.
  • Bekia, death, dead; used occasionally for wearied, exhausted, but mate is much more generally employed in this sense.
  • Bekibaki, name of the sea creature popularly known as the blue-bottle.
  • Belu-kakaua, assist in reefing the sail whilst swimming alongside the boat.
  • Benebena, dress head with lime (chiefly); clean a boat.
  • Benu'i-niu, grated cocoanut from which the milk has been expressed. Syn. Kota.
  • Bikitogo, name of a shellfish (Vavau name, called Tuila in Tongatabu).
  • Bili, to oil bark cloth.
  • Bilibili, long time (Niua Fo'ou).
  • Binono, ghostly, strange, awe-inspiring (v. Buloa).
  • Bitega, core, kernel, root of a matter.
  • Bito'i, to put hot stones in belly of pig in baking.
  • Bo, fire, light at funeral ceremony round house in which a dead chief is lying (cf. Taki-bo).
  • Bo'ebo'ea, unskilled, inexperienced, weak.
  • Bo'ifua mahina, moonless night (cf. Haw. Po'i, cover shut. Bo'i or Po'i is a rare word in Tongan, and seems to mean hidden, covered; Bo'ifua probably means all, totally, concealed. Pratt in his Dictionary of the Samoan Language remarks of Poipoi, “a word used in songs. Meaning unknown,” and he suggests that it may be synonymous with Vaevae, but the meaning “concealed,” “overshadowed” is not inappropriate in the context he cites. The Dictionnaire Tonga-Francais gives the meaning of Poifua as faint moon-light in the early part of the night, first rays of moon-light.
  • Bobo'uli, grievous (?), used of ceremonies connected with death of a chief, war, etc. In the faka-tabu at a ceremony that is bobo'uli Tui' 'o Mo'uga is used in place of Moheofo.
  • Bo-fonu, turtle-fishing, (v. kafa-fonua, tuli-fonu, kubega-fonu, fakaalele).
  • Bogibogi tu'uta, ceremonial visit (bogibogi) to a chief who has just landed from a voyage.
  • Bogibogi'oe fokololo, ceremonial visit (bogibogi) to a chief who has just landed from a voyage.
  • Bohoboho, expression of surprise (Niua Fo'ou).
  • Bo-kuluki, night of singing.
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  • Bolo (i) a plant (the chili); (ii) target. In the target shooting with bow and arrow the target was a patch on a tree where the bark was scraped off, or a suspended shaddock; (iii) mark on face or body of warrior. Opposite sides in battle frequently adopted different colours for their bolo, thus making identification easy. Marking and smearing face or body also called loa (q.v. Baker). (iv.) Apart, Kalo 'akita 'o tu'u bolo, I evade and stand apart.
  • Bona, back of neck, applied especially to turtle.
  • Bo-sibi, night of song.
  • Bota, gather, pucker (?).
  • Botavalai, package of food wrapped in leaves, and bound round and round with valai (a kind of creeper). It is said that food was thus prepared as sea-stores.
  • Botu'i-afi, a burning brand (Also Gauafi, q.v. Baker).
  • Buobuai, having the skin coloured by sea-water drying upon the body.
  • Buobuatahi, name of a plant (its flower is used to scent oil).
  • Buonoono, nose-flute (more common word is Fagufagu).
  • Buke, bridal dress.
  • Bukolea, speaking buko tree. A bukolea, is located in Bulotu, and another in Mua, Tongatabu. The priest of the sanctuary Fanakava sat at this latter tree, and when a suppliant appeared the tree instructed the priest as to whether it was the god's will or not that the petitioner be admitted to the sanctuary. (But cf. Sam. Pu'agagana, “Because the bell-shaped blossoms sing in the wind”—Kramer.)
  • Buloa, ghostly, strange, awe-inspiring.
  • Bulotu, composer (Bulotu-hiva, v. Baker).
  • Bulu, sticky gently.
  • Bubulu, sticky, gently.
  • Bulubaki, kind of sweet-smelling wreath.
  • Bulu-koko, shell (of cannon).
  • Bulu-ava, shell (of cannon).
  • Bulutaki, let go slowly, be loathe to part with.
  • Bunake, clever, famous, applied especially to poets.
  • Bunifaga, one phase of the moon (Tongan Astronomy and Calendar, p. 16).
  • Bunu-fu'u, obstructing.
  • Bunu-salulu, applied to a host who eats before a banquet so that he may be able to see his guests take food away without hungry displeasure (v. Salulu, Baker).
    F.
  • Fa'aki, meet with, collide.
  • Fa'alalo, small sailing canoe (syn. Tafa'aga).
  • Faetele'a, valley (tele'a) with stream running a banker.
  • Fai, pluck, pull (the creeper fatai)
  • Faiaki, weak, soft, join in any undertaking through compulsion (see Faiekina, Baker).
  • Faiaki, unskilled, not self-reliant.
  • Faifio, mingled, intertwined.
  • Faiga'a, meaning uncertain, but probably difficult (cf. Sam. Faiga). Tama faiga'a he koe 'otua, probably means, One difficult to deal with, to circumvent, because he was a spirit.
  • Faihava, narrow opening, small strait.
  • Fa'ufa'ufono, talked over, discussed, by chiefs and immediate entourage, hence further meaning of tabu, secret, because the members of such a conclave must not divulge what they have heard.
  • Fa-ulo, flashing angry (eye).
  • Fa-uloulo, flashing angry (eye.)
  • Fafale, friendly, intimate.
- 158
  • Faga-'o-taha, anchorage where boats from all parts congregate.
  • Fagogo, an opened cocoanut shell.
  • Fagono, derisive term for elephantiasis in scroto.
  • Fagu, name of a creeper.
  • Faguna, awake, awakened.
  • Fahafaha, sleeping mat (of highest chiefs).
  • Fa-hina, species of fa (pandanus).
  • Fakaao, tread the hen.
  • Faka'au, explain.
  • Faka-aua, talked about, talk about, explain.
  • Faka'au liliki, explain thoroughly, in detail; equivalent to faka'au fakalautelau.
  • Faka'aufuli, completely.
  • Faka'auga, bay where sea flows in and out strongly (good for fanifo); place where sea goes underland; blowhole.
  • Fakaafuha, to mature fruit, especially bananas and plantains, by hanging in a hole and covering over.
  • Fakaalele, turtle-fishing (word of Mougaone in Haapai).
  • Fakaalele, These two words occur together in a couplet, but meaning uncertain. Alele and Maiva are both names of localities.
  • Fakamaiva, These two words occur together in a couplet, but meaning uncertain. Alele and Maiva are both names of localities.
  • Faka-'anana, probably a method of plaiting wreaths. (Anana is the name of a sea-side locality famous for its sweet-scented shrubs and trees.
  • Fakaehaua, violence, violently.
  • Fakaevaha, catastrophe, peril, difficulty. Literally seems to mean like that which occurs at sea.
  • Fakaobe, (i) to spend a long time in the water, or at sea; (ii) sharing food at sea (applied to a group of boats gathered to share provisions).
  • Fakofoofo, much ado about nothing; used disparagingly by a man of his own work, gifts, etc., especially in addressing those of higher rank.
  • Fakaola'aga, little hearth of banana tree, or plaintain, stem, and sand used in the watch about the house where a dead chief is lying.
  • Fakaolobubulu, sticky, slow (?).
  • Fakaono, a kind of basket.
  • Faka'otu-sia, kind of sweet-smelling wreath.
  • Faka-'ua, glottal stop.
  • Faka-ua, -tolu, -fa, etc., up to -valu, certain phases of the moon (v. Tongan Astronomy and Calendar, p. 16).
  • Fakauilatai, dim, indistinct; (v. Fakauliulilatai, Baker).
  • Fakauiuilatai, dim, indistinct; (v. Fakauliulilatai, Baker).
  • Fakau'ui, clip the hair short.
  • Fakauma, made with a shoulder (e.g., a bottle).
  • Fakaba, first beating of the bark in cloth manufacture.
  • Fakabatabata, sail slowly, especially of boat with sail slackened, but used also of boat close-hauled.
  • Fakabatoho, trailing.
  • Fakabetetagi, like weeping.
  • Fakabibine, dress the hair with lime (cf.Togione).
  • Fakabo, expletive signifying distress, amaze.
  • Fakabu, put forth from mouth, tell, announce.
  • Fakafeitama, first appearing of the flower of the pandanus.
  • Fakafetu'akoi, lean against each other. Cf. Fakafetuotuakoiaki, Baker.
  • Fakafita'a-uli, difficult to steer.
  • Fakafolau, migratory (birds).
  • Fakafutuna, completely (despoiled).
  • Fakagaga, open the mouth, work the mouth like a hungry bird.
  • Fakaha'aha'a, foolish (applied to chiefs).
  • Fakahahano, long, desire.
  • Fakahalafonoga, period just before dawn.
  • Fakaholofonoga, period just before dawn.
  • Fakahauhau, in chiefly fashion (?)
- 159
  • Fakahehe, one of the parts in singing, the singer apparently improvising his own harmony.
  • Fakahehu, one of the parts in singing.
  • Fakaheketala, platform in front of a house.
  • Fakahelega, carelessly, roughly.
  • Fakahelegavale, with frontages facing various directions.
  • Fakahifo, bear a child (used of royal women). The child may also be called Fakahifo or Alo.
  • Fakahoa, to put a loop of rope round the head of a shark and then let him go again. Sometimes done in shark-fishing by a boat already too full to be able to take another shark. It was thought that a shark so treated could always be caught again by the same boat at a later opportunity.
  • Fakahoata, bright, beautiful.
  • Fakahuga, carried on pole slung on shoulders of two bearers.
  • Fakakaikaitau, challenging, provoking battle.
  • Fakakau, ends of pandanus strips at top of a mat which are finished off after body of mat is completed.
  • Fakakakae, mock, deride, rouse to anger.
  • Fakakalua, with sail slackened.
  • Fakakega, stars or constellations used in steering (Kaveiga).
  • Faka-kie-ta-ua, like a pair of mats.
  • Fakagala, evoking affection, remembrance.
  • Fakaha'ao, completely, all taken.
  • Fakakinokinofia, proud, reserved.
  • Fakakinokinofie, proud, reserved.
  • Fakaku, ingredients for oil-making before the oil has been distilled out by exposure to sun.
  • Fakakumi, urge to seek, put a dog on the scent.
  • Fakalau 'ae ata, dawn.
  • Fakalaunonou, stage in growth of banana and plantain when the fruit-bearing stem is just beginning to sprout (v. Tu'umoa, Hifo, Nifonifo-'o-buaka.)
  • Fakalaka-vaka, for going to sea in (may be applied for example to clothing).
  • Fakalaka-vaka, take boat from one anchorage to another.
  • Fakalakeba, forward decking of canoe.
  • Fakalala, name of a chiefly kilt (vala) of black bark-cloth. It is a festal dress, designedly short to exhibit better the beauty of the wearer.
  • Fakalalo, foot of hill (?).
  • Fakalava, sheer off, go in different direction, (wave) flowing back from a rock.
  • Fakalavelave, guess, opine.
  • Fakalelemoa, name of a great battle fought in Tongatabu about beginning of 19th century. So-called because one party swept the other before it as though chasing fowls. Also called Lago-vaka, revenge, compensation.
  • Faka-liku-loto, like a weather coast in the interior; applied to a cliff or rock in the interior which has the appearance of the coast on the weather side. Hence, deceptive.
  • Faka-liku-toga, one method of plaiting the scented leaf girdle.
  • Fakalouakau, magic, to work magic.
  • Fakalolo, go down, dive.
  • Fakaloloma, exciting pity or love. (Felt in Tonga as a Fijian borrowing.)
  • Fakaloloma, swell that does not break (v. loloma).
  • Fakaloloma, pleasant (syn. Faka'ofa).
  • Fakalolotu, tease, annoy.
  • Fakalotu, one kind of flower girdle or wreath (usually has lagakali in it).
- 160
  • Fakalotumua, one method of plaiting flower and leaf girdle.
  • Fakama'afu, to burn anything connected with the Tui Tonga.
  • Fakama'u, waist-band, belt (high chiefly word).
  • Fakama'uga, chorus of song.
  • Fakamafua, hole in centre of pigeon-snaring mound in which the implements of the sport were put (also v. Baker, s.v.).
  • Fakamagavalu, eight-branched, applied to the pattern of certain combs, mats and wreaths.
  • Fakamahili, piled one on the top of the other, eminent, outstanding.
  • Fakamalua, pay respect.
  • Fakamanulua, two-bird pattern. One method of plaiting.
  • Fakamanumanu, adorned.
  • Fakamatamoana, one kind of scented wreath of leaves and flowers. (Matamoana.. is the name of a locality, and of a mound.)
  • Fakamatatuna, to pierce the husk of a cocoanut at the stalk end (v. Matatuna).
  • Fakamatelau, to count one by one (in contradistinction to the common practice of counting by pairs).
  • Fakamo'ulogoa, put to silence.
  • Fakamohulau, exaggerate, exaggeration.
  • Fakamomoko, lit. make cold, but meaning make warm in respectful speech to highest chiefs.
  • Fakamoveve, mere nothings.
  • Fakanaba, apparently name of a clan not now distinguishable.
  • Fakanavau, to do badly.
  • Fakaniua, poem that is sung, sometimes accompanied by dance.
  • Fakaniubabua, to tie a rope round an animal's mouth.
  • Fakanoa-loto, dumbfound, confuse.
  • Fakatau, drooping, almost broken off.
  • Fakataugutu, bandy words.
  • Fakataba, gleam.
  • Fakatafa-motu'a, one of the stages in the maturing of bananas and plantains.
  • Fakatafu'ufu'u, to burst into leaf; to be in voluminous folds. (v. Baker, s.v.).
  • Fakataka, drill, review, draw up.
  • Fakatakatu'u, unmarried.
  • Fakatalau, sudden gust.
  • Faka-talau, wind from direction of Talau, a hill in Vavau.
  • Fakatalatala, to pull apart, shred.
  • Fakatali-basaga, lashing of steering-oar.
  • Fakatava-nuku, fast-sailing; applied especially to a boat which is able to give other boats a long start, and then overtake them and reach land first. (Fakatava is said to mean literally watch, guard, for which compare Fij. Vakatawa, watch.)
  • Fakate'ete'ebuaka, in spirals, used, e.g., of pandanus leaves drying for mat-making.
  • Fakatefisi, one arrangement, the most chiefly, of the sled on which large kava roots are presented at important ceremonies.
  • Fakatefisi, ridge-cap of house.
  • Fakatelega, place where trawling (fakatele) is carried on, i.e., good fishing ground for bonito and other large fish.
  • Fakatetua, apprehensiveness, anxiety.
  • Fakato'ia, to copulate, make pregnant (used only of animals, and not of men).
  • Fakatouaga, good in both ways.
  • Fakato-'ulu, ceremony when a boat has caught its fifth or tenth shark. Specifically Fakato-'ulu-loto is the ceremony for the fifth, and Fakato-'ulu-hoko for the tenth shark.
  • Fakatobatu, swoop down.
  • Fakatoka, to put rusty iron into the koka juice to make the black colouring for cloth.
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  • Fakatokalelei, ceremony to finish the tabu after the death of a chief, end of mourning.
  • Fakatokotokanaki, proverbial.
  • Fakatologa, little mound of sand on reef projecting above the water so that a bird can alight on it.
  • Fakatu'ubake, suddenly, unexpectedly.
  • Fakatuuta, arrange in a row, collect.
  • Fakatubutubulagi, high in the air.
  • Fakatufana'i, to impale.
  • Fakatukaua, fitted with tukau, i.e., a handle let into the bamboo fishing rod.
  • Fakatukotuka, to reduce speed.
  • Fakava'e, to put in bottom plaits in leaf girdles and wreaths.
  • Fakava'e, one method of plaiting flower necklaces and girdles.
  • Fakavainiaku, streamer of leaf girdle or wreath, ribbon-like streamer.
  • Fakavakatabu, in the manner of, befitting, a chief's boat.
  • Fakavava'u, gossip, boasting, ill-natured talk, gesture of incredulity.
  • Fakinaga, leaning place. Maka Fakinaga is name of stone in Heketa against which Tu'i Tonga used to sit.
  • Fala-efu, kind of mat. (It is much used in burials to cover open vault before new corpse put in; sometimes placed on bottom of vault.)
  • Fala-fatu, kind of mat (?).
  • Falahola, a kind of pandanus (fa) with small fruit; it is the most highly valued pandanus.
  • Fala-hulu-kula, mat adorned with red feathers.
  • Falakumi, a large collection of mats, cloth, etc.
  • Falanaki, near (cf. Falala).
  • Fala Late, kind of mat.
  • Fale-ula, equivalent to Fale-faiva, a house built in connection with sport of pigeon-snaring.
  • Fale-uta, the matabules.
  • Fale-fataki, upper storey of house, house with an upper storey.
  • Falegaaga, habit, custom, manner.
  • Falehau, great chief's house.
  • Fale-siu, house made tabu ashore when expedition goes shark or bonito fishing.
  • Faleta, evacuation of Tui Tonga's bowels at sea.
  • Fale-tahi, lit. sea-house, i.e., the sailors or fishermen of a chief (cf. Fale-uta).
  • Fale-toua, house where kava utensils kept.
  • Fale-vaka, deck-house of a boat.
  • Fa-lotuma, a kind of pandanus (fa).
  • Fanakega, a zone of the sky. The Tongan astronomy divided the sky into three such zones, northern, southern and central (v. Tongan Astronomy and Calendar).
  • Fanaki, cluster of stars, constellation.
  • Fanakiga, cluster of stars, constellation.
  • Fano-ua, go in pairs. Applied frequently to pigeons or doves.
  • Fanofano'i, to transfer mana to another person.
  • Fanohoko, go gently round to opposite quarter (applied to wind).
  • Fanua, sea close inshore (opposite to Gatai).
  • Fasi-a-malu, early evening.
  • Fataga, bundle.
  • Fatakau, first appearing of bud in certain sweet-smelling plants.
  • Fataki-nima, two persons carrying something between them on their clasped hands.
  • Fatalua, name of a constellation; probably same as Fatanalua (v. Tongan Astronomy and Calendar, p. 7).
  • Fatu, count, reckon; compose poetry (v. also Baker s.v.).
- 162
  • Fatu'a, head, top, especially of corpse (v. Baker s.v.); coil, fold (of rope, cloth, etc.). Fatu'a is also applied to the side of a room to which a corpse, laid out therein, points.
  • Fea'ao, plur. of Fe'ao, attend upon a chief.
  • Feafaki, reach at sunrise (syn. Ahoia).
  • Feitu'u na, lit. that place; very respectful term for “you” in addressing a high chief.
  • Feofani, mutual love, mutually loving.
  • Febaki, to pluck.
  • Fefakavahavaha'anaki, to set at variance.
  • Fegalomaki, out of sight of each other.
  • Fegogo, leaning on each other, helping each other.
  • Fehe, to open shell-fish.
  • Feheaki, to open shell-fish.
  • Feheuekina, steering about in various directions (cf. Feheuaki).
  • Fehikitakina, changing about, changed, at random.
  • Fehola'aki, run away together (plur. of Hola).
  • Feholalaki, run away together (plur. of Hola).
  • Fehui, enter together (plur. of Hu).
  • Fehuluni, name of a deity or spirit, appearing sometimes as a man, and sometimes as a woman. The game of hiko was sacred to this spirit.
  • Fekitataki, meet, embrace.
  • Fekitetele, a kind of sweet-smelling wreath (?).
  • Felafoaki, lit. pitch to and fro, mutual give and take.
  • Feiasilasi, bursting, breaking, gleaming, through (syn. fe-'asi'asi).
  • Fe'lasilasi, bursting, breaking, gleaming, through (syn. fe-'asi'asi).
  • Feliuekina, various, changing about.
  • Felohaga, large pile of bones. (felo said to refer to colour of bones.)
  • Fema'uma'utaki, fixed, clasped together.
  • Fema'utaki, fixed, clasped together.
  • Fenua, land (Niua Fo'ou).
  • Fesi-fohe, lit. break-oar, i.e., make all haste.
  • Fetaiaki, in agreement, on good terms with each other (cf. -tai in tuutai).
  • Fetautaui, variegated, mingled; used especially of brilliantly coloured sunset sky.
  • Feto'oekina, darting about in all directions.
  • Fetolonaki, interlaced (applied to objects like small sticks thrown together).
  • Fetautaulaki, meet.
  • Fetotoafa, succession of open plains or sea flats (toafa).
  • Fetu'ui, to go in a party with gifts on a visit of condolence to relatives of a dead person.
  • Fetuki, strike, beat (plu. of tuki?)
  • Fetuligaki, competing, pursuing each other.
  • Fevaniaki, change sides, lie, contradict oneself, give different accounts of same thing to different persons.
  • Fie-taumafa, hungry, thirsty (of royal persons).
  • Fifua, one sort of neck wreath. It is of especial worth and dignity. In the poem of Basikole the hero is represented as having the commoner balakau, but arranging it to look like a fifua.)
  • Fifihu, angry glancing of eyes.
  • Figota (i) shellfish; (ii) to gather shellfish.
  • Fihaki, weave, bind, entwined.
  • Fifihaki, weave, bind, entwined.
  • Fihu-balavalu, a kind of mat (fihu).
  • Filia, pondered over, chosen.
  • Filitala'i, speak about with liking (?). (One text has variant Filita'i.)
  • Fine-takabau, harlot. Vason, An Authentic Narrative of Four Years' Residence at Tongataboo, London, 1810, is only authority for this word.)
- 163
  • Fine-motua, married woman (plur. Finematua).
  • Fisi, a game in which light sticks are flipped.
  • Fisiba, flip, frequently as a gesture of astonishment; Fisiba Ha'amoa mo Niua, Samoa and Niua are surprised.
  • Fisifisitata'i, flip and tap.
  • Fisikaho, a mode of arranging the hair.
  • Foefoe-lua, to use the oar also, i.e., as an auxiliary to the sail.
  • Fo'uhia, build (boat).
  • Fofoga'i-mama, fire, light, burnt at funeral of a high chief.
  • Fohua, tassel on edge of mat (v. Taufohua).
  • Fokihaga, turning place.
  • Fokihagc-folau, place for voyager to turn back. This has a special reference to the tree on the edge of the world where mortal voyagers must turn and come back. The preceding word, fokihaga, also used of this turning place.
  • Fokololo, (i) dress in which corpse buried; (ii) seamen of the king (v. also Baker, s.v.).
  • Fokotu'uga, short voyage, ferry trip.
  • Fokotu'uniu, large pile.
  • Fola-'osi, complete width of native cloth, i.e., two ma'ukubu (q.v.); a chief's dress (vala).
  • Folaha, to cut the Tui Tonga's hair.
  • Folehia, spread abroad, published, talked about (?), cf. Folahi.
  • Folofua, gulp down, swallow.
  • Fono, (i) gather, assemble; (ii) planking in side of boat.
  • Fono-ha'iha'i, a game in which players bind each other in turn, to see who can get free from opponent's binding.
  • Fonotaki, serve as food (fono) with kava.
  • Fonu-toho, name of a fish (turtle?)
  • Fota, a little basin of rocks in the sea in which to take the fish called ulukau. The word, or the method, seems properly to belong to the people of Talau in Vava'u (v. Kau).
  • Foto, stingray's tail.
  • Fotu, chief who bears kava at head of ceremonial procession.
  • Fuabo, commence the ceremony of watching with lights round house in which dead chief is lying (v. Bo).
  • Fui, to dip in water.
  • Fuifui, flock of birds (v. Baker). Following words used to describe approach or appearance of flock of pigeons: tubutubu, just appearing, scarcely discernible; nono (the name of a small insect) individual birds just distinguishable; namu (mosquito) individual birds just distinguishable; lago (fly) birds appearing a little larger; nusi (swift, swallow), birds again a little larger.
  • Fuifui tauhala, flock with an odd number of birds. The odd bird increases the difficulty of snaring by flying about looking for a mate.
  • Fuifui tauhoa, flock with an even number of birds in it.
  • Fuifui buleoto, necklace of buleoto (a prized shell, supposed to reveal chastity or infidelity of the wearer).
  • Fuofuavale, a phase of the moon, almost full (v. Tongan Astronomy and Calendar).
  • Fuogogoo, swelling, large and round (?).
  • Fu'ufu'uga (me'a), great quantity.
  • Fugani, row of sweet-smelling flowers and leaves adorning top part of leaf girdle.
  • Fugani-ua, girdle with double fugani.
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  • Fulufulu-motuku, lit. heron's feathers, light clouds, held to indicate rain.
  • Fululube, name of a tree.
  • Fulu-manu-kula, red bird's feathers.
  • Futufutuga, long time.
    G.
  • Gaga, plur. of Ga.
  • Gaevi, plur. of Ga.
  • Gaobeobe, bending downwards.
  • Gaula, Oh dear, Great Scot! (Niua Fo'ou).
  • Gauta, a species of yam.
  • Gabe'ebe'e, soft (v. Gafe'e).
  • Gafe'e, soft.
  • Gahu, a shrub found on the seashore. High-water mark sometimes called Mata-gahu.
  • Galagala, to stir, or make a noise, whilst asleep.
  • Galalo, below, to the shore (Niua Fo'ou).
  • Galu-hele, to come in on a breaker, in fanifo, across the track on which one went out.
  • Galulu, headache (applied to highest chiefs).
  • Gana, fitting, appropriate.
  • Ganaganaiki, gently sound.
  • Gano, shining, glistening.
  • Gatai, toward the open ocean. A party at sea use gatai for further out to sea, and gauta for toward the shore.
  • Gatahi, continuous and graceful movement.
  • Gatuvai, faded, old (also Gatu?).
  • Ginigini, (i) shrunken, dried; (ii) shivery.
  • Gonegone, speak.
  • Gugu, grunt, growl.
    H.
  • Haa, used in reply to an inferior as koau is used to an equal or superior.
  • Ha'alo, to smooth, soften, or clean anything by scraping it with such an implement as a knife-edge.
  • Ha'alu, prey, victim.
  • Ha'aha'a, stormy, violent.
  • Ha'i-tuku'i, binding of parcel or bundle both lengthwise and crosswise.
  • Ha'oaga, place where one may escape, opening.
  • Hao'uli, come right to shore with sail set.
  • Haofaga, circle, assemblage.
  • Ha'o-loto, in the circle (of chiefs).
  • Haota, preparing to strike.
  • Hau, lordship, power.
  • Hauaoa, rotting yam seed.
  • Hau'atea, those who gather to receive chiefs, or where an important work is going on.
  • Haui, Hauihaui, to cut, especially with repeated strokes, as in cutting grass, or trimming a tree Ha'uga, food prepared for reception of visitors.
  • Hauhau, a green, park-like place.
  • Haumatutu, a tall species of cocoanut tree.
  • Habo, repair (?). (Restricted perhaps to repair of boats, Amusia ha vaka ne toe habo; cf. Sam. Sapo, to put in a new plank, or keel to a canoe, Pratt, Samoan Dictionary.)
  • Habotoloaki, go along at sea, be at sea, voyage (evidently refers to pitching and tossing of a craft at sea).
  • Hafuni, adorn the hair.
  • Hagatamaki, a little parcel of medicine placed to make a tabu.
  • Haha, beat; used also of wind blowing straight upon a place.
  • Hahau, strike, shake; to do the coarse cutting in getting and shaping timber. This may be done by unskilled labourers, but the finer work must be done by craftsmen.
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  • Hahano, desire, long for (cf. Sam. Sano).
  • Haheka, plur. of heka, get upon, sit.
  • Haka'i collide (of boats).
  • Hakafa, collide (of boats).
  • Haka-vaka collide (of boats).
  • Haka-fa, for one dart to strike another out of the target (a pandanus tree, fa) in the sport of velo-fa, shooting with darts.
  • Hake, (i) come ashore; (ii) pluck, pull (the creeper fatai, v. fai).
  • Hakeaga, ascent, rise.
  • Hako ho atamai, please yourself.
  • Hala-a-siki, name of a fishing ground for the vete in Western Tongatabu.
  • Halafekina, get ahead by another route (cf. Halafaki).
  • Hala-gutugutu, road on edge of cliff, crater, steep ground.
  • Halani, glow before source of light actually appears, e.g., glow before moon-rise.
  • Haluhalu, shred, tease out (as Baker); probably also wreath, necklace, of flowers (cf. Fij. Salusalu).
  • Hama, meaning uncertain. Hama foli i hono otu fonua.
  • Hami, a savory of sea water and fermented cocoanut. (This Niua Fo'ou word; usual Tongan is Miti.)
  • Hamia, devour, guzzle.
  • Hamia, ugly.
  • Hamumu, act carelessly, indiscreetly (v. Hamunoa, Baker).
  • Havala, greediness, desiring particular foods without real hunger.
  • He, occasionally used introducing a sentence, apparently equivalent to Ah, Ay, or some such expression. He, for, because, of course frequently precedes sentences and clauses.
  • He, def. art., the. It is used after the prepositions e (agent), ki, to, 'i, in; it is also used without any preposition, generally with a locative or causal sense, or in positions where the preposition 'i could precede without change of meaning. It does not appear possible, however, to formulate an exact rule, and this article seems to have gained ground in recent years at the expense of the article e (q.v.).
  • Heamabo, a sweet-smelling plant (a kind of hea).
  • Heitogi'i, unchanged.
  • Heuaki, (i) turn, return, steer back; (ii) draw in fishing lines.
  • Hekasi, ride, bestride; ridden.
  • Hekesi, reach, go up to.
  • Heketala, a species of yam.
  • Helebuna, trap, gin.
  • Helega, remainder of mat (gafi-gafi) from which a piece has been cut off. A new piece is woven on to this remainder.
  • Hete, a kind of mat. (It is the least esteemed of the gafigafi.)
  • Heva, wander. Loto heheva, foolish.
  • Hifo, (i) those put ashore from a boat; (ii), applied to fruiting-stem of banana or plantain as the flower bends downward in the earlier stages of its maturing.
  • Hifoaki, going to bathe for first time after sickness.
  • Hihigo, cross-eyed; used derisively of one who does not use his eyes, fails to see what he should see.
  • Hiko, to throw round another piece in lafo.
  • Hiku-ogo, echo.
  • Hiku-mata, corner of the eye.
  • Hila, lightning (usually Uhila).
  • Hili, left behind, passed.
  • Mahili, left behind, passed.
  • Hiliga-toekai, second largest piece in lafo set.
  • Hiliga-tukumu'a, second smallest piece in lafo set.
  • Hilo, abusive term for throat.
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  • Hina, name of a goddess; applied also to (i) the shark; (ii) the moon; Unu mai Toloa mo ene hina.
  • Hoa-kie, double mat (kie). Syn. Kie-ta-ua. It is very valuable.
  • Ho'ota, my (?); Koe tubu'aga ho'ota ni tu'a.
  • Hoota, friend, companion (Mal. Godong?).
  • Haoota, friend, companion (Mal. Godong?).
  • Houtolu, in one text as adj. qualifying siale, apparently used of some species of this plant.
  • Hobohoboki, rough, choppy (sea).
  • Hofa, spill.
  • Hofo, uncertain meaning; perhaps (i), weary; (ii), rejoicing (v. hoho).
  • Hoho, sigh or laugh (Onomatopoeic word); (i) weary, (ii) rejoicing.
  • Hohofi, badly and strongly smelling
  • Hokafo, thoroughly, strongly (cf. Unufo).
  • Hoke, noise.
  • Hoke, thy. The word is obsolescent, and in present, or immediately past, usage, seems to be confined to such expressions as, Koe me'a hoke fai, If you had only done. More common to-day is, Koe me'a hono ke fai.
  • Hoko, dress (of the Tu'i Tonga).
  • Hokoa, reckon relatives, genealogy.
  • Hokosi, become (hoko).
  • Hola, unique, not conforming to pattern of others; applied especially to a dancer's dress.
  • Holevu, great gathering (cf. Solevu).
  • Holo, rub, knead (kava); chew kava.
  • Hologa, piece of kava ground by chewing.
  • Holo'aki, take offerings to king or great lord. Tali holo, the great lord's gracious acceptance of the gifts.
  • Holofa, spreading, scattered; applicable to a spreading, branching tree.
  • Homi, sob.
  • Hone, his, her, its (obs).
  • Hote, my.
  • Hu, hu, humph.
  • U, u, humph.
  • Hua, to start, lead, singing.
  • Hu'a, beverage, e.g., Hu'a-kava, kava beverage.
  • Hua, one sort of pudding (faika-kai).
  • Hua, tack, go about (as Baker); Hua a'u, go right up to reef or land before going about; Hua vaeloto, go about whilst still at a distance from reef or land.
  • Hua'ia, pleased.
  • Hu'a-fonua, water dripping through roof of a cave.
  • Huasi, a board or timber fastened outboard to outrigger of tau-la (a type of canoe), on which a man stood to give sailing directions, and also to preserve the balance of the boat by moving in or out. (Possibly the tau-la carried two huasi, one at either end of outrigger, and the man stood on that which was forward according to direction in which boat was sailing; but this is doubtful.)
  • Hua-tatau, well matched.
  • Hui-moko, (lizard bone), back (disrespectful).
  • Huo loalaga, big, strong digging-stick, useful both for digging the ground and as a war weapon.
  • Hu'u, sniff, smell, especially sniff in disgust at a bad smell.
  • Huhu'i-beka, lit. flying fox breast, pointed breast with large nipple.
  • Huhu-toho, pendulous breast.
  • Huke, to renew tattooing; to repair a boat.
  • Hukena, turned up, blown up by the wind.
  • Hula, bear a burden slung from two poles on the shoulders of four men.
  • Hulua, explain, explained.
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  • Huluhulu-tu'u, fasten the kilt (vala) over the breast.
  • Huluni, sprout, shoot.
  • Humu, (the name of a fish), diamond-, or fish-, shaped pattern at centre of cinnet binding. The very middle is called Bito'i-humu (v. also Manu).
  • Huni, (i) to oil the lafo pieces to make them run well; (ii) oil draining out, as the oil draining out of the ingredients in the oil manufacture.
  • Hunuaki, first fish caught in a new net.
    K.
  • Ka, sign of future (or indefinite) time. Used before the verb after the conjunction Ka or Oka. In Niua Fo'ou used with negative, where Tongan has ke or te.
  • Ka is also used before a qualifying word indicating that the quality is possessed in a high degree.
  • Ka, speak.
  • Kaiha'asi, to perform any surgical operation on the Tu'i Tonga.
  • Kaikainaga, scraps of food (?) (Niua Fo'ou).
  • Kaikaitau, incite to battle, to anger; challenge.
  • Kaila'aki, shout, proclaim (instructions); it takes the direct object of the thing proclaimed (cf. Kailagaki).
  • Kailao, the paddle dance.
  • Kailagaki, shout.
  • Kailavaki, shout.
  • Kailoa, unseen, unknown (compound word). Simple negative “No” in Niua Fo'ou.
  • Kainikavea, parasite.
  • Kau, I shall (Ka au).
  • Kau, (i) fish-basket (finaki); (ii) weapon. Used especially of the basket used by the Talau people in Vava'u in fishing for the ulukau (v. Fota).
  • Kau'aki, the condition of being nearly dead (cf. Tau'aki, Baker) Vai kau'aki water drunk by one nearly dead, hence, comfort. Lama tau'aki, watching the person nearly dead. There was a matabule whose duty it was to watch by a great chief whose end was approaching, and notify the actual instant of death. The proper name Lama-tau('aki) is said to be derived from this office.
  • Kau'i-a'u, with sail pulled taut to top of mast. This marked the chief's boat.
  • Kaubaki, meaning uncertain.
  • Kaufaga, top portion of handle of pigeon net.
  • Kau Hala-uta, chiefs and people of Tu'i Tonga's clan or tribe.
  • Kau Hala-lalo, chiefs and people other than the Tu'i Tonga's clan.
  • Kauhekina, together with, in company with.
  • Kaukau kilikili, lit. bathe pebbles, to oil the pebbles (kilikili) used in decorating graves.
  • Kaukau-tuku, first bath after sickness.
  • Kau kefu, attendants of a chief.
  • Kau kubulau, meaning uncertain, but apparently some sort of plant or mat.
  • Kauloa, part of the handle of the pigeon net.
  • Kau manima'i, meaning uncertain, but apparently some sort of plant or mat.
  • Kaunahu, raised edge of mat on which lafo played.
  • Kau-ta, semi-circular timbers in the end (ta) of Tongan house.
  • Kauvao, part of handle of pigeon net near the middle where the two sticks crossed.
  • Kabakau-higano, a small species of shark.
  • Kaboga, stroke, sweep, of the bailer of a canoe.
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  • Kabukabu, fog.
  • Kafa-fonu, turtle fishing (v. also Bo-fonu, Kubega-fonu, Tulifonu, Fakaalele).
  • Kafa-kula, necklace.
  • Kafogalu, meaning uncertain.
  • Kahana, pipe, or other contrivance, inserted into rock or tree to drain water along it (?)
  • Kahi, piles. Kahi-mata-na-loma, internal piles (apparently Fijian loan expression).
  • Kaho, place where the sea becomes suddenly deeper.
  • Kaka'i, use treacherously; applied to ravishing of women.
  • Kakao, hand, arm (disrespectful).
  • Kakalo, hidden, hard to see.
  • Kakamolu, smouldering, burning slowly.
  • Kakei, deprecating term for taovala (the cincture worn as mark of respect).
  • Kako, bend, plait together, especially flowers without stringing on anything. Cf. Tui-kako.
  • Kalakala, hard to kill.
  • Kalakia, meaning uncertain; cf. Maori, Mangaian, Karakia, prayer, charm, invocation.
  • Kale'aga, finish, cease. (v. also Baker s.v.) Applied especially to end of albicore-fishing.
  • Kaleua, do it yourself, let him do it himself, do what you like; Ke ke kaleua, Do what you like. Cf. Kaleui (Baker and Dictionnaire Toga-Francais), Sam. Aleu, Haw. Kalewa, Maori, Karewa, Fij. Rewa.
  • Kaleua, forked stick for twisting bread-fruit from tree. (Also called Lohu.)
  • Kali-loa, long pillow (kali) used in men's community house.
  • Kaloko, large coil of cinnet.
  • Kama, strive after, reach out toward.
  • Kami, represent, act as agent for another. Kakami is also found, but is of uncertain meaning.
  • Kamo-tu'u, game in which one player stands with back to others who touch her from behind. As soon as touched player succeeds in detecting one of the others touching her, her place is taken by the one she has detected.
  • Kani, (i) injured, wounded (applied to Tu'i Tonga and great chiefs); (ii) an interjection like Fakabo, murder, hang it; (iii) in lafo the player sometimes exclaims kani, kania (apparently equivalent to kai, score) to his piece as he throws it.
  • Kanikania, (i) injured, wounded (applied to Tu'i Tonga and great chiefs); (ii) an interjection like Fakabo, murder, hang it; (iii) in lafo the player sometimes exclaims kani, kania (apparently equivalent to kai, socre) to his piece as he throws it.
  • Kano-iahu, very mischievous, tiresome.
  • Kanokanona, a division of Tongan singing, contralto.
  • Kanume, a tree with small edible fruit (Sam. Anume, maba eliptica, Pratt).
  • Kata-'i'i, silent laughter.
  • Katafa, name of a bird, perhaps the lofa, tern.
  • Kata fakamoala, loud laughter (perhaps some connection with Island of Moala in Fiji).
  • Kata-kakae, derisive laughter.
  • Kava-bui, ginger plant.
  • Kavakava, midrib of cocoanut leaflet used in tapa-printing frame.
  • Kavakava, go, especially through shallow water. Cf. Hala-kavakava bridge.
  • Faka-kavakava, go, especially through shallow water. Cf. Hala-kavakava bridge.
  • Kaveiga, star, or constellation, used in steering.
  • Kave-kalaga, keep on shouting.
  • Kavele'i-bulu, fibre of cocoanut husk.
  • Kavevale, wrongly spoken about.
  • Ke'aga, cause of quarrel.
  • Kia'i-fonu, lit. turtle-neck, very short neck.
  • Kiato, outrigger of canoe to which float, or second canoe, is attached.
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  • Kiato gaholo, lit. kiato speed, is applied to a boat which sails well, not in virtue of her build, but because of good handling. The people of Lofanga and Tungua, both in Haapai, had the reputation of being able to get speed out of slow boats.
  • Kie, plant from which the mat called kie is made.
  • Kie fau, fine mat (kie) made of inner bark of hibiscus (fau).
  • Kie taofi, the mat (kie) presented by a virgin bride to her husband. Before the institution of present marriage arrangements it was the custom for a virgin to present a particular mat to the man who first won her. (Kie taubo'ou occurs in some texts, apparently in reference to this same mat.)
  • Kie-ta-ua, pair of mats (kie). Faka-kie-ta-ua, like a pair of (famous) mats.
  • Kie-taufohu'a, mat (kie) with fringed edges. V. Taufohu'a.
  • Kie Toku, a kind of mat, named probably after one of the places called Toku, of which there are several, including an island in Vava'u.
  • Kiu foauga, a species of kiu (plover).
  • Kikano'i, to support a bad cause, to be constantly in mischief in spite of reproof.
  • Kiki, young veka (rail), possibly an onomatopoeic word.
  • Kili, bark, skin (as Baker); Kili uli, dark bark, i.e., outside bark; Kili ma'a, white bark, i.e., inside bark.
  • Kima, name of a beach or landing place in Vava'u.
  • Kina, meat part of a meal, savory. (Syn. Kiki.)
  • Kini, cry of sikota (kingfisher).
  • Kini, drive away flies (high chiefly word).
  • Kitikiti, game played by jabbing as many holes as possible in sand whilst the word kitikiti is said over and over in a single breath. The holes are then smoothed out whilst the word vukilo is being said.
  • Ko, the well known Polynesian prefix (or preposition). Its use may perhaps be most clearly stated by calling it a mark of the absolute, or of the nom. absolute. It is used with noun, pronoun, or clause standing in apposition with other words, with a word standing alone, and in general with nouns not preceded by any other preposition or case particle. With the article e it coalesces forming Koe.
  • Kou, equivalent to kuou, formed by coalescence of kuo, sign of present or perfect tense, with 1st. pers. sing. pron.
  • Kouta, (i) marshy place, especially one which dries up in dry weather; (ii) name of a creeping plant which grows in marshy places.
  • Kobu, throat and gut of fish.
  • Kofeloa, lit. long bamboo, one of a pair of fishing-rods used in certain types of fishing from boats, of which the other is called masila.
  • Kofetafa, bamboo knife.
  • Kogaumu, oven (Niua Fo'ou).
  • Koko, to cut the hair moderately short.
  • Kokolo, fall.
  • Koli, bow-legged.
  • Koloa, lit. wealth, possessions, a respectful term for the teeth.
  • Kolofale, meaning uncertain.
  • Kolokalo, lit. cock's comb, the flower of the gatae (Erythrina Indica).
  • Koso, small, diamond-shaped protuberances carved on decking of canoe.

(To be continued.)