Volume 36 1927 > Volume 36, No. 142 > The discovery and settlement of Rarotonga by Polynesians, by Elsdon Best, p 122-134
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THE DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT OF RAROTONGA BY POLYNESIANS.
A brief account thereof preserved in Maori tradition.

This tradition has been preserved by the Ngati-Kahungunu folk of Wairarapa and Hawkes Bay, and a recital thereof by one of the elders of the tribe many years ago enabled it to be preserved in written form. There are really two recitals of the tradition, both of them all too brief, and in several places words are illegible; in the following account the two versions have been given, and are followed by a brief comparison with the Rarotongan traditions concerning the same events, which were published in vols. 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 12 and 26 of the Journal of the Polynesian Society. Certain names differ slightly in the two Maori versions, and similar differences are noted between the Maori and Rarotongan accounts.

MAORI TRADITION.

TIMU-TE-WAROWARO was an atua [supernormal being]; he it was who disclosed the existence of unknown lands and it was he who made known the first land reached by the ancestors of the Maori during their migration from the land of Irihia. Thus he guided them to Ahu, to Maui, to Hawaiki, to Rangiatea, such was the nature of that atua. Hine-korako, Tamaiwaho, Tunui-a-te-ika and Kahukura were similar beings.

The man who discovered Rarotonga, a place we have heard of, was Tutu-te-aroaro, who was also known as Turangi-marama. He gave the name of Tipuaki Hawaiki to Rarotonga. [The other version runs—Tipu Hawaiki was the first name of Rarotonga; it was so named by Tu-te-rangi-marama. 1 The atua alluded to conveyed him hither, namely Timu-te-warowaro, whose other name was Timu-whenua. Rarotonga is a high-lying land of broken appearance.]

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The son of Rangi-marama [Turangi-marama] was Mokura, who took to wife Kauwae. In after times Te Auiti went to Rarotonga and settled at Awarua; he named a place there Tonganui, it was a canoe anchorage. He took to wife Tongaiti [? and begat] Tautika and Marumamao. When the fame of a certain woman of rank named Rangatira reached them, Tautika and others desired to see her; it was those persons who diverted the waters of the spring of Rangatira that they might flow to their own home. It was an unfailing spring and, with the stone, was situated on high-lying land, and so the water flowed to Awarua. The fish left by Rangatira to guard her water-spring at Tutunoa was a kanae [mullet]; another was Nananoa that guarded that spring at Akauiro. Now Tautika and Maru-maomao [mamao elsewhere] were the persons who filched the water supply of Rangatira by means of digging a ditch to allow the water to flow to Awarua, at which place there was no water, but which thus acquired water from that spring. Rangatira was absent at the time. Another settlement at Rarotonga was Waikokopu. Aorangi is at Rarotonga, [? also] Raemaru [or Awarua a Raemaru].

When Karika and his companion Tutonga returned, Rangatira shewed them the two fish and the stone that had been brought from Hawaiki as being the signs of her ownership of the spring. Rangatira was a grandchild of Karika.

It was Karika who gave the name of Tumu-te-warowa-ro to Rarotonga. Tongaiti was a descendant of Turangi-marama, the discoverer of Rarotonga, whose canoe was named Aorangi, after which was named a mount [or range] at Rarotonga. After the time of Tu-te-rangi-marama, Ngake reached Rarotonga. It was after that when Karika arrived at Rarotonga. He came on account of certain fighting that had taken place, hence he came on his vessel named the Autonga. Karika abandoned [or passed by] Te Awariki and chanced upon Rarotonga. His home was at Awarua, which is on the northern side of Rarotonga; another of Karika's homes was at Araitonga. He, his wife and family settled permanently at Ruakina. Mokoroa-aitu was the daughter of Karika.

Tangihia was a chief of Tawhiti-nui whose home was at Maraerua; he migrated to Rarotonga; he was the forbear of the chiefs of Rarotonga, of Makea and others. - 124 Karika took as wife… first wife the elder sister of Tangihia… name was Waione. Ngati-Tangihia landed at a place called Miromiro; Karika conducted them to his marae at Arai-te-tonga, there to dwell. Tutapu was a tuakana of Tangihia; they belonged to Tawhiti-nui-a-rua, and they persistently quarrelled. Karika and Tangihia engaged in strife.

[Here this account ceases abruptly. The other version continues as follows.]

The vessel of Karika and his relative came to land at Muriwai-tupapa and they went to his home at Araitonga. Another party belonging to Tutonga arrived, of which Kokaputa was the principal person, and settled at a place he himself named Kena o Hawaiki, which place is in the vicinity of Aorangi. Yet another party of migrants arrived, landing on the western side, which place was named Tokerau o Hawaiki; it was so named by Tutaki. Karika returned to Hawaiki, and then the immigrant party of Moko came away and landed on the eastern side where the people settled at a place named by them Aokapua. [? Karika] returned again to Hawaiki and brought away Ngai-Tangihia who settled at the north-east end and named their settlement Te Itiakau. Waipapa was the place where the vessel came to land. Karika and his family lived at Rua-akina.

After that the Tini o Awa [people] arrived at Raro-tonga, landing at Itiakau. Karika went to attack them, his weapon was Inawhenua; it had been brought from Hawaiki from the house called the Rongo a Tane. All those folk were slain.

After that Karika and Tangihia dwelt at Awarua. Here Tutapu was slain by Karika by the side of the stream of Awarua. When he was slain, Tangihia hastened forward, and the eyes of the tuakana were plucked out and swallowed by Tangihia [See this Journal, vol. 29, p. 49]. Now Karika returned and dwelt at Awarua, at which place the family of the chieftainess Makea, of whom we hear, flourished. Takitimu came to Aorangi, which was the principal pa ari [?] of that time. She came from Wawau to Rarotonga and anchored at Aorangi, at the home of Ngai-Tangihia, and then returned to Hawaiki, to Rangiatea, to Maui; it was a voyage of observation.

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Now we come to the question of comparing the brief Maori tradition given above with that preserved by the natives of Rarotonga.

Our Maori narrative gives the name of the discoverer of Rarotonga as Turangi-marama, who was also known as Tutu-te-aroaro; this in one version, in the other the name appears as Tu-te-rangi-marama, which agrees with the Rarotongan form, for which see this Journal, vol. 2, p. 273, also vol. 6, p. 1. In vol. 6, at p. 1, we have a Rarotongan account that gives Tumu-te-varovaro as a second name of Tu-te-rangi-marama; he is said to have been an atua, a supernormal being who discovered Rarotonga and named it the Tupua o Avaiki. The name Tumu-te-varovaro is said to mean the ‘source of life.’ The son of Tu-te-rangi-marama was Mo'okura, who took to wife Kaua. The Maori gives the name as Timu-te-warowaro, otherwise known as Timu-whenua, who was an atua and who guided Tu-te-rangi-marama to Rarotonga, which is correctly described. One Maori version states that Turangi-marama named the island Tipuaki Hawaiki, the other that Tu-te-rangi-marama named it Tipu Hawaiki. At p. 2 of vol. 4, Part 2, Memoirs of the Polynesian Society one Tipua Hawaiki appears as a resident of the old homeland of Irihia in the far west. It is a peculiar fact that several of the names pertaining to the story of the discovery of Rarotonga are those of prominent persons of the homeland. Our local New Zealand version also says that the son of Turangi-marama was Mokura, who took Kauwae to wife (See this Journal, vol. 6, p. 1 for the Rarotongan account).

The Maori gives the next visitor to Rarotonga as Te Auiti, who settled at Awarua (Avarua in Rarotongan) where he named a place Tonganui. Te Auiti took one Ton-gaiti to wife and apparently begat Tautika and Maru-mamao. The Rarotongans do not mention a person named Te Auiti, but state that Karika went to Rarotonga with his vessels Te Au-ki-iti and Te Au-o-tonga, that he named the island Tumu-te-varovaro 2 o Tonganui; he brought with him his atua called Rangatira and took to wife Tongaiti. Our Maori folk seem to have converted the canoe name of Au-ki-iti into a personal name, dropping a syllable by the way. Also they maintain that Rangatira was a mokopuna - 126 [grandchild] of Karika, and that she became the wife of Tongaiti, in one version. This Tongaiti is referred to in this Journal, vol. 2, p. 274; vol. 4, p. 103 and vol. 18, p. 218 as an atua, but as an ordinary person in 0vol. 2, p. 273, vol. 5, p. 142, vol. 6, p. 3. At p. 71 of vol. 1, the canoe name of Te Au-ki-iti appears as Te-uki-iti, which is probably an error.

The Rarotongan account of the diversion of the waters of the spring of Rangatira will be found in this Journal, vol. 5, p. 142 and vol. 6, pp. 3-4, also vol. 29, p. 3. The first of these gives Maiove as another name of Rangatira, who was the wife of Tongaiti. These folk landed at Vaiko-kopu [the Waikokopu of the Maori story], they dug a well at the spring and left Nu and Nana in charge thereof [see Nananoa of the Maori version]. Then came Toutika [see Tautika in Maori story] who diverted the flow of the water, causing it to flow to Avana instead of Avarua [the Awarua of the Maori version]. In vol. 6, p. 3, we are told that Karika and his atua Rangatira, placed two fish and a piece of stone from Avaiki in the spring, and left Tutunoa and Nananoa in charge. Tautika and Maru-maomao then appeared and diverted the waters from Avarua to Avana. Tongaiti then arrived, but too late to save the Avarua water supply. The Tutunoa here mentioned is given as a place name in the Maori version. At p. 73 of vol. 1, Maru-mamao, Rangatira and Tongaiti have offerings made to them as atua, Rangatira also appearing as such at p. 70. The Maori version has it that the water flow was diverted to, not from, Awarua.

Raemaru, which is not made clear in the Maori narrative, is given as a hill name at Rarotonga in vol. 6, p. 1, vol. 29, pp. 166-167. Aorangi is given in the Maori version as the name of the vessel of Turangi-marama, but the Rarotongan account does not mention it. Autonga is given as the vessel of Karika in the Maori story, and this appears as Te Au-ki-Tonga at p. 71 of vol. 1, and as Te Au-o-Tonga at p. 3 of vol. 6; elsewhere Te Au-o-Tonga appears as the name of a marae. See vol. 12, p. 220.

Araitonga. This is probably the Arai-te-tonga of Rarotongan recitals. See vol. 1, pp. 70, 71, 72, also vol. 6 p. 4. Karika is said to have constructed the marae at Arai-te-tonga.

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Ruakina, Ruaakina. At p. 5 of vol. 6 we see that Karika settled at Te Rua-akina.

Mokoroa-aitu, daughter of Karika. This name appears in vol. 6 as Mokoroa-kietu at p. 5, but as Mokoroa-i-aitu at p. 26 of vol. 1, and as Mokoroa-ki-aitu at p. 71 of the same vol., also as Mo'oloa-i-aitu in a Samoan narrative at p. 107 of vol. 4.

Miromiro. This appears as Te Miromiro at p. 26 of vol. 1, and as Miromiro at p. 5 of vol. 6.

Tawhiti-nui-a-Rua, in full Tawhiti-nui-a-Ruamatua, is a name of the island of Tahiti, or the larger portion thereof, preserved by the Maori. See Tahiti-nui-maruarua vol. 6, p. 4.

Muriwai-tupapa. See Murivai (Tupapa) at p. 4 of vol. 6. Also Tupapa, vol. 1, p. 26.

Kokaputa. This name is given as Kaputa at p. 4 of vol. 6, and as Taikaputa at p. 71 of vol. 1.

Kena o Hawaiki. This appears as Te kena enua i Avaiki at p. 66 of vol. 1, and as Te Kena o Avaiki at p. 4 of vol. 6.

Tokerau o Hawaiki. This is probably the Tokerau mentioned at p. 71 of vol. 1, and Tokerau o Avaiki at p. 4 of vol. 6. The Maori version does not connect the name of Karika with this place.

Moko. See vol. 6, p. 4.

Te Itiakau. This appears as Itiarakau at p. 72 of vol. 1, but as Itiakaraua at p. 277 of vol. 2, and pp. 12-51 of vol. 29; possibly this latter is a misprint, of which there are a considerable number in these recorded Rarotongan traditions.

Tini o Awa. See vol. 6, pp. 5-10.

Inawhenua, a weapon. Given as Ninaenua in vol. 1, pp. 72, 73, 75, also at p. 5 of vol. 6 and p, 50 of vol. 21.

Rongo a Tane. Given as Rongo ma Tane at p. 5 of vol. 6.

The island of Wawau mentioned probably stands for Porapora, the old name of which was Vavau. The Taki-timu vessel mentioned may or may not be the same as the one of that name that reached New Zealand, and which is said to have returned to Hawaiki with Rongokako, father of Tamatea. As to the isles of Maui, we need more light on the subject of the old names of the islands of the Society and adjacent groups. For instance why is it that the isles of Huahine, Mo'orea and Taha'a (Tahanga) are not - 128 referred to in Maori tradition? They are probably mentioned under other names. Huahine is composed of two isles enclosed within one reef, as also are Taha'a and Ra'iatea. Porapora is composed of several isles. We require any obsolete names pertaining to twin isles especially.

It has been stated that the island of Ra'iatea was formerly known as Hawaiki, and eastward of Ra'iatea lie the twin isles of Huahine. But it is improbable that two isles so close together as Tahiti and Ra'iatea (Rangiatea) would both be known as Hawaiki at the same time, and Maori traditions speak of Rangiatea and Hawaiki. There is yet some unexplained reason, however, for the non-mention of the twin isles of Huahine in Maori tradition, i.e. under that name.

At p. 126 of Hawaiki (fourth edition, 1921) is a statement to the effect that there are no other isles in the Pacific bearing the names of Ahu, Maui, and Hawaiki than those of the Hawaiian Group, but the evidence given tends to show that isles in eastern Polynesia formerly bore these names. On the same page is a statement that Ahu lies north-east of Tawhiti-nui [=Tahiti=Hawaiki], but the same informant informed the present writer that Ahu lies east or south-east of Hawaiki, by which name the Maori experts of Ngati-Kahungunu usually refer to Tawhiti-nui or Tahiti. In speaking of the original homeland they usually term it Irihia, but mention another Tawhitinui as being eleven days sail from the homeland. We also note that at pp. 253, 255, 257, 258 of Hawaiki, 4th edition, occur statements that other Pacific isles, including New Zealand, were formerly known as Hawaiki.

It would be interesting to ascertain if the name of Tuhua was ever applied to Ahu of the Hawaiian Isles. The word tuhua seems to be a variant form of tofua=tohua, employed as a name for several isles of volcanic origin.

There is yet another point to be considered, for the late Mr. Percy Smith has shown that Hawaii of the Hawaiian Isles was known to the Maori, not as Hawaiki, but as Waihi. See p. 174 of Hawaiki, 4th edition.

One Tu-te-rangi-marama was, according to Rarotongan tradition, an important chief of the original homeland. See Hawaiki, p. 137, 4th edition, but Mr. Smith concluded that the voyager of that name who reached Rarotonga belonged to a later period. See pp. 65, 249 of above work. This may - 129 be so, but the Hui-te-rangiora described as a Polynesian voyager in Hawaiki, appears as a resident of Irihia, the original homeland, in certain traditions collected by the present writer. In the Rarotongan genealogies given in Hawaiki, Tu-te-rangi-marama appears as the offspring of Tupua nui o Avaiki. The Tu-te-rangi-marama mentioned in Moriori tradition (Hawaiki, p. 29) appears to be placed far back among mythical beings, and the alleged ancestor of Rarotongans bearing the same name seems to be in a similar predicament. The present writer cannot acquire faith in these far away lines of descent.

Of the first known settlement in Rarotonga, as mentioned on p. 231 of Hawaiki we have no word in the brief Maori account.

We cannot escape from the similarity of names encountered in the account of the Polynesian ancestors leaving the homeland and the tradition of the discovery of Rarotonga and other happenings in Polynesia. A voyager named Hui-te-rangiora sailed eastward from the homeland in a vessel named Tuahiwi-o-atia, while a voyager named Hui-te-rangiora made voyages through the Polynesian area in a vessel Te Iwi-o-atea. Tongaiti was connected with the settlement of Rarotonga and with the homeland. Tu-te-rangimarama of the homeland is said to have been the offspring of Tupua-nui-o-Avaiki. Tu-te-rangimarama the voyager discovered Rarotonga and named it Tipua ki Hawaiki.

It is possible that doubts may arise as to the genuineness of the above record as a Maori tradition. The present writer is inclined to accept the story as such, although he does not like the three names Auiti, Itiakau, and Mokura mentioned therein. There are many slight discrepancies between the Maori and the Rarotongan accounts, as noted in proper names and incidents, though it is quite clear that the two narratives relate to the same persons and the same incidents. Moreover, many of the names and other details of the Rarotongan version have only been recorded for a comparatively short time, principally in the Journal of the Polynesian Society.

An interesting corroborative remark was made by a famous native authority, Te Matorohanga, when describing the drift voyage of Whatonga, and that of Toi to Pango-pango, Rarotonga, and Aotearoa. It was a statement to the - 130 effect that Rangimarama was the first person to reach the island of Rarotonga (Tenei motu e kiia nei ko Rarotonga na Te Rangimarama, ko te tangata tuatahi tera nana i eke tuatahi tera motu). That statement was made forty-five years ago.

It is now proposed to deal with a statement in the final sentence of the recital. The Takitimu vessel is said to have reached Rarotonga, and to have returned to Hawaiki, Rangiatea, and Maui. Now Hawaiki is the old name of Tahiti Island, and the one generally applied to that isle in Maori tradition, Tawhiti and Tawhiti-nui are less often met with. Rangiatea is the island now known as Ra'iatea, but the isle of Maui alluded to calls for special attention. There is no superior island of eastern Polynesia now known by that name. There are several diminutive reef islets near Taha'a island known by the name of Maui, but these seem to be too insignificant to be coupled with the names of the larger islands as in the sentence referred to. As to Maui island of the Hawaiian Isles, situated about 2,000 miles to the northward, it does not seem probable, for several reasons, that that island is the one referred to in the narrative.

In an old tradition of the coming of the ancestors of the Maori from the original homeland, they are said to have reached the isles of Ahu, Maui, and Hawaiki. In another recital describing the coming of Whatonga to New Zealand about 700 years ago, the isle of Ahu is also referred to. Three islands bearing these names form part of the Hawaiian group, and these are said in Hawaiki and other publications to be the ones referred to. But there are certain statements in a number of traditions that seem to refer to isles of these names as being situated much further south. This seems to be clear in the case of Ahu and Hawaiki, but the case for a southern Maui, apart from diminutive islets, is not proven.

We are told in an old recital that Tamatea-ariki, the principal chief of Takitimu when she came to New Zealand, was a person who possessed authority in the islands of Ahu, the twin Maui isles (Nga Mahanga o Maui), Hawaiki, Rangiatea and Rarotonga. Hawaiki was an old name of Tahiti island, and Rangiatea is Ra'iatea. It is improbable that Tamatea possessed such authority in the far distant Hawaiian isles of Ahu and Maui. This is a matter that - 131 calls for further information, but we at least know that several islands of the Society Group have had different names in past times. The isle of Wawau mentioned above was probably Porapora, of which Vavau, called Wawau by the Maori, was an old name.

In the story of Manaia, who came to New Zealand from eastern Polynesia, we are told that his daughter, Hinerauwiri, married Puiaki, son of Tuturangi who was a chief of Ahuahu, an island to the east of Hawaiki and south-west of Maui. If this isle east of Hawaiki [Tahiti] was that now called Maitea, then we must look for Maui in the Paumotu 3 Group; it might be Chain Island [Anaa]. But there is more evidence to hand. In the tradition of What-onga's drift voyage from Hawaiki island [Tahiti] we see that Ahu was also known as Tuhua, 4 and that it was situated far beyond Hawaiki. The visiting contestants in the famous canoe race came from Ahu, “No Ahu aua tangata; ko Tuhua tetahi ingoa o tera motu, kei ko noa atu o Hawaiki.” Hineahu, wife of Tamaahua, was a native of that isle; both of these persons came to New Zealand on Kurahaupo. In another version of the story of Whatonga we are told that the isles of Ahu and Maui lay to the eastward of Hawaiki. “I tetahi wa ka haere mai nga tangata o Ahu, o Maui, enei motu e rua kei te taha rawhiti o Hawaiki.” Ahu and Maui of the Hawaiian Isles lie N.W. of Hawai'i [Hawaiki] of that group.

In an account of the coming of the Arawa, Tainui and other vessels to New Zealand given by Te Matorohanga, he states that Ahu was an abbreviated form of the full name of the island, [and it was certainly not Ahuahu (Mangaia) of the Cook Group] and that vessels sailing to New Zealand should steer south from the isles of Ahuahu, Maui-taha, and Maui-pae. Such a course would never bring them to New Zealand, but, on the other hand, we know that that fleet did not come from Ahu and Maui of the Hawaiian Isles: it came from the Society Group.

Another recital shows that Tamatea was an important chief of Hawaiki, Rangiatea, Rarotonga, and Maui-taha, ‘an island to the west of Ahu.’ This statement clashes - 132 with that in the story of Manaia, given above, and Maui of the Hawaiian Isles lies east of Oahu. Kupe the voyager is said to have reported Aotearoa (New Zealand) to be a much more extensive land than Ahuahu, the two Maui isles, Hawaiki, Rangiatea, and Rarotonga. In the translation at p. 21 of vol. 9 of this Journal, Hawaiki is taken to mean Hawaii of the Hawaiian Isles, and Tahiti is ignored.

At p. 46 of vol. 22 of the Journal of the Polynesian Society, we are told that Hawaiki lies S.W. of Maui, where as Hawaii of the Hawaiian Isles lies S.E. of Maui of that group. If Hawaiki is to be read as Hawaii in some of these recitals, then the island of Tahiti is not mentioned as one of the southern isles occupied by Polynesians. Note on p. 46 mentioned above“ I haere mai ratou i Hawaiki ki Rangiatea, ki Rarotonga.” Also at the top of that page, “Na nga Maori o Hawaiki, o Maui, o Tonga, o Ahu, o Rangiatea, o Nukuroa me etahi atu motu i te taha mai ki Rangiatea.”

At p. 4 of vol. 23 of this Journal we see that D'Urville Island was named Rangitoto because it resembled Rangitoto at Ahu. The folk who named it did not come from the Hawaiian Isles. See also vol. 23, p. 190 and translation at p. 207, where it appears that Kupe and the ‘fleet’ must have come from the Hawaiian Isles. This matter is woefully confused; the course to New Zealand was asked for but not given and the reply seems senseless, it is the course from Hawaii to Tahiti, but Kupe did not come from Hawaii, neither did the ‘fleet.’

Te Whatahoro told us that Ahu or Ahuahu lies east or south-east of Hawaiki (Tahiti). The late Miss Henry informed us that Tuhua was an old name of the island of Maitea or Me'eti'a east of Tahiti (slightly south of east). Meketika is an island name preserved in Maori tradition. All these names pertain to Osnaburgh island. See this Journal, vol. 20, p. 224, vol. 28, p. 196.

We know that the name of Ahuahu was brought to New Zealand and applied to Mercury Island. One of Te Matorohanga's statements was as follows—“It is said that Paikea landed at Ahuahu in this land, but that is quite wrong. That place is Ahuahu at Te Pakaroa, a place at Whangara at Hawaiki; it was the home of Ira and Rua-wharo. Puke-hapopo is on the south side of Te Pakaroa; Titirangi, the home of Tamatea and his folk, is to the west of Puke-hapopo. Pikopiko-i-whiti, the old name of which - 133 was Honoura, lies west of Titirangi.” Here Ahuahu seems to be a place at Tahiti island.

Whangara (in various forms) seems to be a common place name in the isles of Polynesia; there is a Fa'ara at Taha'a island.

In some remarks made by an expert concerning the preservation of the prized lore of the whare wananga, we are told that such knowledge was brought from Wharekura at Te Hono-i-wairua in the homeland to Tawhiti-pamamao, thence to Ahu, to Maui, to Hawaiki a Ruamatua [Tahiti], and to Aotearoa or New Zealand. This name of Ruamatua was brought hither, as we see in the place names of Tura-nga nui a Ruamatua (at Gisborne), and Tamaki nui a Ruamatua (the Seventy Mile Bush area). Tahiti is called Tawhiti nui a Ruamatua by the Maori, and the old name of Tahiti was Hawaiki.

Another statement is to the effect that the isle of Ahu or Ahuahu lies to the tonga ngawi of Maui, and that Hawaiki and Rangiatea lie S.W. of the twin isles of Maui. One informant tells me that tonga ngawi denotes S.E., but tonga hawi is S.S.W. Another states that tonga hawi is between E. and S.E.

Maitea should appear as Maite'a to show the dropped k of an old name of this much-benamed island known as Ahu, Ahuahu, Tuhua, Meketika, Me'eti'a, Maiteka, Maite'a, and now Osnaburgh Island. Bougainville seems to have named it Boudoir Island.

However confusing these numerous extracts may be, it is well to record them, but we urgently need further information anent the old, discarded names of the isles of Polynesia. The present writer is inclined to believe that islands in eastern Polynesia named Ahu and Maui have been confused with Ahu and Maui of the Hawaiian Group, and that the people of Ahu mentioned in the tradition of Whatonga's drift voyage (see Memoirs of the Polynesian Society, vol. 4, p. 97) did not come from Ahu or Oahu of the Hawaiian Isles. Even the Polynesian sea rovers were not in the habit of crossing 2,000 miles of ocean to attend a regatta.

What is wanted is that some person acquainted with Maori traditional history should travel through the Cook and Society Groups, especially the latter, and make enquiries as to places and incidents mentioned in Maori tribal traditions as pertaining to those parts. It would be - 134 necessary for such a seeker to provide himself with copious notes for such a purpose, and that would mean the scanning of a great amount of recorded data. The matter of obsolete island names is highly important in connection with Maori traditions, for our native folk left those parts some five centuries ago. We have learned a few of such discarded names, such as Vavau for Porapora, Hawaiki for Tahiti, Ahuahu for Mangaia, Whenua-manu for Atiu, Arahura for Aitutaki, Maketu for Mauke, and some others. See also vol. 28, p. 196, where Maketu is given as an old name of Maite'a island (also at p. 243 of Hawaiki). At p. 255 of Hawaiki, 4th edition, we are told that Atiapi'i was an old name of Huahine and Uporu an old name of Taha'a island, also that Havai'i (Hawaiki), Ioretea and Urietea were old names of Ra'iatea.

Polynesians ever carried their place names with them, and the evidence seems to show that two series of islands named Ahu, Maui and Hawaiki have become confused in Maori tradition.

Further references to names etc. appearing in the above narrative to be found in this Journal are here given—

Tu-te-rangi-marama. Vol. 27, pp. 179, 183. Vol. 28, pp. 23, 62 to 66 190, Vol. 29, p. 166.

“Hawaiki,” 4th edition, pp. 27, 29, 65, 137, 139, 141, 240, 249, 283.

Tumu-te varovaro Vol. 25, p. 139. Vol. 28, pp. 190, 194. Vol. 29, p. 4.

Nuku-te-varovaro as a name of Rarotonga. Vol. 26, pp. 46, 54.

Nukutere as a name of Rarotonga. Vol. 29, p. 4.

Tupua o Avaiki. Vol. 28, p. 64.

Tongaiti. Vol. 21, pp. 49, 61. Vol. 28, pp. 65, 190. Vol. 29, pp. 1, 2, 3. Vol. 30, p. 132.

“Hawaiki,” 4th edition, p. 239.

Marumaomao Vol. 21, p. 49. Vol. 28, pp. 137, 188. Vol. 29, p. 12.

Marumamao Vol. 30, p. 132.

Toutika. Vol. 29, pp. 2, 3. Vol. 30, p. 133.

Maiteka isle. Vol. 9, p. 213.

1   Tu-te-rangi-marama appears as a Moriori ancestor at p. 37 of vol. 4 of this Journal.
2   See this Journal, vol. 1, pp. 70, 72, 74, 75. Vol. 6, pp. 1-3.
3   The name Tuamotu is replacing Paumotu or Poumotu for the Low Archipelago.
4   See also this Journal, vol. 20, p. 224, and vol. 28, p. 196.