Volume 43 1934 > Volume 43, No. 171 > A grammar of the language spoken by the Kwara'ae people of Mala, British Solomon Islands, by Norman C. Deck, p 163-170
A GRAMMAR OF THE LANGUAGE SPOKEN BY THE KWARA'AE PEOPLE OF MALA, BRITISH SOLOMON ISLANDS.
(Continued from Vol. 43, page 100.)
it out of the box. Fa'asia is used also as a verb, which it really always is, meaning to leave, forsake, depart from: uita la'u ne'e 'oko fa'asi nau?, why hast thou forsaken me?; 'oke fa'asia toa mae ki kike kwaiatoa toa mae ki, leave the dead to bury the dead. Note, when it is a matter of an influence, an institution, or an immaterial thing, the word “from” in English is rendered by the adv. ma'i: fa'ata'inia fuada to fa'anada'a ma'i Heaven, show to them a sign (authentication) from Heaven. But when it is a matter of origin or starting point “from” is rendered by the verb ita, start, with the adv. ma'i: na babataese'anga sa John ru ita ma'i fa'i?, John's baptism from whence is it?; na tatalafa'anga, ba kira saunga'inia bobori kamu ita 'ua ma'i ana boongilana fanoa ne'e i ano, the kingdom long prepared for you from the foundation of the world; nia ga na'a ita ma'i gwauna ka dao i 'aena, it tore from the top to the bottom.
253 Fa'i-nia (nau, 'oe, nia, nida 3rd pl., for full list of inflections see par. 63), with, together with (but not “with” instrumental); short forms, fa'ini, fani: leka ma'i fa'i nau, come with me; nau kui leka fa'ini'o (or fa'i 'oe), I shall go with you; sasi kaidai ne'e muke lafua na sila ki mu kata lafua la'u go'o na koli fa'ini'i, lest when ye pull out the darnel ye may haply pull out the corn also with them (it). Fa'inia is sometimes used instead of the connective ma, and, especially between pairs: wae na'o, ne'e sa Simon, … fa'inia waefuta nia sa Andrew; sa James alako sa Lebedee fa'inia waefuta nia sa John; sa Philip fa'inia sa Bartholomew, the first, Simon and Andrew his brother; James the son of Lebedee and John his brother; Philip and Bartholomew. Note, distinguish the following: fa'i kira or fa'inida, with them, and so tai fa'inida?, who with them?; but tai faida?, who (plur.)?; similarly tai faida ninia?, who are these here?
254 'Usi-a (nau, 'oe, -a, etc.), against, instead of (in opposition to), and so—for (distinguish from usia, exchange, usi'a, market): uu 'usi'o, stand against you, i.e., withstand you; tua 'usia, stay against him (to prevent him from something); leka 'usia or leka fonea, go to stop him; folo 'usia sa John, watch against John's disadvantage, hence, watch over John; 'oko uu 'usia ma, stand against the door; nau ku siu 'usi'o, I wash you against possible defilement or sickness; nia ka du'u 'usikia, he pays back against our loss, i.e., redeems us; nia mae 'usi nau, he dies against my dying, i.e., he dies instead of me.- 164
255 'Ani-a (nau, 'o, nia or -a, etc.), by means of, by, with (instrumental, cf. fa'inia, above); with respect to; concerning, about; into (see examples); short form, 'ani: 'oko tufua 'ai neana 'ania axe nau, cut down that tree with my axe; babataesekamu 'ani mafula, baptize you with fire; fa'asataa 'ani sa Jesus, name him with “Jesus,” i.e., call him “Jesus”; ne'e tarifula 'ania “sa God fa'i kia,” which is interpreted by “God with us”; du'ua ta ma 'ani ta ma, ta lifa 'ani ta, lifa, pay back an eye with an eye, a tooth with a tooth; ngasingasi'anga doe liu ki ka rao 'ani nia, mighty works do work in (by means of) him; 'ani ruru'umua ma'i, (forgive) with your hearts (from your hearts); fa'afuta kwau 'ani ta'i ngela wane, give forth birth with respect to a male child; nau ku fa'arongo'o 'ania fa'arongo'a le'a, I tell thee about the gospel; ka lafua ta'i suli i kakarona ka saunga'i nia 'ani kini, he took out a rib and made it into a woman; 'ani sataku, in my name; fa'atalo 'ania fa'arongo'a ne'e, preach about this news; nia leka 'ana 'ani leka'a nia, he departed (as for him) on his expedition (with others); nia kasi olisida 'ani ta ru, he answered them nothing, lit. he did not answer them by anything; 'oe kosi rongoa ru 'oro ne'e ki nini kira sae 'o ani'i, ki, ne?, hearest thou not all these things with which they accuse thee? 'Ania follows certain verbs: nganga 'ania, charge it; foli 'ania, sell it; ui 'ania, throw it away; abera 'ania, be anxious about it (a present anxiety, though abera sulia has a similar meaning, but abera 'uana involves the future).
256 Ana (aku, amu, ana, etc., neut. pl. ani), of, from (origin, source, material), out of (origin, source, material); pidgin Eng. “along,” on; to express genitive relation and association; distinguish carefully from 'aku, 'amu, 'ana, etc., see par. 85; also compare with ana ne'e, conj. par. 296; this preposition is also used as the displaced object of a transitive verb when an adverb comes in between it and the verb-stem. Examples: nia futa ana David, he was born of David; nia saunga'i nia was ana gegeona ano, he made man out of the dust of the ground; compare: saunga'i nia ana ta?, make it out of what?; saunga'i nia 'ani ta?, make it by means of what?; buka ana isufuta'a sulia sa Jesus Christ, book of the genealogy of Jesus Christ; nia dao tafa ma'i siana ana mo'osubole'a, he appeared unto him in (pidgin Eng. “along”) a dream; ana etangilana ma'i, in the beginning; tae ne'e sa God sasia ana fiana dangi?, what did God do on the seventh day?; afilaku ke dao ma'i ana sa Jehovah, my help cometh from Jehovah; ru 'oro ki ta'ifau fuli ma'i ana, all things originated from Him; ta'i ngela muta'i ma'i ana na Ma'a, the only begotten from the Father; i fa'i nia futa ana?, where was he born (from)?; ana, here, is the complement of i fa'i (see par. 235); tae ne'e nau kui sasia ana sa Jesus?, what shall I do to Jesus?; ma di'ia la'u go'o dangi ba sa Noah tutua ani ki, and as in the days in which Noah lived; mango ana mauri'a, breath of life; taone ne'e kiri kula ne'e doelana rao'a nia ki nia sasi'i ani, the cities in which he did the greatness of his works (i.e., the majority); O 'ae 'o ana fiito'onga'a ti'iti'i!, Oh thou of little faith!- 165
Ana as a displaced object: ngali'i, receive them (neut); ngali sakonga'i ani, receive then freely (no charge); nia fa'ali fa'uta ana oo'onga'a 'oe?, how did he spoil your work?; saefiloda, ask them; saefilo talinga'i ada, ask them carefully; 'oko lista, look thou at it; 'oko lia le'a ana, look thou well at it; kaumulu ba mulu ngali sakonga'i ani, muke kwate sakonga'i la'u go'o ani, freely ye have received (them), freely give (them); see par. 242. The preposition ana is used after certain verbs: dau ana, hold on to it (but dau faafia, catch hold of it); dao ana, arrive at; firi ana, claim it; also nau ku firi ana leka'a, I have decided to go; kwa'u ana, drink of it, kwa'ufia, drink it; to'o ana, have it. Ana is also used to express the verb “to have, ” see par. 186.
257 Ni (uninflected), of, used to express genitive relation, often before verbal nouns, see par. 50. Ni also appears in the following constructions: nau ku tua ni alako'a 'aku, I remain unmarried (a man); nau ku tua ni sari'inga 'aku, I remain unmarried (a woman); nau ku tua ni uruwae'a 'aku, I remain unmarried; nau ba ku dao ni wanekwaitaa, I come as a stranger; kira kasi bo'obo'o ni leka'a kwau, they need not depart.
258 'I, 'e, of, to express genitive relation (distinguish from i locative). For examples see pars. 51, 52.
259 Di'ia (nau, 'oe, nia or -a; 3rd pl. di'ida), like, like unto, as, just as.
Mala (nau, 'oe, 3rd sing. mala, etc), like, like unto, as, just as.
Ilinga'i nia (nau, 'oe, nia, etc.), 'usulia (nau, 'oe, nia or -a, etc.), alafana (-ku, -mu, -na, etc.), more definitely verbs; are used like di'ia with the meaning of “like.”
Bolofa'i nia (nau, 'oe, nia, etc.), correspond to.
All the above are used also where in English we would use a conjunction showing comparison.
As prepositions: nia manata la'u go'o di'i nau, he also thinks as I (do); nia alafe fuana ai ne'e di'ia la'u go'o ai lo'oko, he loves this one just the same as (he loves) that one over there; 'oke lia doe ana wae saea ana wae 'oe ki di'i 'oe 'amu talamu, thou shalt love thy neighbours as thyself; nia sasia ru ne'e ki ka sasi di'i 'oe (or mala 'oe) la'u go'o ani, he made these things making them just as you (made them), here di'i 'oe la'u go'o is an adverbial expression separating the immediate object of sasi from the verb-stem, see par. 242.
As verbs: ?mu kasi di'ida la'u, be not like unto them, see par. 225; fasi 'iri lisilamu kasi di'ia ti wae ne'e abufanga i mana wae ki, so that thy appearance does not resemble men who fast in the sight of men.
260 As conjunctions: sa Jesus fa'amauri kulu fa'asia mafula di'ia (or 'usulia) la'u go'o ne'e na Ark ka fa'amauria sa Noah fa'asia lualua ne'eri, J. saves us from the fire just as the Ark saved Noah from the flood; nia lalili likota'i di'ia la'u go'o 'ae 'o ne'e 'oko lalili likota'i, he raced just as you raced; nia tata'e na'a di'ia ba nia saea, - 166 he has risen as he said; keka sasi di'ia ne'e sa Jesus nia fala-madaro'o fuana (sasilana), they both did just as Jesus had commanded them (to do); na Alako-wae ke leka di'ia nama ne'e kira keresia suli nia, the Son of man goeth even as it was written of him; di'ia nena 'oko saea na'a, just as thou sayest, i.e., yes (Mt. 27:11); ke ba'a leka ma'i, di'ia nini mulu lisia nia leka, he will come as ye have seen him go; sulia di'ia ba mulu sasi 'uri fuana to ta'i kala ai ti'iti'i bore ana waefuta ne'e nau ki, insomuch as ye have done thus unto one of the least of these my brethren; di'ia la'u go'o ne'e na Alako-wae ke tua ana nonifii'a ada, likewise also shall the Son of man suffer of them; 'usulia, la'u go'o ne'e Ma'a nau Heaven ke sasi la'u go'o amua, so likewise also shall my heavenly Father do also unto you; alafana la'u go'o daolana ma'i, Alako-wae, so also shall the coming of the Son of man be; bolofa'inia la'u go'o daolana ma'i Alako-wae, correspondingly also shall the coming of the Son of man be.
261 A number of nouns of position preceded by the locative i form a series of prepositional expressions. This i may coalesce with a preceding ma'i and is sometimes omitted.
262 i saena, in, into, inside, on and into, by (during); sana, and sa, are contractions, and are used like a true preposition: sa rodo, by night; ru'u ma'i sana luma, enter into the family house; ru'u ma'i - 167 saena fera, enter into the men's house; ru 'oro ki sana asi, many things in the sea; nia tua sa luma nia, he is in his family house; kika ifula'i nia fa'asia sana fera ni fo'o, they cleared him out from inside the temple; ngisu sana ano, spit on (and into) the ground; na sina kasi sinafi 'oe sana asoa, the sun shall not burn thee by day; kira foto gwasula ana kula ne'e kwata 'uana sana asi, they (the swine) rushed violently down a steep place into the sea (note the two prepositions); teo sana ifitai, lie down on the bed (lit. inside its area); ra'e 'ala'a lala 'ana sana gwa'i ua, he ascended into a mountain; ka likita'i nia sana gwauna, she poured it out on his head (and into the hair); kike kwaiatoa wane kwaita ki i saena, they bury strangers in it.
Examples of some of the preceding: leka ma'i ko uu i na'oku, come and stand in front of me; ma buri ada sui ta'ifau kini ne'eri ka mae, and finally after then all the women died; alua i fafona table, put it on the table; na Spirit Abu sifo ma'i langi fafona Jesus, the Holy Spirit descended upon Jesus; nau ku tua la'u go'o olofana wae aofia ki, I too am under authority; kika faorai kwailiu i safitada, they took counsel amongst themselves; i malitana toana fanoa, in the public view of the people.
Karangia (nau, 'oe, -a, etc.), near, close to it: tua karangi nau, sit close to me.
Fulingana, about: fulingana kaidai sina (i) afalili, about mid-afternoon.
'Afia, round it. This verb is used in the manner of a preposition: sakali 'afia, fence round it; kwasu 'afia, shine round it; lialia 'afia, watched him round about.
Kali, around: kwai manata'i 'anga ke tua kali nia, mercy shall be around him. Kali is used as a verb thus: 'o ne'e 'oke kali nau 'ani ngu ana fa'amauri'anga ki, thou surroundest me with songs of deliverance; kwasu kalida, shone round about them.
9. CONJUNCTIONS AND LIKE EXPRESSIONS.
Co-ordinate conjunctions: (a) copulative, (b) alternative, (c) adversitive, (d) illative. Subordinate conjunctions: (a) apposition, (b) cause or reason, (c) effect, (d) purpose, (e) conditional, (f) correspondence, (g) time, (h) comparison.
(a) Cumulatice or Copulative Conjunctions.
263 Ma, and. This is the usual connective. When there is a list of things joined by ma, the native, contrary to English usage, usually joins the ma on to the preceding noun and a pause is made before the next item in the series, i.e., kai ma, alo ma, potato ma, kaibia, yam, and taro, and potato, and arrowroot. Ma may be strengthened by la'u go'o: nia dole ma ka aila busu la'u go'o, he is slow and very lazy too.
Fa'inia, fani, together with, is often used where in Eng. we use “and”: Judah fa'inia waefuta nia ki kira ke leka ma'i, Judah and his brethren will come; sui na Pharisee ki fa'inia na Sadducee ki kira dao ma'i, then the Pharisees and the Sadducees came, see par. 253.- 168
There are also a number of consecutive connectives, expressing “then” where there is no illative force implied:
265 Sui, suita, ta, then: sui ana kaidai ne'eri sa Jesus leka ma'i i Galilee, then at that time Jesus came from Galilee; sui ne'e sa Herod na kingi rongoa na'a, then when Herod the king heard it; suita sa Jesus ka 'uri, then said Jesus; ta nia ka 'uri fuada, then saith he unto them; suita na fafarongo ki kika sai na'a ana, then the disciples understood.
Sui ma, go'o ma, sui go'o ma, and then: sui ma nia ka tata'e ma ka ngalia 'ana kala ngela ti'iti'i ne'eri, and then he arose and took (for his part) the young child; go'o ma na kingi ne'eri ka 'uri fuada, and then shall the king say unto them; go'o ma ta ta'i ai ana akwala ma ro was ne'e kiri, and then one of the twelve.
Sui la'u, then again: sui la'u na Devil ka ngalia 'uana gwauna gwa'i ua, then again the Devil taketh him to the top of a mountain.
Sui i buri, then lastly: sui i buri nia ka asunga'i nia la'u fuada alako nia, then last of all he sent unto them his son.
Sui buriana ne'e, then after: sui buriana ne'e kira leka na'a, then after they had departed.
Ma sui la'u, fa'inia la'u, furthermore, again: fa'inia la'u na tatalafa'anga i Heaven ne'e di'ia ta'i furai, and again the kingdom of Heaven is like a drag-net.
266 When the consecutive idea is very strong the adv. fi'i is used as well: ko ada basi fa'inia waefuta 'oe i na'o, suita 'oko fi'i oli ma'i ko fi'i kwatea fo'osi 'oe, first be reconciled with thy brother, and then return and then offer thy offering; ta kika fi'i orefanga, then they shall fast; suita ne'e 'oko fi'i lia le'a 'iri 'oke kaua fulafula ru, and then shalt thou then see clearly to extract the mote, here fi'i may have a weak illative force.
267 Go'o ma ana kaidai ne'eri go'o, and immediately, and straightway; 'una 'eri go'o ma, and straightway; ma ana kaidai ne'eri go'o, and immediately.
Ma tona bore ma, and lo and behold (an element of surprise): nau ku sama go'o to'ona bottle ne'e ma tona bore ma nia 'asia na'a, I merely touched this bottle when lo and behold it fell down.
(Ma) asu ma, (ma) wano ma, (ma) asu bore ma, and suddenly: ma asu bore ma na ifi ne'e tatara fonea mana kadi fera abu liu sana temple ne'e ga na'a, and suddenly the vail of the temple was torn in twain; asu go'o ma aigai ne'eri dao na'a, and suddenly the time arrived. There is a very idiomatic use of ru in the following: ala 'ani nau nau kui kaua ta'i fulafula ru ti'iti'i neana fa'asia mamu ru ne'e ta'i falo teo la'u go'o sana mamu, let me extract that mote from thine eye when behold a beam is in thy eye also.
'Una 'eri ta, sui 'una 'eri, thus then, now (Gr. dè “resumptive”): 'una 'eri ta, ana kaidai ne'e sa Jesus nia futa na'a i Bethlehem, now. when Jesus was born in Bethlehem. But I think that the better way to render this “now” is to simply omit.
Ma leleka ka sui, and it came to pass.- 169
268 Fa'inia la'u with a negative corresponds to “neither”: 'uri ma, kaumulu 'iri sai nama 'ua ana, fa'inia la'u mu kasi manatato'ona lima afu bread?, do ye not yet understand neither remember the five loaves?
No la'u … no la'u, neither … nor; no la'u wae ne'e nini abulata'a, no la'u wae nia futa ada ki, neither hath this man sinned nor his parents; ne'e kira futa no la'u ana 'abu 'i wae, no la'u ana kwaioga'anga ana fasi 'i wae, no la'u ana kwaioga'anga wae, bore ma ana sa God lala, which were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God (rather).
(b) Alternative Conjunctions.
269 Nama, noe ma, or: ai ne'e nama ai neana, this or that; ai ne'e noe ma ai neana, this or if not that; tafi aliali kwau noe ma kie dau'u, run away quickly or (if not) they will catch you; sulia noe ma ke lie ta'a ana ta ai, ma ke lia le'a ana ta ai, nama (i) ke dau ngasi ana ta ai, ma ke kware te'ete'e ana ta ai, for either he will hate the one and love the other, or else he will hold to the one and despise the other; muke fo'o 'iri tafilamua kasi leka la'u ana un 'i gwari, noe ma ana dangi ana Sabbath, pray ye that your flight be not in the winter neither on the Sabbath day; noe ma wae ke ru'u fa'uta sana luma wae ngasingasi'a, or else how can a man enter into a strong man's house?
(c) Adversitive, Antithetical Conjunctions.
270 Bore ma, sui bore, but: nau ku lisia bore ma nau ku 'iri fata fuana, I saw him but I did not speak to him; lisia basi no'o i langi ki, kira noa kasi fasi koli … sui bore Ma'a kamu i Heaven ke sareda go'o 'ada, behold the fowls of the air, they sow not … yet your heavenly Father feedeth them; bore ma ifu 'i gwaumulu ki bore kira to'oma'ini'i na'a, but the very hairs of your heads are numbered.
'Una 'eri bore, 'uri bore, nevertheless, howbeit: 'una 'eri bore nau ku saea fuamua, howbeit I say unto you.
'Ira bore 'ana, in spite of that: 'ira bore 'ana fatalamu, 'oko leka, in spite of what you say, go (another talking to you).
Bore, bore 'ana ('aku, 'amu, etc.), although, notwithstanding, pidgin Eng. “no matter”: nau ku lisia bore, noa niesi lisi nau, although I saw him he did not see me; nau ku teo bore 'aku neisi mo'osu, although I lay down I did not sleep; noa bore ta blanket aku neisi gwari, although I do not have a blanket I am not cold; 'oko ili bore to'ona 'oe noa kosi sasia, although you attempt it you will not do it; bore 'ana, sasi kulu kata fa'afiruteda, 'oke leka …, nevertheless lest we stumble them, go thou ….
Bore ma kira'a bore 'ada talada kikasi idui 'ani ta'i, fa'i 'u'u ada, but they themselves on the contrary will not move them with one of their fingers.
Ma in certain contexts may have an adversitive force: kike sae'e mo ma kikasi sasi'i, they say but they do not; nau ku lisia mo ma kusi fata fuana, I saw him but I did not speak to him (cf. bore ma above).- 170
Ne'e with a negative has the force of “without”: noa ta ai ada kasi 'asi i ano ne'e Ma'a kumu kasi sai ana, not one of them falleth to the ground without your Father knowing it.
(d) Illative, Inferential Conjunctions.
271 Ta ne'e, ta nini(a), therefore, that is the reason that: nia saungia ta wae ta ne'e kike lioa faafia, he killed a man therefore they will hang him (for it); nia tata'e na'a fa'asia wae mae ki ma ta ninia ngasingasi'anga doe liu ki ka rao 'ani nia, he has risen from the dead and therefore mighty works do work in him; 'una 'eri ta ne'e wae ke fa'asia ma'a nia ma tea nia, for this cause shall a man leave his father and mother.
272 'Una 'eri ma, 'una 'eri ne'e, 'uira i ta, 'uira i ma, thus then; a weaker illative than the preceding: 'una 'eri ma ana tata'enga fa'asia mae'a, thus then in the resurrection (whose wife will she be)?; 'una 'eri ne'e nia ka alanga'i 'ani alanga'inga, 'ato, whereupon he promised with an oath; 'uira i ta nuke olita'inia fuana sa Caesar na ru sa Caesar ki, then render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's; 'uira i ma na kerekere'a aabu ke dao mamana fa'uta?, then how shall the Scriptures be fulfilled?; 'una 'eri ne'e kero ro ru ki noa'a na'a, bore ma ta'i noni 'i wae na'a, wherefore they are no more twain but one flesh; sa Jesus ka 'uri fuada, “Ira i ma wa'ingela ne'eri nonida o, ” Jesus saith unto them, “Then are the children free”; 'una 'eri ma leleka ne'e na wae aofia ana o'ola 'i faene ne'eri ke dao ma'i, when therefore the lord of the vineyard cometh.
273 A weak illative may sometimes be expressed by the adv. fi'i before the verb (compare pars. 140, 197, 266): kika arefo liu na'a kika 'uri, Sa tai go'o ne'e ke fi'i mauri?, they were greatly amazed saying, who then can be saved?; si ta wae ke abulata'a ta'ifau bore, nia fi'i ta'a liu na'a, if a man sins once merely, he is then quite undone.
274 A weak illative can also be expressed by the adv. mo (see pars. 231, 233), which also may be used with fi'i above: tae mo?, what then?; fa'uta mo?, how then?; 'oe 'o sa tai mo?, who then art thou?; tae mo ne'e nau kui fi'i sasia ana sa Jesus?, what then shall I do to Jesus?; ma i fa'i mo ninia wae to'o ma'i ana ru 'oro ne'e ki ta'ifau ani?, whence then hath this man all these things?
275 Ma after an “if” clause or an implied “if” clause has an illative force, and has the force of “then,” “very well then,” in this connection it is often preceded by i: o Ma'asi ae di'ia ne'e nia talawarau i ma ala 'ani titiu ne'e ke liu kwau 'ana fa'asi nau, oh my Father assuming it is possible then let this cup pass away (as for it) from me; wae ke mae ma spirit nia ke fa'uta na'a?, (if) a man die then how about his spirit?; nau fasi kui leka ma'i ma kike lui nau, I would (as if) have come so they stopped me; si nia ta'a i ma God kasi rongoa, if he were evil then God would not hear him; si wae ne'e no la'u ana God ninia ma niesi sasi go'o ta ru, if this man be not of God (this man here) then he will not do anything at all; si fasi mae'a (i) bore nee nau kui ba'a mae nama fa'ini'o i
(To be continued)