Volume 46 1937 > Volume 46, No. 181 > The Pacific and circum-Pacific appearances of the dart-game, p 1-23
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Continued from Vol. 45, No. 4, Page 126.
THE APPEARANCES OF THE DART-GAME

simplicity, although the Penobscot and Passamaquoddy, apparently the easternmost players of the game, seem to lack the elaborations found among the Iroquois.

That the game was not brought into New York State by the Iroquois in their northward migration seems likely in view of the lack of any indications that it was ever played by the southern members of the Iroquoian linguistic stock or by other south-eastern tribes. That the game was not an ancestral one of the Algonkian-speaking peoples seems indicated by its lack among the Montagnais-Naskapi bands of the Labrador peninsula and the Micmac of Nova Scotia. There is no information either affirmative or negative for the other New England tribes, the more southern Algonkians of the middle Atlantic states, or those in the Ohio valley.

Whether the game was known to the Algonkian groups of New York State and the Great Lakes area prior to the Iroquian invasion cannot be ascertained, but it seems certain that the game is centred in this region, that most of the elaborations noticed are very recent and that many of them are contributions of the Iroquois.

All this evidence suggests that the game is indigenous to eastern North America, that it has been diffusing westward toward the Pacific coast and that it may have originated in relatively recent times.

THE CALIFORNIAN APPEARANCE.

West of the Rockies the dart-game has been reported for only a small region centred in the San Francisco area among the Pomo, Topinagugim, and Nisenan tribes, and to the south, among the Yokuts. It seems hardly necessary to state that in this region the game was played only upon the ground. On the basis of the little information available, the darts seem to be rather plain tapering sticks from three to four feet in length. They are thrown by the whirling method, at least by the Nisenan. The Topinagugim, however, in addition to casting by hand, employ a whip, the details of which are not available (fig. 9c).

On the basis of present information, it is by no means certain that the Californian game is historically related to that east of the Rockies. The use of the whip by the Topinagugim and by the Sac and Fox must be ascribed - 2 to independent developments. Basically, however, the Californian game is not unlike the game of the Plains tribes. In both regions a javelin-like type of stick is used and is thrown by the whirling method. At first glance, therefore, it would appear that the Californian appearance may represent a westward extension of the eastern games. However, these traits are rather simple and do not impress one as valid evidence for linking the game in California with the eastern distribution, in view of the apparent total lack of the game among other Californian tribes, which have been intimately studied, and among the tribes of the Plateau area. Furthermore, as we have seen, the game seems to have been diffusing westward toward the Plains and this does not support a contention of a recent eastern derivation for the Pacific coast appearance. At the same time there is no evidence for assuming that there may have been an ancient diffusion to California, for the game appears to have undergone a rapid expansion in the East in post-Columbian times and, it seems likely, was confined to a relatively small area in the Great Lakes region a few hundred years ago. Future investigation in the Plateau and Californian regions may bring to light information to indicate an eastern derivation but for the moment we must consider other possible origins.

The geographical location of the dart-game on the Californian coast introduces the possibility that Oceanic influences may be responsible for the appearance in this area. The information we have from California is not sufficient to permit a detailed comparison with the Hawaiian or Polynesian game; however, it is to be noted that the whip is found in both areas. Aside from this similarity, there are few resemblances. The darts themselves are too plain to be seriously considered as an indication of historical relationship, and in California the whirling method of throwing is employed, whereas in Hawaii and Polynesia casting is done by the forefinger. It is possible that the Hawaiian club-like moa-hoo-holahola was thrown by whirling, but even if this became established it would offer little support to the theory of an Oceanic derivation since club-like darts have not been reported in California.

For the time being, the only valid reason for suspecting a possible derivation from Oceania is the use of the whip, - 3 which loses much of its importance as a basis for assuming historical relationship when we note that it was developed independently by the Sac and Fox. Certainly the Californian appearance impresses one as having much more in common with the game in the eastern United States and Canada than with the Oceanic occurrences.

A third possibility is that it represents an indigenous development in California. Such a condition would be by no means an unreasonable conclusion in view of the isolated appearances and lack of satisfactory indications of relationship with either the eastern distribution or the appearances in the Pacific.

That the dart-game might develop independently in a number of regions should not be considered as unusual or remarkable. In all parts of the world competitions with javelins or throwing-clubs, bows and arrows, or other weapons as tests of skill and strength are common. In all such instances, there is a nucleus for the development of a dart-game which basically involves only the concept of throwing sticks with such a low trajectory that they will glance off the ground and ricochet or slide along the surface. Such a performance is probably common knowledge to all peoples, but most tribes seem not to have been impressed with the possibility of utilizing this knowledge for competitive sport. It is only within each of the various distributions considered that we find such similarity in detail and contiguity of appearance that there is no doubt but that each of these occurrences is the result of a diffusion from its own centre.

In all areas the game, by definition, requires the use of darts, but these are either so simple in form that there is no basis for comparison, or, if of peculiar shape or of a complex nature, so limited in distribution that the independent developments in various regions are obvious.

For instance, we have noticed composite darts in Central Polynesia, central North America and a beginning of the custom in Victoria. A notch in the butt is of wide-spread use in eastern North America, but is also found in the Pacific. The whip appears independently in Polynesia and in North America.

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The use of natural or artificial take-off mounds, of prepared courses and the like, appear in each major distribution but are not ubiquitous in any region.

In manner of throwing darts, the two most common methods are by whirling or by the use of the forefinger placed at the butt of the dart. Both methods are undoubtedly determined by the physical characteristics of the darts employed, for both are perfectly natural methods of casting sticks. The custom of the competitors running to a dead-line in making their throws, another trait found practically everywhere where the dart-game is played, also must be regarded as natural.

It would thus appear that, granted the idea of throwing darts as a sport in any area, the manner of holding the dart, the running to a line, the selection of a suitable course and other general features of play might automatically follow the same basic pattern. In other words, the odds would seem to favour more or less similar appearances of traits of this type, even at the beginning of independent developments. As a result of experience and experimentation, it is also natural for differences to be developed, although many of the innovations and elaborations are, as we have seen, remarkably similar in their various localized appearances.

It would seem, therefore, that what at first glance appear to be remarkable similarities in the dart-game in a number of regions, resolve themselves into what are only superficial resemblances. Certainly there is every reason to believe that the Gran Chaco game is entirely unrelated to the other appearances and there seems to be no reason for suspecting that the game in the eastern United States and Canada has any relationship with the teka game of Polynesia.

In the Pacific, on the other hand, in spite of the fact that in some cases thousands of miles separate the appearances, we have found logical reasons based upon routes of migration and apparent directions of diffusions, for believing that the games in Polynesia, Australia, and Assam may be related. In North America a relatively recent westward diffusion from the Great Lakes area to the Plains appears to be indicated and for this reason the Californian - 5 appearance seems to present an independent character. At the same time the possibility must be admitted that additional evidence may favour a historical linkage of the latter with either the Eastern distribution or with Hawaii in spite of the fact that either possibility seems remote at this time.

On the basis of present information the dart-game would appear to be a good example of how similar culture-complexes may arise independently in different parts of the world and, through processes of convergence and parallel development, finally reach the point where they appear in a superficial observation to be in many ways quite identical.

NOTE—In line five from foot, page 106 of September number, please substitute: (ulu, head; toa, hardwood).

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DISTRIBUTION IN OCEANIA.
REGION NAME DESCRIPTION COURSE MANNER OF THROWING REMARKS AUTHORITY
Fiji tiga, ulutoa Reed shaft, 3-4ft.; hardwood head, 6ins. Long level space, clear of grass, 100yds. or more. Forefinger See Partington, no. 117. Williams, p. 62; Williams and Calvert, p. 128.
  tiqa (tinga), ulutoa Reed shaft, 3-4ft.; male head, 6ins., female head, 6ins. Village street Forefinger The wooden heads are of two types: male (with spike) ulutoa tingani; female (with orifice), ulutoa eleoa. Fieldnotes
  tiqa     Hocart, page 91, speaks of a “spearthrower.” Possession marks. Pigs counted. Codrington, p. 3.
  tinka, ulutoa Reed shaft, 4ft.; hardwood head, 4ins. Bare stretch, 100 x 10yds.   Ulutoa said to be a Tongan term by Hocart, p. 91. Thompson, p. 330.
  tika, titika   150 x 5-6yds.     Erskine, p. 169.
  veitingga toa “Spear,” 3-4ft., with head. Clear space 150 yards long. Forefinger   Deane, pp. 15-16.
Lau Group, Fiji tingga, ulutoa Reed shaft, hardwood head.   Finger over butt or loop of string at butt. Now obsolete; players in teams ulutoa said to be a Tongan term. Hocart, p. 91.
Rotuma   Reed shaft, 4ft.; hardwood head, 3-6ins.   Forefinger Said to be Fijian Gardner, p. 487.
Tikopia tika (ulutoa type) Reed shaft, 3ft.; hardwood head. Banked level stretch 13 x 6 or 7 yards, called marae. Two-way course. Finger over butt or projection ring (faketona). 12-20 players on a side; sometimes thrown 150yds. or more. Firth, pp. 64 et seq.
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Anuda (ulutoa type)       Field Museum collections. Dr. A. B. Lewis.
Ellice Islands (Funafuti, Nano-mana) jiga, urotoa The whole dart 3ft. 6ins.; hardwood head, 8ins., of which one-third is spike.   Same as for ulu-toa of Fiji. Head-weight, 4oz., shaft-weight, loz. Hedley cites Gill for Nanomana. Hedley, p. 303.
(Vaitupu) tika Shaft of light wood, peeled; head of heavy wood.   Held like javelin; thrown underarm. Darts were thrown through a barrier such as section of canoe hull 20yds. from takeoff. Kennedy, p. 121.
Banks Islands and New Hebrides tika     String in Santa Maria. Played by two parties, decimal system of counting in Mota, quinary system at all other times. Codrington, page 236. See also Sam-well who states game to be common in New Hebrides, p. 253 (p. 60).
Tonga ulutoa       Very little information; ulutoa is said to be a Tongan term for hardwood head; it is common among neighbouring groups. Hocart, p. 91. Game mentioned by Linton, p. 483; and Samwell, p. 253 (p. 60).
  teca       A boyish sport. Mariner, II, p. LXXXVII; see also Best, p. 37.
Samoa ti'a, ulutoa Cane of plain peeled stick, hardwood head. Clear space in village, slight rise preferred. Forefinger at butt; short run; overhand or under hand; also cord or whip. Judges appointed. Dart urged to “fly to Tonga.” Buck, 1930, pp. 566 et seq.
  tangatia Light stick. A road made smooth and hard.     Brown, p. 340.
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REGION NAME DESCRIPTION COURSE MANNER OF THROWING REMARKS AUTHORITY
  litia Peeled stick, 8-10 feet.     Many contestants, village against village. Losers pay for feast. Wilkes, II, p. 136.
  ole tangatia Light rod, a peeled stick.   Forefinger Thrown down and caused to glide 30-40yds. or more. Stair, pp. 138-139.
Niue ulutoa type Reed shaft, hardwood head.       Buck, 1930, p. 566.
  tika Kafika wood, blunted head. Smooth turf. Finger over butt.   Loeb, p. 117.
  ta-tika 5-ft. light shaft, heavy head.       Best, p. 37, citing P. Smith; see also Firth, p. 64; Frederici, p. 456.
Cook Islands okaoka Teka cane or slim rod of hau (Hibiscus tiliaceus); 2 spans in length, front end usually bound with strip of hau bast or Pandanus. Stretch of village wood; darts thrown from one end then the other; inclines or mounds are natural and not artificial. With both hands, right forefinger at butt, left supporting the shaft; not ricocheted from mound. Extra length makes dart go straighter. Buck, 1927, pp. 335-340 and correspondence.
  tumu-tumu Always of teka wood, 2-4ft. long; 3/10in. to 2/5in. in diameter; head end thicker and mound with strip of hau bast which may be twisted into cord or banana trunk fibre (kua).   Thrown with one hand against a mound or incline. Bound end called kouma; binding made to correct tendency to fly upward and so lose distance; coating of bread-fruit gum (ta-pou). These dart games are unusual in that 6 rather than 10 is the winning number. There are also special terms used. The usual numerals are indicated in parentheses. 1. Kereti (tahi). 2. Karua (rua). 3. Kiha (toru).
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  teka-ta-manuhiri Teka-cane head, 1ft. 4ins. long; tail of midrib of coconut leaflet stuck into pith canal.   Knotted throwing cord made of a strip of hau bast; thrown against mound or directly into the air; knot near base; cord not spiraled.   4.Kiono (ha). 5. Ituku (rima). 6. Re (ono). Re, victory.
  teka-kiore Pointed wooden head 10ins. long and a little thicker than thumb; coconut-midrib stuck in blunt end of head (cf. fig. 2a).   Thrown against mound to cause it to rise high in air. Height, not distance, is the objective. Kiore, rat. Named after ability of rat to climb high in the trees. Skill in casting darts said to have come from the Ngata-ariki who lived in the land of Iva.
  teka-kokihi Wooden rod.   Whip (handle and knotted cord of hau bast); dart rests on ground and is thrown into the air; cord is spiraled before dart is placed on ground.    
        Forefinger; cord; whip.   Buck, 1927, p. 338; 1930, p. 664.
Harvey Islands-Mangaia           Gill, 1876b, p. 179; 1876a, p. 65.
Tahiti aperea Reed, 2½-3ft.   “Jerked along ground.”   Ellis, I., p. 227; Linton, 1929, p. 483.
Manihiki and Rakahanga to Coconut-leaf midrib, fore end bluntly pointed, 6ft. x 1½ins. Village road; two-way course. Forefinger at butt held in both hands.   Buck, 1932, pp. 196-197.
Hawaii kea-pu-a Blossom end of sugar-cane.   Whip, 4-ft. handle. Four persons, two on a side. Culin, 1899, pp. 234-237.
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REGION NAME DESCRIPTION COURSE MANNER OF THROWING REMARKS AUTHORITY
Hawaii ke'a-pua Light stem of sugar-cane flower (pua) about 2ft. long; lower, thicker end bound with string, wetted in the mouth and stuck in the dirt to become coated with clay. Knoll of earth or sand. Held by tail; thrown by runner by a downward swing of the arm to graze surface. 10 points to win; gambling game common in Makahiki; period (October-January) when sugar-cane is in flower. Malo, pp. 301-302; Buck, 1930, p. 664.
  pahe Blunt dart 2-5ft.; thickest, 6in. back of head. Tahua pahe, 50-60-yd. floor.     Ellis, Vol. IV, pp. 197-198.
  pahe'e Short javelin of hardwood (kauila or ulei); thickest at head, tapering to tail. Roadway or piece of sward.   Pahe'e, to slip along the ground; gambling, ten points to win. Malo, pp. 291-292.
  moa-hoo-hola-hola or pahe'e. Wood, 21-41ins. long. Inclined smooth course.   Gambling. Partington, I, p. 56.
Marquesas teka Pointed reed. Two way, low mound at each end. Hand or by cord (4-5ft. long doubled). Five on a side. Thrown 200yds. Handy, 1923, pp. 297-298.
    Upland reed or wood, 4ft. x ½in. Mound used. Hand cord.   Linton, 1929, p. 387. See also Buck, 1930, p. 664.
New Zealand heteka or neti Fern-stalks.     Culin, 1899, pp. 234-237; Linton, 1929, p. 463.
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teka, neti, niti, pehu. Pteris fern or houama wood. Flat ground free of obstructions; mound formed. “Hand.” Strip of green flax wound around head end to form knob. Best, 1925, pp. 32 et seq.
  Long sharpened dart of manuka.   Whip; knotted cord and handle (kotaha); dart stuck in ground. Knot near middle If thrown by hand forefinger is used. Said to have been used in war and as fire-brands. Buck, 1930, pp. 32 et seq. and correspondence.
pahu Native flax (harakeke, Phormium tenax). Marae-toro teka or papapere. Mound of raised earth.   Many legends about dart-game; always the hero goes on and on throwing his dart until it leads him to his objective; the much prized greenstone is said to have been found in this way.  
teka, pehu, neti, niti. Straight fern-stalk (Pteris aquilina). Length, 3ft. Around one end a narrow strip of green Phormium leaf is wound to form a knob called poike. Marae-toro teka. Level stretch. Earthen mound formed and padded to become round, smooth and firm. Throws under-hand to strike mound; forefinger against butt. Each dart marked for ownership. Best, 1924, Vol. 2, p. 9.
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DISTRIBUTION OF KANGAROO RAT IN AUSTRALIA.
TRIBE REGION NAME DESCRIPTION MANNER OF THROWING REMARKS AUTHORITY
  Western Victoria wuae whuuitch Length, 2ft. Overhand. Players: opposing “classes”; played after great meetings. Also thrown at birds. Dawson, p. 86.
  Victoria wi-tch-wi-tch, we-a-witcht, weet-weet, wa-voit. Head, 4½in. x 1in.; stem, 21in.x1/5in. Total, 23-26ins. Weight, less than 2ozs. Player runs backward 6-8 yards, wheels and throws underhand against hillock. Some thrown 220 yds.; some sticks have separate head inserted into split stem and held by gum and sinews. Brough Smyth, I, pp. 352-353; see also Howitt, p. 265.
  Murray River wit-wit     Said to be thrown at disc of bark. Smith, p. 60.
  New South Wales Euahlayi tribe   Length, 1ft.; weight, 3ozs.     Parker, p. 128.
  Queensland—north-west central boom-bo, koom-po, jim-ba-do, moor-ro. Length, 12-20ins. Small ones thrown upward 2-3yds. against fringe of a branch; larger ones, downward against tussock or low bush.   Roth, 1897, p. 129.
  Mary River         Curr, III, p. 158.
  South and Central Australia (Dieri, Yantowannta, Ngameni, less among Arunta, Aluridja, Kukata). kukerra Length, 3ft. 6ins.; knob, up to 9ins. Swung with straight arm and thrown against bush or tussock. Only men observed to play. Basedow, pp. 82-83.
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    Dieri, Lake Eyre, Luritja, Wonkonguru. wona, kulchera, kukerra.     Howitt, p. 265; Porteus, p. 168; Horne and Aiston, p. 37.
  Western Australia, Balladonnia, Eucla. woggara, wokkara 20-30ins.     Mr. L. Glauert, Western Australian Museum.
  Torres Straits aipersi lu (sliding-thing), omaiter.     Mildly competitive; played on sandy beach. Haddon, Vol. IV, p. 317.
DISTRIBUTION IN EASTERN NORTH AMERICA.
CLUB-LIKE STICKS.
TRIBE NAME DESCRIPTION COURSE MANNER OF THROWING REMARKS AUTHORITY
Menomini   Heavy knob on tapering stick. Ice. Grasped at smaller end and hurled.   Skinner, 1913, p.p. 54-55; 1921, p. 368.
Sac and Fox   Length, 2-2½ft. Ice or frozen ground. Glanced from an incline; swung by small end or twirled around head. Also use a whip for throwing an arrow-like dart in the summer. Culin, 1907, p. 407-408.
Cree puckitseeman 7¾-18¼ins. Narrow iced lane 60ft. or more long on incline of hill. Underhand. Played by any number of partners; four snow barriers through which sticks must pass. Culin, 1907, pp. 403-404.
Saulteaux   2ft., pointed at each end.     No sides, merely a trial of skill; no gambling. Skinner, 1911, p. 141.
Saulteaux of Berens River, Manitoba. sosiman 2 to 2½ft., pointed at each end. Loose snow. Underhand. Passes under and over snow. Dr. A. I. Hallowell.
Ojibwa (Bois Fort) snowstick Two feet. On snow.     Reagan, p. 274.
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TRIBE NAME DESCRIPTION COURSE MANNER OF THROWING REMARKS AUTHORITY
Cayuga onando'kqua Sticks were long, thin and carrotlike, and tapered to a flat, notched end; head was round and blunt. Thrown to glance off a large bark trough.   Played before 1784 and at all times of the year; any number of participants. Chief Alex General (Deskaheh) as told to Dr. F. G. Speck. (Secured under studies sponsored by Faculty Research Committe, University of Pennsylvania, Grant No. 163.)
    Stick of a square, tapering shape ending in a long, thick whip of the same piece of material. Ice. Whip end was wound about the hand. Stick was slung. Invented by a Cayuga named Styres in 1784; used until 1850.  
    Stick lengthened to 9ft. and whip eliminated. Head weighted for the first time. Round head; square tapered tail. Sticks later given oval shape and edges were rounded. Still later length was reduced to 8ft. in squared type and to 7½ft. in oval type.     A change to this type was made about 1850.  
        Rut first made by dragging a 6-in log through the snow. About 1880.  
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Prairie Pota-watomi piskokwan Long slender wand with heavy swollen head. Ice.   Winner takes all. Skinner, 1924, p. 44.
JAVELIN-LIKE STICKS.
Pawnee         Similar to so-called “snow-snake.” Culin, 1907, p. 409.
Seneca gä-ga-da-yan-duk Javelin.   To strike selected object and fly in air. Inter-tribal competition. Culin, 1907, p. 412.
Assiniboine   Long sticks. Snow.   Played by women. Culin, 1907, p. 415.
Omaha wahí gaçnugithe, bone slide. 4½ft. long. Ground or ice.   Formerly used ribs. Sticks recently acquired. Culin, 1907, page 419; Fletcher and La Flesche, p. 364.
Western Denes (Stewart Lake, B.C.) nŏzŏz Rod 3-7ft. Stouter than javelin. Ice or snow.   “As they do duty on frozen surface of snow, the finest polish possible is aimed at in their preparation.” Morice, 1895, p. 112, fig. 99.
Cheyenne   4-6ft. Smooth ground.     Culin, 1907, pp. 400-401.
Ponca moní bagin (arrow throwing)         Fletcher and La Flesche, p. 364.
Crow   Peeled willow. Ground. Thrown to strike ground and fly up. Each player has 10-15 sticks. Lowie, 1922, p. 243.
Blackfoot Sliding arrows.   Ground and small heap of earth. Hand. Winner takes all. Wissler, p. 56.
Gros Ventre     Ground. Held at end and thrown under-hand to bounce and slide.   Kroeber, 1908, p. 187.
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TRIBE NAME DESCRIPTION COURSE MANNER OF THROWING REMARKS AUTHORITY
Moose Cree and Abitibi Algonkins of Newpost. sēsēgā'tȧk (black spruce) 8ft.-10ft. x 1¼ins. Dipped in water and let freeze. Deep banks of snow desired. Thrown like a javelin. Thrown under surface of snow. Stick, if curved, may reappear above surface several times. Object: to find buried sticks. Dr. J. M. Cooper and Miss Regina Flannery.
Albany Cree tcūcaman, tūtȧ-man, tcōtcȧman (in children's talk). 36ins., pointed ends, green juniper sticks. Under snow. Held near end and thrown overhand. Played only by males over 16 years; farthest wins.  
Moose Cree cīpāyākōnétcīkān 36ins., pointed at both ends. Under soft new snow. Held at one end, but thrown more underhand. Farthest wins; some throws 15-20yds.  
SNOW JAVELIN WITH SEPARATE HEAD OF HORN.
Crow Sending the horn running.         Lowie, p. 243.
    32½ins., tip of horn.   Seized by end, whirled rapidly with vertical motion.   Culin, 1907, p. 415.
Sioux ptehéshte or pte heste Tip of bone and feathered shaft. Ice and snow. Underhand against ground. Stick must stay between parallel lines 20-30ft. apart. Culin, 1907, pp. 416-417.
Arapaho bătíqtûba (abbreviated to tíqtûp) Slender willow rods, about 4ft., peeled and painted. Head of buffalo horn.   Held by thumb and forefinger, swung like pendulum, thrown with sweeping motion. Played by two persons or two parties, boys-girls, or men-women. Boys also throw arrows. Culin, 1907, p. 400.
      Ice.   Also used for “doctoring.” Kroeber, 1907, p. 438.
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Cheyenne   32-34ins. Heads of horn, 3⅝ins.       Culin, 1907, pp. 400-401.
—of Montana majestum Shaft 61ins., head of bone 5ins. Ice or crust of snow. Seized at one end, whirled rapidly about in vertical motion. Played by women or by men. Culin, 1907, pp. 400-401.
SNOWSNAKE.
Menomini   5-6ft. with bulb-like head shaped like snake. Snow or ice. Finger or butt. Make ridge of snow inclined away from player. Said to be from Ojibwa. Great gambling. Culin, 1907, pp. 404-405.
  papuenanâtc Long shafts, snake-like heads or plain. Snow or ice.   Opposing sides. Skinner, 1913, pp. 54-55; 1921, p. 368.
Abenaki         Probably like Penobscot. Dr. A. I. Hallowell.
Missisauga   6ft. long with eyes and mouth like snake. Ice.     Culin, 1907, p. 405.
Passamaquoddy   2-7ft., some carved. Snow crust on hillside.   Last played in 1842. Culin, 1907, p. 406.
Penobscot suhe, sowehék (skid) 3ft., plain head, carved mouth, and eyes upturned. Notch at butt. Down incline of snow or in trough. Index finger, underhand in trough; overhand in soft snow. Furthest won all; obsolete since 1875? Butt notched. Sticks thrown away in March for fear they might turn into real snakes. Speck, MS.
Huron   Spindles and long, flat sticks. Slope.   “Pushed down side of slope.” Culin, 1907, p. 409.
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TRIBE NAME DESCRIPTION COURSE MANNER OF THROWING REMARKS AUTHORITY
Seneca kow-a-sa 5-7ft., 7-10ft. Well-beaten lane or rut made by log. Held by tail in right hand and balanced in left. Player runs and throws. Thrown 60-80 rods. Gambling. Four “snakes.” Culin, 1907, p. 409; ibid., p. 413.
  gawasa 5-9ft., tipped with lead, some plain. Iced trough made by log 10-18ins. deep x 90-120yds. long on level or on slight slope. Forefinger and underarm. Different kinds of wood for soft snow, crusted snow or melting snow; 3 sticks to a set; complete set 12-15 sticks. Some thrown 300-400yds. or more. Two players or teams; officials for collecting gambling stakes; umpires; numerous rules. Parker, p. 250-256.
Seneca (Tonawanda)   30ins.   Different method of throwing. Originated in accidental breaking of a long stick, about 1900; said to give better results. Parker, p. 256.
Tuscarora   41½ins.     Four sticks. Culin, 1907, p. 413.
Sioux (Teton) Making the bow slide. Flat “snake” with raised head.       Culin, 1907, p. 418.
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Chippewa cocóman 20ins. (for boys) to 3ft.; plain, upturned stick. Through soft snow or across hard crusted snow. Log rut for eastern Chippewa.   Thrown several hundred feet; sticks with carved head thrownthrough snow to reappear at great distance. Densmore, pp. 20, 68, pl. 25d.
  shoshiman End slightly bent; size of common cane. Smooth ice (incline of frozen snow).     Culin, 1907, p. 401.
Ojibwa (Bois Fort) snowstick 3-5ft. snowsnake with head or bent-up end. Use of furrow.     Reagan, pp. 273.
Onondaga ka-when tah 5-7ft., tip of lead. Snow, 60-80 rods. Forefinger. Originally no tip of metal; not as flat nor as thin as Seneca; single contestants or sides. Beauchamp, pl. 31 and p. 182.
Cayuga   Length 7½ft., head part 4-4½ins. weighted with lead head turned up. Log 2ins. in diameter used to make rut; or played on river ice. Forefinger. A modern development since 1880; inter-tribal games; players classed as 1 (champions), 2, 3 or 4 (amateurs); no limit to number of players; some throws 150 rods. Chief Alex General (Deskaheh) as told to Dr. F. G. Speck.
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DISTRIBUTION IN CALIFORNIA.
TRIBE NAME DESCRIPTION COURSE MANNER OF THROWING REMARKS AUTHORITY
Pomo mului, “ground casting arrows.” Length, 3ft. Ground.   Butt ends marked in pairs. Culin, 1907, p. 413.
Yokuts (Tule River)     Ground.   Butt weighted with wire. Culin, 1907, p. 414.
Topinagugim (Big Creek) pakumship; pukür, lance. Length, 38ins.; flat, tapering sticks.   Thrown with whip of by hand.   Culin, 1907, p. 414.
Nisenan hé-uto Length, 3-4ft.; one end flat, other end pointed. Ground.   Whirled like a sling and bounced on ground. Beals, p. 355.
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