Volume 46 1937 > Memoirs > No. 14. The Oldman collection of Maori artefacts, p 17-36
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Memoir No. 14
Supplement to the Journal of the Polynesian Society.


Pages 17—27

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[N.B. PLATES 47 to 69 are at the end of the previous article]

159 Chief's Fighting-cloak (ihupuni). Very thick closely-woven flax background. A narrow dark-brown taniko border each side. The outer surface is covered with narrow (⅛in. to 3/16in.) parallel strips of dog-skin with the white hair attached; a thick fringe of similar-cut strips at top and at sides are narrow bands of dark-brown hair edged with hair strips dyed (?) pink; two flax fastening-cords at top. The whole is in perfect condition. Width, 47ins.; depth, 41ins.; weight, 61b. 3oz. This cloak is historic, having been presented to William IV, 1830-37. Accompanying it is a very old document signed by the Maori chief who owned it, reading: “Ihupuni—A garment worn only by chiefs of distinction and never parted with except to persons of the highest rank and as a pledge of entire submission on the part of the donor. Presented to His Majesty by Ra Natenetemanu.”


61 Hand Club (wahaika). Very dense whale-bone, finely carved male figure on back and a parrot-head butt. Eyes inlaid shell, drilled hole for wrist-cord. Length, 17¼ins.; width, 6¼ins.; weight, 2lb. 8oz.

“Brought from New Zealand in 1777 by Midshipman Burr in the Discovery. Given to his sister in Bath who, when an old lady, gave it to Dr. Joseph Hume-Spey, of that town, in whose family it remained until October, 1909.”


63 Hand Club (wahaika). Very heavy bone, finely-grained surface both sides. Large figure finely carved and pierced at back. Mask on butt unfinished, fine colour. Length, 16¼ins.; width, 6ins.; weight, 2lb. 5oz. This club was in the Blenkinsop family for several generations.

62 Hand Club (wahaika). Thin, much worn, stained a deep-orange colour. Large male figure on back. Mask on butt. Length, 16¼ins.; width, 4¾ins.; weight, 1lb. 5oz.


77 Hand Club (wahaika). Very close-grained whale-bone, well carved and pierced male figure apparently holding a mask or head in one hand; eyes inlaid shell. Mask butt pierced with two wrist-loop holes. Very old. Length, 15ins.; width, 4¾ins.; weight, 1lb. 7oz.

622 Hand Club (mere). Whale-bone, large mask butt, one eye inlaid shell, blade shows contemporary shortening. Length, 13½ins.; width, 4⅛ins.

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72 Hand Club (kotiate). Whale-bone, mask at butt, square wrist-loop hole, fine deep-yellow colour with age. Length, 12½ins.; width, 4¾ins.; weight, 1lb.

574 Hand Club (kotiate). Massive whale-bone, well-cut small mask butt with original woven flax wrist-loop (tau) with strips of white dog-skin attached, some hair remains. Broken hole in side of blade evidently made by a bullet. Length, 14⅛ins.; width, 6⅜ins.; weight, 1lb. 13½ozs.


68 Hand Club (wahaika). Heavy wood. Female figure, carved and pierced on back, small mask on butt carved reverse way to usual. Very large hole for wrist-loop. Length, 18ins.; width, 7¼ins.; weight, 2lb. loz. (average weight, 15oz.).

623 Hand Club (wahaika). Exceptionally well-carved female figure, mask at butt inlaid shell, blade broken. Length, 15¼ins.

69 Hand Club (wahaika). Very heavy, much worn, finely-carved and pierced figure, the feet terminate in masks, also another in centre of body. Elongated butt with mask set end on. Length, 16⅛ins.; width, 5⅜ins.; weight, 1lb. 4oz. Ex collection Sir Archibald Lamb, Bt., Beauport Park, Battle.

67 Hand Club (wahaika). Female figure pierced, in high relief, large mask at butt pierced with two square holes for wrist-loop. Very old. Length, 16ins.; width, 5⅛ins.; weight, 15oz. Brought to England by Admiral Lempriere.


65 Hand Club (wahaika). Exceptionally large figure on back showing both male and female attributes. A large eye for shell-inlay on right side of body. A very small mask at butt. One eye of each mask is carved with a spiral in place of the usual shell-inlay. Length, 16ins.; width, 5¾ins.

66 Hand Club (wahaika). Small pierced figure carved in the round, one thigh cut with spiral. Part of the original woven wrist-cord attached. Length, 15ins.; width, 5¼ins.

624 Hand Club (wahaika). Massive. Small pierced figure and butt mask of later design, no hole for wrist-cord. Length, 15¾ins.; width, 7ins.; weight, 1lb. 11oz.

64 Hand Club (wahaika). Beautifully finished and very old akeake wood, large male figure, body of club forms the neck. Two shallow notched recesses on blade, fine mask at butt. Square hole. Length, 13¾ins.; width, 4¼ins.; weight, 10½oz.

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78 Hand Club (mere). Dense whale-bone of fine grain. Butt carved with two masks, eyes inlaid with pieces of European glass beads, drilled hole. Very old fine quality specimen. Length, 19¼ins.; width, 4½ins.; weight, 2lb. 6oz.

79 Hand Club (mere). Bone from whale, remarkably massive and very old; fluted butt; square hole for wrist-loop. Length, 19¾ins.; width, 5¾ins.; weight, 3lb. 6oz.

165 Throwing Weapon (hoeroa or tata paraoa). Cut from whale-bone of fine grain. About half-way down where grip would be are two slight projections carved in great detail with two masks with huge single-feather head ornaments, end broken. Length, 72ins.; greatest width, 3 1/16ins.; weight, 5lb. Extremely old. Label attached: “Found among wreckage on coast by Major-General Newton who presented it to (the late) Dr. Dodson, of Earlsfield, while in New Zealand.”

493 Throwing Weapon (hoeroa or tata paraoa). Very deeply recurved, surface highly polished, pitted with age on one edge, top carved and pierced. Length, 60½ins.; width 3½ins.; weight, 4lb. 2oz.

164 Throwing Weapon (hoeroa or tata paraoa). Finely-grained bone, beautiful orange-brown colour. Top carved and pierced. Two slight projections in middle carved with spiral and lines, evidently a conventionalized form of head with feather (see No. 165). Length, 52¼ins.; width, 3ins.; weight, 2lb. 12½oz. Said to have been given to Queen Victoria by a Maori chief when he came to this country (letter E. E. Francis, 1903).

563 Throwing Weapon (hoeroa or tata paraoa). Dark-brown bone, slight projections in middle, carved top, pierced. A small part of original flax throwing-cord attached. Length, 44¼ins.; width, 2¼ins.; weight, 1lb. 8oz. Ex collection of Mr. George Ireland, Highfure.

113 Chief's Staff (taiaha or hani). Whale-bone, head partly carved. Length, 45½ins.; width, 3⅛ins.; weight, 1lb. 12oz.

152 Digging-implement (ko). Hard brown wood, large mask in relief at junction of blade with shaft. End elaborately pierced and carved with a conventionalized hand with four fingers combined with a head. The step (teka) carved with a crouching figure. Length, 92½ins.; blade, 42½ins. by 3¼ins.; step, 6½ins. by 4ins. high.

625 Digging-implement (ko). Very old specimen. Broad blade and short handle, step of hard dark wood roughly pierced and carved, mask at end. Length, 55ins.; blade, 48½ins. by 4 ins.; step, 6½ins. x 3½ins. Ex collection of the Earl of Ranfurly, Dungannon.

153 Ko-step (teka). Hard black wood carved and pierced. Female figure showing lip-tattooing. Eyes inlaid shell. Length, 7½ins. by 3ins. Ex collection Earl of Ranfurly.

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154 Ko-step (teka). Figure with parrots' heads at ears. In front of body is a curious carved and pierced mask with shell eyes and large open mouth at feet. Length, 8ins. x 3¾ins. Very old.

577 Woman's Staff or a Throwing-weapon. Dark red wood, lower part quadrangular and deeply carved with puhoro designs; two masks at top with pierced tongues and half-way down shaft is a small mask in relief. Length, 59ins.; quad. part, 26ins.

162 Genealogical Stave (whakapapa or papatupuna). Dark brown wood; eighteen projections. Seated figure (5¾ins.) with elongated head on top, the other end is pierced and carved. Length, 53½ins. (enlargement of head on Plate 55). Belonged to Brig.-General A. Grant.

Selection from my collection of eighty taiaha, each showing some variety in their carved heads or in the attached mats of feathers and dog's hair.


58 Chief's Staff (taiaha or hani). Eyes are unusual having double rings for shell-inlay. Woven flax collar bound on below head, quillets (awe) of dog's hair attached (some missing), below this is a raised fine band of carving of two figures. Length, 81¾ins.; width, 3¾ins.; head, 16½ins. Ex collection late Colonel John Harvey, D.S.O., D.L., Ickwell Bury, Biggleswade.

57 Chief's Staff (taiaha or hani). Exceptionally large head, finely carved tongue (arero). A large flax collar or mat (tauri) covered with flax quillets with feathers bound on ends on one side and two larger pendants with tufts of dog's hair (awe); below this is a carved collar of two entwined figures. Very broad spatulate end. R.R. branded on blade. Length, 84ins.; width, 4ins.; head, 19½ins.

626 Chief's Staff (taiaha or hani). Exceptionally old. Highly polished and very heavy wood, pupils of eyes carved. A mask is carved on shaft below head. Length, 74¼ins.; width, 3ins.

60 Chief's Staff (taiaha or hani). Remarkable form. Elongated tongue (12¾ins.) partly ornamented with shallow carving; head is also unusual. Very old. Length, 53¼ins.; head, 15ins.; width, 2¼ins.

492 War Spear (tao). Dark red highly-polished wood, head finely carved; eyes have been inlaid shell; shaft gradually tapers to a point. Length, 124¼ins.; head, 25½ins. Ex Royal United Service Museum.

160A War Spear (tao). Well carved below head; eyes inlaid. End appears to have been cut. Length, 74ins.; height, 16ins. Belonged to the Rt. Hon. Lord Bishop of Ely, Exbourne.

161 War Spear (tao). Hard dark wood, thick end deeply carved, tapering to a point. Highly finished. Length, 81¼ins.

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160B Spear Whip (kotaha). Hard, polished, black wood; female figure carved and pierced at end. Shaft shaped into two grips, notch for cord. Very old. Length, 47ins. For many years in the possession of the Rt. Hon. Bishop of Ely, together with spear No. 160A.

627 Spear Whip (kotaha). Later type. Hard red wood, partly carved figure at handle and a small mask above first grip. Notched at end for cord. Much used. Length, 23¼ins.

166 Battle Axe (tewhatewha) of whale-bone stained deep-orange colour; handle carved with two masks. Bunch of feathers (puhipuhi) suspended from blade. Length, 31¾ins.; head, 4ins. x 3½ins. Taken at Te Ranga 21st June, 1864. Illustrated in Illustrated London News, 24th September, 1864.

565A Powder Flask. Cow's horn engraved with human figure with thigh spirals, arms and hands in European style; head forms the top of wood, well carved with moko designs. A large lizard is clasped in front of body and a snake encircles each leg. A piece of old file inserted in top forming a striker for flint. European-made sling attached. Length, 13½ins.; mask, 3¼ins. Used in last Maori War 1867. Ex collection late Geo. Oakley Fisher. This piece is of particular interest showing good quality old Maori work combined with that of a decadent character (see Plate 35, cartridge-maker).

177 Staff, dark brown wood. End boldly carved with one large eye at top and two at sides. Length, 55ins. Old and much worn.

162 Genealogical Stave. See Plate 53.

628 Head of Figure. Finely carved. Height, 5¾ins.; width, 4ins. Brought to England by Geo. Bennett, Yeovil, 1826, and given by him to Mrs. Pizey, of Bath.

322 Calabash for Preserved Birds (taha) with carved mouth-piece (tuki). Two figures in relief on each side. Diameter, 13ins.; height, 12½ins.

321 Mouth-piece (tuki). Hard close-grained wood boldly carved with two figures. Diameter, 5¾ins.; height, 4½ins. Old label attached: “This was taken from one of the Maori pahs at the war in Napier.”

629 Mouth-piece (tuki). Heavy dark wood deeply carved. Diameter, 5⅛ins.; height, 4ins.

630 Mouth-piece. Very old; shallow carving. Diameter, 4½ins.; height, 3¼ins.

107 Saddle-shaped object. Hard dark wood. Two hook-shaped projections and two large square holes on underside. Attached is a length of plaited flax cord. Length, 15ins.; height, 9ins.; widest part, 5ins. Use unknown. Undoubtedly of Maori make. Very old and worn.

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169 Mussel Dredge Rake (roukakahi). Hard dark wood frame cut from one piece and spliced. Carved with figures at sides and lizard (?) heads at top. Eighteen rough wood teeth bound on with plant roots (?). Width, 39⅛ins.; height, 15ins. Old and much used. Collected by John Dimsdale.

48 Bailer of large canoe (tata). Dark-brown wood, fine shape. Top pierced and deeply carved; mask at junction with handle which terminates in a large parrot's head; shell eyes. A strip of carving runs along underside of bowl. Length, 17½ins.; width, 11ins. Ex collection of Lord Ranfurly.

631 Bailer of large canoe (tata). Smaller. Very old. Length, 16ins.; width, 9¼ins.

632 House Carving in form of a lizard. Very weathered. Length, 19ins.; width, 2½ins.; height, 2½ins.


168 Figure, female, left leg is bent as if stepping up or resting on a step, the right arm is raised above head, the left arm is bent and the large three-fingered hand is resting on body. Serrated shell eyes. Carved from hard nut-like wood; very old and polished. An unusually spirited carving. Height, 5⅞ins.

170 Object. Elaborately carved and pierced; large mask with four holes pierced through the mouth-opening and tongue. The “shaft” is formed of a conventionalized standing human figure, head forming small mask at end. Length, 9½ins.; mask, 4ins. x 2¾ins. Brought to England by one of the earliest missionaries in 1830.

339 Object. Very boldly carved mask with two holes pierced through mouth-opening; notched shell eyes. The shaft is formed in a similar way with figure and head at end. Very old. Length, 12ins.; mask, 6½ins. x 4ins. (The use of these objects is unknown to me. It has been suggested that they may be fishing rod, hand-net handles, parrot snares or perches. The late Major-General Robley believed they were used in some way for thatching (?). No wearing caused by lashing or attachment is evident anywhere on either specimen.)


636 War Trumpet (putatara). Triton-shell body much rubbed with use. A curious piece of hard brown wood, 1½ins. x 1⅛ins., is carefully fitted in hole in shell: carved very thin to curve and bound in position loosely with four lashings. This is apparently fitted to increase the volume of sound. Mouth-piece of hard wood well carved and pierced through in six places; shell-eyes set in sealing-wax. Very old. Length, 9¾ins. See Nos. 35 and 580, plates 33 and 35.

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635 Carving, use unknown to me. Two masks each end, eyes inlaid serrated shell; both of the sides are recessed and pierced through with two large square holes. Unusual and very old work. Length, 9ins.; masks, 2½ins. Somewhat similar to Nos. 170 and 339, plate 57.


39 Hair Comb (heru). Fine-grained whale-bone, very thin, pierced and carved ornament inlaid shell. Very old. Length, 11⅝ins.; width, 4⅛ins.

59 Chief's Staff (hani or taiaha). Head is well carved and the tongue is finely pierced through. Length, 66ins.; width of b., 2⅜ins. Ex collection late Thos. Brynton, F.S.A., York Museum. (This is the only example I have seen with a pierced tongue.)

164 Detail of head of bone hoeroa. See plate 53.

493 Detail of head of bone hoeroa. See plate 53.

78 Detail of end of bone mere. See plate 53.


571 Neck Ornament (hei-tiki). Bright grey-green jade with black veins; well-carved old work. Body is exceptionally raised and is ¾in. thick. Flax neck-cord and bone toggle. 6⅛ins. x 2¾ins.

637 Neck Ornament (hei-tiki). Bright green; grooving down one side; possibly made from an adze blade; pierced with two holes, one through eye. 2⅞ins. x 1½ins.

634 Neck Ornament (hei-tiki). Good even green; much rubbed; two holes have been broken out; legs are remarkably small. 3ins. x 1⅝ins.


101 Fish-hook. Very large; hard brown wood; three-inch tiki figure in relief on side; whale-bone barb, binding loose. The plaited cord is completely covered with string seizing. 9½ins. x 7ins. across.

102 Composite Fish-hook. Hard dark wood; projecting mask at top; very large barb made from a portion of a lower jaw. 3½ins. x 3¾ins. Very old.

103 Composite Fish-hook. Small figure carved at base; small bone barb. 5½ins. x 2¾ins.

104A Composite Fish-hook. Large bone barb, serrated; mask at top eyes inlaid shell. Interesting and very perfect binding. 5½ins. x 2⅝ins.

105 Composite Fish-hook. Bent hard wood; lower edge is serrated; mask at side; very fine bone barb with serrated edges. 5¼ins. x 4¼ins.

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106A Composite Fish-hook. Very old specimen; small bone barb; seized cord attached to top. 5ins. x 3½ins. Wanganui.

106B Composite Fish-hook. Exceptionally fine bone barb with serrated projections. 3¾ins. x 2½ins.

106C Composite Fish-hook. Very wide span; barb made from piece of shell. 8ins. x 8ins. across. Taranaki.


106D Fish-hook. Shank of square piece of rough wood, has been coloured red; bone barb, underside slightly serrated, inserted in hole in wood. Length, 5½ins. Ex the Cuming collection made in 1815-1820.

106E Fish-hook. Whale-bone; finely cut; serrated barb and two notched projections; flax cord. 1⅛ins. x 1in. South Island.

106F Fish-hook. Somewhat similar; two serrated projections. 1½ins. x 1¼ins. South Island.

106G Fish-hook. Very dense bone; enlarged top to hold line; pierced for bait string. Original cords. 2½ins. x 1¾ins. Hawkes Bay.

104B Fish-hook (?). Beautifully cut from whale-tooth; pierced and well carved conventional mask at top; hole in base for baitstring; original tapering flax cord. The point of hook is only 3/16in. from shank; if it had not been for the cord it might have been used as a charm or hei-matua. Length, 2¼ins. x 1⅝ins. Same locality as No. 104A.

106H Ancient Fish-hook. Shank said to be of moa-bone and barb of human-bone; two small knobs on upper end shaped to give hook a jumping action when pulled through the water; hole for line. Length, 3½ins.; width, 1in.

106I Kahawai-hook. Paua-shell inserted in wood; bone barb; very small. 2¾ins. x ⅝in.

106J Kahawai-hook. Entirely of paua-shell; shank of rim; edges decorated with notches. Length, 3¼ins. x 1¼ins.

106K Kahawai-hook. Shank of paua-shell rim; serrated edges; bone barb. 2¾ins. x 1in.

106L Kahawai-hook. Shank of piece of thin paua-shell; a piece of round iron runs along back coming up into a barb. Length, 3½ins. x 1⅛ins. Very old. Label inscribed: “ W. Pacific.” Laughlan's Isle.

97 Fish-hook of Jade. See plate 20. Inserted for comparison with bone hooks.

575 Hei-matua of bright-green jade. See plate 20. Inserted for comparison with bone hooks.

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55 Steering-paddle (urunga). Heavy brown wood; straight blade, back slightly rounded, inside face flat; stony ridge runs down centre ending in a raised design; point of blade slightly thickened. Large knob three inches in diameter at end of handle. Length, 100ins.; blade, 49ins. x 6 1/16ins. (see also plate 65). Ex collection late Thos. Brynton, F.S.A., York Museum.

54 Paddle (hoe). Dark wood finely finished and carved on inside face; end of handle formed into two grips. Length, 71ins.; blade, 43½ins. x 4¾ins. Ex Tucker collection.

53 Paddle (hoe). Somewhat similar; recurved handle figure on top (see plate 65). Length, 67ins.; blade, 41ins. x 6ins.

338 Paddle (hoe). Grey-brown hard heavy wood; straight handle in line with blade, back of which is carved with curious designs. Length, 81½ins.; blade, 47½ins. x 5¼ins. Said to have been dug up from a swamp; part shows considerable weathering. Ex collection M. Udel, Clevedon.

52 Paddle (hoe). Massive. Boldly-carved large mask at junction with blade and handle; end of handle pierced and carved. Old. Length, 80ins.; blade, 46ins. x 6⅛ins.


56 Steering-paddle (urunga). Hard brown wood; leaf-shaped blade, inside face concave, also bent in centre, point is thickened to ½in. A strong ridge at junction with handle, terminating in a parrot's head; round straight handle four inches in circumference surmounted by a 4½in. mask. Length, 84ins.; blade, 42ins. x 5¾ins. and about ¼in. high (see also plate 65). A very old and unusual specimen. The blade-shape and ridge are very similar to those from Manahiki and south-east New Guinea.

633A Paddle (hoe). Recurved handle surmounted by a large mask; a spiral carved on one of the bends, and top of inside of blade slightly curved. Length, 66½ins.; blade, 39ins. x 5¾ins. Collected by H.M.S. Pearl, 1870.

633B Paddle (hoe). Two groups of double masks on handle; blade finely carved both sides. Length, 65½ins.; blade, 39½ins. x 5¼ins. Later work.

176 Paddle (hoe). Very old. Two masks on end of shaped handle, also carved on top of inside face of blade. Length, 61ins.; blade, 37½ins. x 5⅛ins. Ex collection Dr. A. E. Peak.

51 Paddle (hoe). Exceptionally deeply formed grips; large pierced and carved figure on end. Length, 69½ins.; blade, 40ins. x 6¼ins. Very old.

633C Paddle (hoe). Straight handle; carved and pierced figure at top. Length, 76½ins.; blade, 47ins. x 5¾ins.

55 See plate 63.

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633D Paddle (hoe). Very old. Pierced and carved seated figure holding mask in front. Length, 74ins.; blade, 44ins. x 4⅞ins. Ex collection of Earl of Northeske.

633E Paddle (hoe). Straight handle, curious figure with large mask at end. Length, 69ins.; blade, 37ins. x 6¼ins.


(Comparative paddles)

55 See plate 63.

56 See plate 64.

280 Gambia Island Paddle. Brown close-grained wood; huge blade curved and inside face is deeply concave. A curved beak-like projection at end. Raised ridge at top of blade with a lozenge-shaped ornament at back; round handle ending in a small knob carved with a crude mask. Length, 69½ins.; blade, 34⅛ins. x 12ins. Ex Tucker collection.

279 Marquesas Paddle. Dark red-brown wood; inside face concave, back sloping from a centre ridge; round handle ending in a fan-shaped lug, hole on top. Extremely large projecting beak at end. 8½ins. x 3ins. x 1⅛ins. thick. Length, 68¼ins.; blade, 27½ins. x 8⅜ins. Ex Royal United Service Museum collection.

368 Tahiti (?) Paddle. Open-grained dark wood; flat blade slightly bent, inside face has a raised ridge (13½ins.) at point and four carved ornaments (?). The back is carved in relief on upper part, conventionalized human figures, etc., the rest of surface is ornamented with painted designs in black. Turtles, pigs, animals (?) and geometric designs. Round handle with rectangular top, a mask is carved on each face. Length, 78ins.; blade, 35ins. x 6ins. Very old and curious. Ex collection late Thos. Brynton, F.S.A., York Museum.


638 Prow of a Fishing Canoe (waka tete). Hard wood; finely shaped large mask with protruding tongue, small ears in relief; eye-pupils carved in a curious manner; surface coloured red (old); eyes black; back portion is damaged. Length, 22½ins.; mask, 10¾ins. East Coast, North Island.


47 War Canoe Prow (tau-ihu). Very ancient; much weathered and broken; face is carved with spirals, traces of red remain. Length, 45ins.; height, 18ins.; width, 14ins. Ex collection Earl of Ranfurly, Dungannon.

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50 War Canoe Prow (tau-ihu). Dark wood; very finely carved and pierced. A prone figure along top of base and a conventionalized figure looking into canoe; eyes inlaid shell. A remarkably fine and absolutely perfect old specimen.


49 Stern Ornament of a War-canoe (tau-rapa). Finely carved and pierced; some shell-inlay still remains in eyes. Height, 88ins. x 17ins. across centre. Came from Te Puke, Bay of Plenty, with another of about same size very much damaged. See plate 71.

488 Stern Ornament of a War-canoe (tau-rapa). Well carved and pierced but with no fine detail carving; quite perfect. Height, 45¼ins. x 8½ins. across centre. Ex Royal United Service Museum collection. “Supposed to have belonged to Heki's canoe” (exletter).

50A Model Stern Ornament. Well carved and of considerable age. Height, 25ins. x 5ins.

50B Model Stern Ornament. Very finely carved in great detail, top broken; very old piece. Present height, 21½ins. x 6ins. wide.

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Memoir No. 14
Supplement to the Journal of the Polynesian Society.


Pages 29—36

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49A Stern Ornament of War-canoe (tau-rapa). Fragmentary; carving is of the finest quality and very old. Present size, 77ins. by about 10ins. in middle. Came with No. 49, plate 69, from Te Puke.

173 Portion of a House Ridge-pole (tahu). Triangular in section. Extremely hard, heavy, dark-red wood. The figure is in high relief; moko and thigh-patterns are well carved but the arms and hands show later work and on right arm the name (possibly the owner of house) KOTEW-HANAPA-RAOA is cut. The thighs of another figure are shown when it has been cut through. Present length, 62¾ins. x 16½ins. wide x 15ins. thick to apex. Weight, approx., 3cwt. Formerly the property of Mr. A. E. Nelson.


640A House-figure. Hard wood; face well cut with moko designs, the rest shows later work. Surface has been painted with European paint. Original wood surface shows some weathering. Height, 53½ins. x 11ins. wide. Ex collection Earl of Ranfurly.

639 House-figure. Very ancient; curiously-carved figure. The wood is much decayed as if it had been buried in swampy ground. Height, 49½ins.; width, 10ins.

640C Portion of a Door-lintel. Cut from kauri; massive plank two inches thick. A raised ridge of figures runs down centre. Interesting showy carving in various stages of completion. Old work. (The sides have been cut down.) Height, 51ins.; width, 10½ins.


681 Tekoteko Figure holding mere. “Hori” cut on arm. The head, which is very deeply carved with moko, is hollowed out and eyes pierced through. Thighs also carved with spirals. The tattoo-designs are coloured with black. Height, 37ins.; figure, 25ins.

490 Figure of Chief. Face moko finely carved; eyes have been inlaid with shell. Height, 29ins.; width, 11ins. Extremely old piece.


148 Standing male figure, finely sculptured from heavy close grained brown wood. Face, thighs and small of back finely carved. The eyes are treated in a very exceptional way, the eye-lids, forming slits, are in relief and filled in with red sealing-wax. A small sunk eye to attach a cord is cut at back of head. Height, 18ins.; width, 6½ins.


147 Standing male figure, very ancient. Finely cut moko on face, ears pierced. Height, 20½ins.; width, 4¾ins. Brought to England by Captain James Wilson of the Duff, 1796-98.

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149 Standing male figure. Large serrated shell eyes, large pierced lug at back. Much worn and polished with handling. Height, 14ins.; width, 4½ins. Collected by Captain James Wilson, 1796-98.

40 Head from a house-figure. Heavy brown hard wood, sharply-cut moko. Three holes in projection on top of head. Height, 18ins.; width, 9¼ins.

142 Head (parata). Dark wood, shell inlaid eyes, no pupils. Square cavity at back probably for fixing on end of house-beam. Height, 13ins.; width, 10ins.


143 Very large mask (parata) from house-gable. Hard brown wood finely carved in high relief, pierced through at mouth and eyes which are inlaid with shell, nose has a deep ridge in centre. Height, 22ins.; width, 15¾ins.

144 Very large mask (parata) from house-gable. Very massive and finely carved, shell eyes. Height, 22ins.; width, 16ins.


141 Trespass or tapu mask (rahui). Cut from a solid piece of very heavy nut-like wood, finely carved with moko. Small ears, pierced and projecting at back. Cavity at base for placing on a pole. Much worn and highly polished. Height, 10ins.; width, 4¼ins.; depth, 3½ins.

146 Trespass or tapu mask (rahui). Heavy brown wood, worn and polished with handling. A square cavity at back for erecting. Shell-inlaid eyes, small projecting ears. Height, 13ins.; width, 8ins.


489 Central board or carving from the front of a store-house (pataka). Main figure in high relief with especially fine face-carving. The heads of the two attendant figures, male and female, on each side have been cut, also the door-post extensions at base have been cut off. The surface was originally coloured with a blue-grey pigment made from a slimy clay (tutaewhetu); this colour is said to have been used only by the Ngati-porou in the Waiapu district. Height, 36ins.; width, 18ins.

PLATES 79, 80, 81 and 82

Fragments of a very old food-store or pataka. Very similar to the carvings from a celebrated store called Maru, Ngati Whakaue, Lake District, North Island. Illustrated in Hamilton's Maori Art, plate 19. All the spirals have notched ornamentation called taratara-o-kai. Brought to England by Admiral Sir Michael Seymour of Cardlington (died 1850).

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174A Portion of a barge-board, maihi, 46ins. x 20½ins.

B Portion of a barge-board, maihi, 49ins. x 17½ins.

C Portion of side-board, pakitara, 51ins. x 15ins.

D Portion of side-board, pakitara (carving unfinished), 35ins. x 16ins.

E Portion of a threshold, paepae, 55½ins. x 15ins.

F Portion of a front plank, 53ins. x 7½ins.

G Portion of a front plank, 44ins. x 8¼ins.

H Portion of a front plank, 38½ins. x 7¼ins.

I Portion of a front plank, 29ins. x 3¾ins.

J Portion of a front plank. Figure, female with female child. Different style of carving; very old. 43ins. x 7ins.

K Portion of a front plank. Figure, female with female child. child. Different style of carving; very old. 42ins. x 11ins.


632C Fragment of a large war-canoe stern-post (tau-rapa). Fine work and very old. 21ins. x 6ins.


632D Part of a storehouse-threshold (paepae). Of great age. Has been cut in two and joined together. Found in bottom of an old lake in Petworth Park. 49ins. x 16ins.


640B House-carving. Good old work but showing four-fingered hands. The nose has a deep groove in centre, portion of one original shell eye remains. Edge of board is pierced with nine large square holes. Present size is 63ins. x 14½ins. Old label attached: “Piece of carved slab from the interior of Maori Council Chamber formerly standing at Morea, Lake Rotoiti, N.Z. Given to Captain Dudley Alexander, Littlebourne, S. W. House D.” Ex. Collection of the late Earl of Ranfurly of Dungannon.

682 House-carving. Male figure in low relief (head missing) clasping a female child. Sunk eyelets are cut on both edges for lashings. The eyes of child and one hand of big figure have been inlaid with shell. Very old work. Length, 53ins.; width, 10⅜ins. Ex. Collection of the late C. J. Tabor, Wansted.

41 Overdoor (pare or korupe). Very dense and extremely heavy wood, nearly black; boldly carved with a central female figure and four “lizard-bodied” figures in relief; the two end figures are sideways with their hands coming out of mouths. Two large sunk eyelets for lashings are cut in back. Length, 83ins.; height, 14ins. Taranaki district. Extremely old.

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42 House-lintel (korupe). Three figures, female and two male in low relief, pitau spirals in between; two large manaia heads below side figures; some shell-inlay in eyes remain; traces of red pigment in carving. Fine quality work and very old. Width, 60½ins.; height, 21ins. Te Puke, Bay of Plenty.

494 Small storehouse outer-threshold (paepae or paepae-kai-awha). Manaia figures each side of central mask and at ends. Has been recently recoloured red. Width, 50¼ins.; height, 8ins. Illustrated in Dominion Museum Bulletin, No. 5, page 13.


579 House-lintel (korupe). Similar to No. 42 but not so massive. Dark wood, exceptionally finely carved and old. Width, 43ins.; height, 13½ins.

45 Door-jamb (whakawi). Three male figures in high relief; legs pierced through; extremely fine old carving. Height, 37ins.; width, 3½ins.

150 Carving (tekoteko?). Female figure on top with hand raised to head; lower male figure (incomplete) has the head pierced through at eyes, nose and mouth. Projecting lug at back. Height, 33½ins.; width, 5ins. Brought to England by Captain James Wilson of the Duff, 1796-98.


43 Door-lintel (korupe). Large central figure, manaia heads each side in the pierced carving; eyes inlaid-shell; very old. Width, 26½ins.; height, 12½ins.

632B Small door-jamb (whakawi). Crude work, much weathered Height, 27½ins.; width, 3ins. Old label attached: “Ngawae-wae from the door porch of a Maori whare (house) that formerly stood at Whakatane.”


44 Figure from a door-lintel. Beautifully carved in very high relief; body and legs pierced through, almost detached from main carving. Fingers are carved with small masks, two very large manaia heads each side of head. Surface is highly polished; cut from very dark heavy wood; traces of red remain in carving. Width, 16½ins.; height, 15ins.

153 Digging-stick-step (hamaruru or teka). Hard black wood; female figure showing lip-tattooing.

154 Digging-stick-step (hamaruru or teka). Curious openwork mask in front of body. (These two steps are described fully at plate 53.)

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628B Feather-box (waka-huia). Two female figures in high relief each end; exceptionally highly-domed lid. Length, 21½ins.; width, 8ins.; height, 5½ins. This fine specimen was brought home by Geo. Bennett of Yeovil and presented to Mrs. Pizey of Bath in 1826; she had it converted into a work-box by mortising four carved legs into base, hinging lid and lining inside with tooled leather; below base was fitted the finely-carved head cut from a figure, see plate 89. (So the Westerner “embellished” fine old Maori work.)

684 Feather-box (waka-huia). Exceptionally heavy nut-like dark wood, fine carving, two female figures at ends, small masks at ears. Lid is sunk into a deep rebate with a broad carved rim. Two eyelets are cut in top of lid for securing. Length, 22ins.; width, 7½ins.; height, 4½ins. Ex. collection late Edward Jekyll of Brockley.

8 Feather-box (waka-huia). Soft brown wood, well carved possibly with stone tools. Two figures at each end (male and female), eyes of female figure are curiously pierced above the protruding pupils. The male head has a spiral cut above eyes. The carving has been coloured red and black. Extremely old specimen. Length, 25ins.; width, 6ins.; height, 3¼ins.


683 Feather-box (waka-huia). Shallow square type, deep recess for lid, of heavy nearly black wood. Base has a curious raised band of carving joining the projecting heads at ends, consisting of highly-conventionalized entwined human bodies combined with two large manaia heads; serrated shell eyes, three of these are also inserted on top of end masks. Length, 17¾ins.; width, 5¼ins.; height, 2⅛ins.

139 Small box supported on back of a crouching male figure, the large head is particularly well carved; eyes have been inlaid-shell; base defective. There are signs that this box has been used for a fatty substance (see note at plate 35, No. 171). Length, 6ins.; width, 3¾ins.

687 Head of a manaia broken from a large carving; beak-like mouth; tongue pierced through at back; nose is very curiously formed (No. 639, plate 71, shows same form); large shell eyes. Height, 5½ins.; width, 3½ins. Very old.

628A Head from a figure. Finely cut moko. Height, 5¾ins.; width, 4ins. This had been mounted on base of stand made for the feather-box brought home by Geo. Bennett. See plate 88.

686 Club (wahaika). Hard brown wood, notch in edge is exceptionally high up; well carved pierced figure on back and a large manaia head at butt. Length, 18½ins.; width, 6½ins.; weight, 1lb. 8ozs. Exceptionally large and old specimen.

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564 Sinker. Hard dark grey stone, top of eye carved with a mask and base covered with well-cut spirals. Height, 3ins.; diameter, 1¾ins. Ex. collection of Geo. Ireland of Highfure.

325 Fern-root (paoi) or flax-beater (patu-whitau). Heavy volcanic stone; mask with ridged forehead carved at butt; very old. Length, 10¾ins.; diameter, 3ins.; weight, 41b. 2oz.

324A Club or flax-beater. Heavy brown wood; quadrangular section; blade coarsely carved and much worn; fluted butt. Length, 14½ins.; width, 3½ins.; by 2¼ins. thick.


324B Flax-beater or club. Light-weight brown wood, nearly round in section, deeply carved. Grip has a carved butt with large disc of shell in end; original fibre cord. Length, 16¾ins.; width, 2¼ins. The form of the handle appears to be late but it is from the museum at Charlton House formed by Sir Spencer Maryon Wilson, Bt. (Lt. R.N., born 1829). No. 24 (g) in his original catalogue.

324C Flax-beater or club (patuki). Heavy dark red wood. Quadrangular section; blade finely carved with spiral designs; butt carved with two masks (unfinished); square hole for wrist-cord. Length, 14¾ins.; width, 2⅜ins. x 1⅝ins.

70C Club of jade (mere pounamu). Bright green with black mottlings; grooved butt. Wrist-loop (tau) is of folded strip of hide, said to be of human skin. Length, 15½ins.; width, 3¾ins. Belonged to Admiral Mark-Kerr, collected about 1850.

70D Club of jade (mere pounamu). Very finely coloured dark green stone; irregular-shaped grooved butt. Length, 13¾ins.; width, 3¾ins.; A very old and much handled specimen.

70B Club of jade (mere pounamu). Dark green. Curious large wrist-loop hole showing double drilling on one side. Length, 12¾ins.; width, 3¼ins. Ex. The Rosehill Collection (Earl of Northeske).

111 Adze-blade (toki). Beautiful bright even-green stone, under face worked to a very slight central ridge, hole drilled in end. Length, 8¾ins.; width, 2⅝ins.; ½in. thick.

180 Slab of jade (pounamu). Fine even dark colour, in the process of being worked by native craftsman; two pieces for ear-pendants nearly detached by deep grooving, another portion is marked out for a tiki or adze, on the under-side the surface is partly polished as if to form a mere. Very old work. Length, 16¾ins.; width, 8ins.; 2½ins. thick. Weight, 14lb. 6ozs.


76 Chisel (whao). Dark green jade; sides showing grooving; edge sharpened from both faces. Length, 8⅞ins.; width, ⅝in.; ½in. thick.

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688 Needle. Even-coloured pale green jade; very slender; drilled eye. Length, 9ins.; diameter, ¼in.

685 Neck-ornament (hei tiki). Bright even deep green; fine work on head; one shell eye. Plaited flax neck-cord with a wing-bone toggle (cracked). Traces of red pigment in carving. Female. Height, 4¾ins.; width, 2⅝ins.

108 Neck-ornament (hei tiki). Bright even medium green; large pierced openings under arms; hands resting on thighs; fingers particularly well carved. Female. Height, 3½ins.; width, 2⅜ins.

109 Neck-ornament (hei tiki). Very dark mottled green; small eyes of a type similar to plate 15, No. 88. The hands on thighs are remarkably clearly carved. Plaited flax neck-cord and bone toggle. Height, 4¼ins.; width, 2½ins. Ex. collection of Dr. Frazer of Dublin.


46 Pair of stone sculptures; door-jambs (?). Cut from hard, not soft, grey stone like a millstone-grit. The left-hand figure, A, is bady perished, but both have had life-like rounded modelled limbs reminiscent of ancient Indian sculpture; the heads are typically Maori with protruding tongues; spirals on foreheads and cheeks, etc. The hands of B have four fingers. The back portions are cut into a series of ribs resembling a modern iron radiator!, five ribs on one side and eight on the other. The five ribs are on the inside, i.e., on right of A and on left of B. A carved roll runs along each top. They are undoubtedly of considerable age and much weathered. A, 18½ins. high, 15ins. deep, 8½ins. wide. B, 20½ins. high, 15ins. deep, 7½ins. wide. 1 They were brought to England early in the nineteenth century by a sea captain; no other information is known.


389A Fine cloak. Very fine quality flax; taniko borders along three sides. Width, 76ins.; sides, 56ins. and 61½ins. Borders, 5⅛ins. and 4⅝ins wide. Very ancient specimen.

389B Fine cloak. Finely-woven borders on three sides. Width, 65½ins. Sides, 54ins. and 52ins.; borders, 4¾ins. and 2½ins. Each of the side-designs is slightly different. Fine and old work.

389C Fine cloak. The inside surface of flax is dyed a dark colour. Width, 77½ins. Sides, 44ins. Fine bottom border, 7¾ins. wide. Sides, 1in. wide.

389D Small cloak. Coarser flax-work not so old as the first three. Bottom of cloak is wider and curved. Feathers have been - 36 stitched on surface in eleven rows, mostly now missing. Good design border but a small amount of coloured wool has been introduced in the design. Width, top 44ins., bottom 50ins. Sides, 27ins. Border, 5⅝ins. Sides, ¾in.

389E Kiwi cloak. Very soft flax back; roped top; very thickly covered with fine kiwi feathers of an exceptionally beautiful even golden brown. Width, top 59ins., bottom 52ins. Sides. 38ins.

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PLATE 92, Fig. 1, Fig. 2
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1   These figures were reproduced in J.P.S., vol. 42, p. 226, and are included here so as to be among the figures of artifacts in this collection of which they form part.—ED.