Volume 55 1946 > Volume 55, No. 1 > Some Taniwha and Tupua, by Geo. Graham, p 26-39
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SOME TANIWHA AND TUPUA

Translated from MS. and verbal narratives of several chiefs:

  • Mihaka Makaore (Ngati-whatua, Kaipara).
  • Tukumana Te Taniwha (Ngati-whanaunga, Hauraki).
  • Hone Nahe (Ngati-maru, Hauraki).
  • Rev. Mohi Turei (Ngati-porou).
  • Anaru Makiwhara (Ngai-tai, Maraetai).
FOREWORD.

THE traditions of the Maori narrate much that is historically credible. Interwoven, however, with it, there is much that is not so credible; but intermingled with it is much of the marvellous. With these features, Maori tradition closely resembles the folk-lore of all other races of mankind.

The particular narratives herein dealt with, are typical in their references to those legendary beings—the taniwha and the tupua. These fables are the parallel in Maori folk-lore of the dragons, the were-wolves, the giants and dwarves, and such-like dread creatures told of in world-wide folk-lore.

Each tribe, sub-tribe, and indeed family group, had its familiar taniwha or tupua of some kind. These beings were regarded with mixed feeling either of fear, or with deferential respect; as also indeed not without some affection. For they were beneficial as being the protective atua (guardian spirit) or mauri (mascot) of their connected tribal group. They were to be feared, also, when anybody wittingly or unwittingly offended them by the breach of some of the many rules of etiquette applying to taniwha and tupua. When offended against (even if unwittingly), they must be adequately placated by some appropriate karakia (invocation), and also by materially appropriate offerings (takoha) to meet the unfortunate occasion. Thus only might their anger be placated.

An example of the dire consequences of transgression against the tapu dignity of the taniwha, is the story herein given in regard to the taniwha Taminamina—which transgression brought about the death of the child, Mere-hawhe-kaihe (half-caste Mary).

These legends of taniwha and their related type of tupua, no doubt therefore have as foundation some basic historical facts. For in former days, these coastal waters were much frequented by species of the seal and the whale. In very recent years, several such oceanic visitors have come - 27 within the Manukau and Waitemata, creating much interest and conjecture among the local Maori folk as to the probable portents that these visits indicated. For these creatures are regarded as the probable lineal descendants of the tribal taniwha of the ancient past.

Now the disappearance of Ureia from his haunts at Hauraki, and the probable co-incidental report of the death of a similar taniwha at Manukau, no doubt were happenings which in the Maori mind were connected. At that time the Hauraki people were brooding over other grievances, especially the deaths of Kohurautau and his son Kiwi—when invited as visitors to Tamaki—at the hands of the people of that district. They therefore attributed the disappearance of Ureia from Hauraki as due to his also having been slain by the people of those parts. 1

However that may be—this was the definite cause (take) of the subsequent internecine warfare between the Hauraki and Tamaki with the results as above stated. These doings took place apparently about the middle of the 17th century, when Pakira 2 the leader of the avenging Hauraki war-party flourished (about 11 generations ago).

The account of another such Hauraki tupua or taniwha known to fame as Paneiraira, is abstracted from an all too brief narrative concerning him, and given in the MS. “History of the Hauraki Tribes” by the late Tukumana Te Taniwha.

Paneiraira (so called because of a particular marking (iraira) on his head (pane), is said to have been last seen just prior to the outbreak of the Waikato War (1863). His appearance at that time was interpreted by the learned men as predicting that impending war and the disaster that then befel the belligerent Kingites. From that warfare therefore as also the death of Ureia and for other reasons, the Marutuahu tribes held aloof from the Waikato war and declined alliance with the Kingite tribes.

It is interesting to know also that the death of Ureia led to consequences of a political character in Pakeha times—the influences of which have not passed away even in these later days. For the kohuru of Ureia was the reason given why the Marutuahu people of Hauraki distrusted the Waikatos, and dissociated themselves from the Kingite movement from the time of its inception (circa 1852) and onward. That feeling still exists today, when occasion arises to evince it, as stated in Hone Nahe's korero apiti (supplementary narrative). An account of the tupua Humuhumu of Kaipara as I received it, told by Mihaka Takaore, closes these items of Maori folk-lore.

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KO TAMINAMINA
HE TANIWHA NO TURANGA
(Na Mohi Minita Turei enei Korero)

1. No Mohi Turei, Minita, enei korero mo te rumakanga a Taminamina, he taniwha, i a Mere-hawkekaihe o Turanga:

2. Ko aua kotiro i haere atu ki te kaukau. Ko taua wahi i kaukaunua nei, he awa wai-maori, he kaukaunga no te tini o te tangata. E mohiotia ana e te tokomaha, he taniwha ano ki taua awa, ko Taminamina ano te ingoa.

3. E akona ana ano e nga pakeke, kia kaua e kau rawa atu nga tamariki ki te wahi tapu; kia kaua ranei e inu i nga pua o nga hutukawa e tu ana i runga i te rua o nga taniwha, kei horomia e Taminamina, kei rumakina ranei ki te wai.

4. Otiia, ko etahi o nga tamariki e wehi ana, ko etahi kaore e wehi. Na reira hoki i inumia ai e Mere nga pua o te hutukawa whakamarumaru o nga taniwha. A rumakina ana ia e Taminamina, mate noa. I te wa i patu ai a Taminatimina i a Mere, mangu katoa te wai o te awa, pouri kerekere. I mua ia, he marama te wai. I mua hoki, he papaku e tehi wahi o te awa. I taua takiwa, he hohonu katoa. A kitea ana te rimu moana nui, rimu rapa nei ki roto i taua hopua i mate nei a Mere.

5. Tokotoru nga hoa o Mere; kau atu ana ratou ki uta, me to ratou matuku ano i te ripo o te wai o te awa, i te hukenga ake a te taniwha, me to ratou karanga ano, “Kua mate a Mere! Na te taniwha i patu!”

6. Ka uia ki nga tamariki, “Na te aha koutou i mohio ai na te taniwha to koutou hoa i patu?” Ka mea ratou “Tutu ana te puehu o te wai o te awa, a ko te awa kei te pouri tonu te wai inainei”.

7. Te taenga mai o nga tangata ki te awa, pouri kerekere te wai o te awa, me te rimu moana nui e maanu ana i roto i te awa. Ko taua awa kaore e tae atu te wai-tai ki reira. Heoiano.

8. Ka mohio ai nga kai-titiro i tenei pukapuka, koia he pono ano te taniwha.

KO PAPAKAURI
HE TUPUA ARA MAURI O HAURAKI
(Na Hone Nahe enei Korero).

1. Tera ano tetehi tupua (ara mauri), o Hauraki, ko Papakauri te ingoa. He rakau, he putake kauri. Kei Hauhaupounamu e takoto ana inaianei. Kua mutu tona mananga. Engari i mua, i whai mana. A, e tohungia ana e ia nga matenga o te iwi, ara o nga Uri-o-Marutuahu ara a Ngati-Maru, kaore i era atu hapu o Hauraki nei.

2. Ko tona tohutohu mate mo te iwi, he tere nana. He rakau, he harakeke kei runga i a ia e tupu ana. Tere tonu, kaore e tahuri. A hoki atu ano ki tana takotoranga.

3. Ahakoa he tai-timu, he tai-pari whakangau tonu atu, hei aha mana. No te Aitua hoki ia i kawe kia haere.

4. Ko te kitenga whakamutunga a nga tangata kaumatua e ora nei, i mua atu o te matenga o Te Totara i a Ngapuhi. I tere haere taua rakau ko Papakauri, puta atu ki waho o Tararu, me te ngunguru haere i te timunga o te tai.

5. Ahakoa he taitimu, whakapiki tonu atu ki te ia taitimu pera tonu me te paraoa.

I muri iho ko Te Totara ka mate i a Ngapuhi.

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TAMINAMINA
A TANIWHA OF TURANGA
(By Rev. Mohi Turei—Clergyman)

1. This narrative concerns the drowning, by Taminamina a taniwha, of Mere the half-caste of Turanga.

2. Certain girls went for a swim. The swimming place is a stream of fresh water, a swimming place resorted to by many people. It is known to many—that there is indeed in that river a taniwha, Taminamina by name.

3. The old people indeed keep giving warning, that the young people should not swim right into the forbidden part, nor should they drink of the nectar of the 'hutukawas which stand above where are the dens of the taniwha, lest they be swallowed by Taminamina, or be drawn under the waters.

4. Though some of the children were in dread, yet others were not so, hence Mere drank of the nectar of the one hanging 'hutukawa of the taniwha. Therefore being drawn under by Taminamina, she perished. At the time Taminamina thus killed Mere, the water of the river became quite black—a deep pitch-black. Before that, the water was clear—and before that also, some parts of the river were shallow At the same time it became deep all over, there bing also seen the giant sea-kelp (the rimu-rapa) in that pool where Mere perished.

5. There were three companions with Mere. They swam ashore because of their alarm indeed at the violent swirling of the waters of the river—due to the strenuous lashing of the taniwha. They kept calling out, “Mere has perished—has been slain by the taniwha!

6. The children were asked, “How do you know that it is by the taniwha your companion has been slain?” They said, “The waters of the river were lashed into spray; the waters becoming all discoloured and darkened, and the water is still so now!”

7. When the people reached the river, the water of that river was of a deep-black colour, and the giant sea-kelp was floating in the river. The river however is one which the sea-water does not reach.

8. The readers of this narrative will thus know that the existence of the taniwha is a matter of fact.

PAPAKAURI
A TUPUA (MONSTER) OR MAURI (MASCOT) OF HAURAKI
(This narrative is by Hone Nahe).

1. There is yet again another tupua (or mauri) of Hauraki, Papakauri by name. It is the trunk-base of a kauri tree. It reposes at Hauhaupounamu now-a-days. Its mana has ceased; but of yore it possessed mana. It used to foretell the deaths of the people; that is to say, those of the descendants of Marutuahu, of the Ngatimaru—but not of those of others of the sub-tribes of Hauraki.

2. Its portents or warnings of the deaths of the people were its driftings. There was a shrub—a flax-bush growing upon it. It drifted about continuously—not turning over or about, until it returned again to its place of repose.

3. Although it might be an ebb-tide, or a flood tide, it kept onward—it (the tide) made no difference to it. For its aitua (guardian spirit) bore it onward in its goings.

4. The last time it was seen, was by aged people who still live here, and just prior to the calamity of Te Totara (at the hands of Ngapuhi). That tree then drifted onward, out beyond Tararu, and making a moaning cry as it went slowly on the ebbing tide.

5. Although it was ebbing tide, yet it surmounted the surge of the ebb—even as would a whale.

Just thereafter—Te Totara (pa) was destroyed by the Ngapuhi.

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KO PANEIRAIRA
HE TANIWHA NO HAURAKI
(Na Tukumana Te Taniwha enei Korero).

1. He hoa taniwha o Ureia, ko Paneiraira. Nga taniwha enei o “Tainui” waka. I haeremai a “Tainui” i runga i enei taniwha.

2. I te unga o “Tainui” ki Whangaparaoa, ka eke nga nohi moana ki uta, i tae noa mai nga waka i muri . . .

3. Hurimai i Moehau, haere tahi mai ana nga taniwha Paneiraira me Ureia.

4. Ki te mate ana he tangata o taua kawei taniwha, ka pae mai he paraoa. E rua, e toru nga paraoa i te paenga mai. Pera tonu i nga wa katoa.

KO UREIA—TE TANIWHA O HAURAKI ME HAUMIA—TE TANIWHA O WAIKATO
(Na Hone Nahe ano enei korero i tuhi).

1. A ko Ureia e korerotia nei, ehara i te taniwha patu tangata, rumaki tangata ranei. Engari e karangatia ana a Ureia he tupua, he mauri no nga tangata o tenei moana o Tikapa, ara ko Hauraki. Ara he tohu mana o nga tangata o tenei moana. No mua noa atu tona tupuatanga ki tenei taiwhenua. Tetehi o ana karangatanga he taniwha.

2. Otiia, erua ahua taniwha. Tetehi ahua he kai-tangata, ara he rumaki tangata ki te wai kia mate ai. Otiia, e kore aua tu taniwha e rumaki noa i te tangata. Ma te hara ano, ara ma te haere ki runga i nga wahitapu, tanumanga tupapaku nei. Wahitapu ranei, whare o nga tohunga o aua tu taniwha; wahitapu ranei, nohoanga o nga taniwha. Ma te pera anake ka horomia ai e era tu taniwha.

3. Otiia, ko Ureia, kihai i haerere. I noho tonu a Ureia i tona rua kei te kongutu awa o te awa i Te Kirikiri. I tena wa e nui atu te ia o te kongutu awa i te taitimu, i te taipari. Ma nga tupato anake e whakateretere nga waka, ka puta i taua ia.

4. Ahakoa taitimu, taipari ranei, tu tonu te ia, me te ngaru hoki e tu ana. Engari kia tutuki rawa te tai, katahi ka ngohengohe te ia. Kia makoa hoki, katahi ka ngohengohe.

5. Ko Ureia he ika tonu, he ika nunui atu i te paraoa, i etahi wa, i iti iho i etahi. Engari kaore ia e korero ana; engari e whai tohu ano ana ia i nga aituatanga o te iwi. Ara, ka whakaputa ia ki runga i te wai tere ia maanu ai i waho i tana rua.

6. Mehemea e rangatira anake te tangata mate, ka puta kau ki waho i tana rua maanu ai. Mehemea he pa horo, ka tere rawa atu ki waho i te moana kori haere ai, tuha ai te puehu.

7. Ko tenei taniwha ko Ureia, no mua noatu, no Ngati-huarere rano. A, i te wa i mate nei a Ngati-huarere i a Marutuahu, e ora ana i tera wa. I tohungia hoki e ia te mate o Ngati-huarere i Oruarangi, ara, i tere ia ki waho ki te moana.

8. A i kori haere ia, tutu ana te puehu i a ia e kori haere ana. He mea ta hoki nana ki tana hiku te tahuna i waho, puta noa ki Kaingarongrongo—i te tahuna i waho ake o Hauraki. Ko nga mahi tena o Ureia.

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PANEIRAIRA
A TANIWHA OF HAURAKI
(This narrative is by Tukumana Te Taniwha).

1. Paneiraira was a companion of Ureia—these were the taniwha of the Tainui canoe—Tainui came hither on these taniwha.

2. On the making the landfall by Tainui at Whangaparaoa, the fish of the ocean were stranded ashore: the canoes arrived immediately after that.

3. Doubling Moehau, also, came together (with the canoe) the taniwha Paneiraira and Ureia.

4. If there died any man belonging to the associated people of this taniwha—then a whale was stranded. There would be two or three whales in that stranding. Thus it was at all times.

UREIA, THE TANIWHA OF HAURAKI AND HAUMIA, THE TANIWHA OF WAIKATO
(This narrative was written by Hone Nahe also).

1. Ureia now told of, was by no means a man-killing taniwha—one who drowned men. But the definition of Ureia is that of a tupua (a monster) a mauri (mascot) of the people of this Sea of Tikapa, otherwise Hauraki. That is to say, he was the emblem of the mana (authority) of the people of this seagirt land. Yet another description of him is that of a taniwha.

2. Now there are two kinds of taniwha. One kind is a man-eater, or a drawer of men under water to so kill them: however, these said taniwha do not so drown men without reason, but do so because of offence given, such as going on to sacred prohibited places—as are the burial places of the dead—or the sacred places such as are the houses of the tohunga of such taniwha—or the sacred places which are the abodes of the taniwha. For such like doings only would they be swallowed up by those said taniwha.

3. However, Ureia did not wander about. Ureia always abided within his den at the mouth of the river at Te Kirikiri. At that time great indeed as the force of the current at the mouth of the river at ebb-tide, as also at flood-tide. Only by those who were cautious, could the canoes be navigated and pass on through that current.

4. Be it an ebb-tide, or be it the flood-tide, that current ran ever strong and its waves surged rolling on. But when the tide was on the turn—then the current slackened. When the tide was at its limit, then it was that the current slackened.

5. Ureia was actually a fish—a fish larger than is the whale of some species and smaller than are some others. But he never uttered anything except when under the influence of omens portending the misfortunes of the tribe. Then he emerged upon the water and swam about coming forth from his den.

6. If it be only a man of rank who dies, then he merely came forth from his den—but if it was a fallen pa, he would swim right out in the ocean, rolling about as he went onward, spouting forth the sea-spray.

7. This taniwha Ureia was of ancient times—he was indeed of Ngati-huarere. At the time of the destruction of the Ngati-huarere by Marutuahu, he was existing at that time. Foretold by him was the defeat of Ngati-huarere at Oruarangi. That is, he then swam about out in the ocean.

8. Then he gambolled as he went along—the spray dashed about by him as he gambolled on. He also lashed with his tail the sandbank out beyond and even so as far as Kairongaronga, at the sandbank just outside Hauraki. Such were the doings of Ureia.

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KO HAUMIA, HE, ATUA

9. Ko Haumia, he atua no Waikato. Ko tera Atua e hara i te Atua ngohi ara tupua. Engari he atua e korero ana i roto i te waha o ana tohunga. Mehemea ka hiahia taua tu atua ki te korero ki nga tangata ano, ka uia he tikanga i te atua, ka eke aua tu atua i runga i o ratou piringa, ara tohunga, korero ai.

10. Na te tohunga te reo, na te atua nga kupu. He atua penei a Haumia te atua o Waikato.

11. Na nga tohunga hoki i karakia nga karakia hopu taniwha. Ara ko aua karakia he kaha rawa atu ki te whakangohe i te taniwha. Ahakoa taniwha horo tangata, e mate tona kaha i nga karakia a nga tohunga. Ara i nga karakia ano mo te taniwha.

12. Ahakoa taniwha tupua, e mate ano. Kaore hoki nga taniwha e mohio ki nga karakia, na reira ratou i ngohe ai i nga karakia a nga tohunga.

13. He atua korero a Haumia ki ana tohunga Maori. No reira ka ako atu ia ki ana tohunga hei korero atu ki te iwi o Waikato, kia tikina mai a Ureia kia patua e ratou.

14. I tikina mai e Haumia ki te haere atu ki Manuka, ki te hakari mana ki Puponga. Nana hoki i tiki mai ki te Kirikiri nei ano. I te taenga mai o Haumia kia Ureia, ka ai atu, “I haere mai au ki te tiki mai i a koe ki te kai i te hakari mau, ki nga taonga mau”.

15. Kihai a Ureia i hamumu atu. Heoti, na te kaha o Haumia ki te tono i a ia kia haere, na reira ia i whakaae ai. Otiia na te karakia hiki o nga tohunga i karakiatia mai ano i Puponga rano, ara i Manuka. Na Haumia hoki, na te atua i kawe mai te mana o taua karakia a nga tohunga ki raro i te urunga o te moenga o Ureia, whakaara ai i a ia, kia tere ai ia ki Puponga, ki reira mate ai.

16. Ka oti te iwi o Waikato te whakatupato e te Atua e Haumia kia patua a Ureia e ratou. Kua oti hoki nga taura te whiri; kua oti hoki te hanga te mahanga. He mano nga tangata ki tetehi taha o Manuka ki tetehi taha, pupuri ai i nga pito o nga taura. Ko nga tohunga i te tuahu i Puketutu ara i Motu-o-hiaroa 3 e noho ana, e karakia ana.

17. I ma Muriwhenua rano te haerenga mai o Ureia, a ma Te Rerenga—wairua mai rano. Te taenga mai o Ureia ki te puaha o Manuka, taia ake e tana hiku. Koia te tahuna e takoto na i te taha raki o te puaha o Manuka. Te tainga na te hiku o Ureia, kua mohio hoki ia kua mate ia. Na reira ia i riri ai.

18. Te taenga atu o Haumia ki waho o te puaha o Manuka, katahi ka korero ki nga tohunga hei whakaatu ki te iwi mo te kumenga o nga taura. Ka rite noa ano te pupuru a te tangata ki nga taura. Me te tere tonu mai a Ureia, ko Haumia ano ki mua haere ai.

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THE ATUA HAUMIA

9. Haumia was an atua (guardian spirit) of Waikato. That atua was not an atua of fish, or a tupua; rather was he an atua who spoke by the mouth of his tohunga. Should that atua deign to converse with the people if enquired of as to matters of import to the atua, those atua would alight upon the associated tohunga, and hold converse with him.

10. Of the tohunga was the voice, but of the atua were the words. Such an atua was Haumia, the atua of Waikato.

11. By the tohunga were also chanted the incantations to capture taniwha. Now these incantations were most potent to weaken the taniwha. Even though the taniwha be a man-eater, its strength is overcome by the incantations of the tohunga—that is to say by the effect of the incantations concerning taniwha.

12. Even alas, though it be a taniwha or tupua, it would also be overcome. For indeed the taniwha are not acquainted with the incantations; therefore they are weakened by the incantations of the tohunga.

13. Haumia was an atua who held converse with his own actual tohunga—hence it was he who advised his tohunga to speak to the people of Manuka and Waikato to go and bring Ureia thither to be slain by them.

14. He (Ureia) was sought for by Haumia to go to Manuka to a feast to be given for him at Puponga. It was by him Haumia that he (Ureia) was brought thither from Te Kirikiri. When Haumia arrived at Ureia's home he said: “I have come hither to bring you to a feast prepared for you, and to receive the presents for you.”

15. Ureia did not speak. However because of the insistence of Haumia, in requesting him to go, so therefore it was he consented, as also it was due to the impelling incantations of the tohunga reciting the incantations at Manuka. It was by Haumia indeed that atua was taken hence, due to the influence of that incantation of the tohunga, and which influence was placed under the head-rest of the sleeping place of Ureia. That made him arise, and so he swam off to Puponga—there to die.

16. The people of Waikato had prior to that been told by the atua Haumia that Ureia was to be slain by them. There had also been completed the weaving of the cordage, and the making of the snare. There were a thousand men on one side of Manuka and also on the other side a thousand to hold the ends of the cords. The tohunga were on the ceremonial place at Puketutu or Motu-o-hiaroa,3 abiding and reciting the incantations.

17. By way of Muriwhenua was the coming hitherward of Ureia—that is by Te Rerenga-wairua. On the arrival of Ureia at the entrance of the Manuka, he stranded with his tail just where the sandbank lies to the northward of the entrance of Manuka. When Ureia's tail thus stranded, he well knew that he would die, and therefore became disturbed in mind.

18. On the arrival of Haumia outside the entrance of Manuka, he told the tohunga to inform the people that the cordage and netting snares should be held in readiness and that the pulling thereon should be done in unison. And so it was as hither onwards glides Ureia, and Haumia leads ahead as they thus come onward.

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19. Te taenga atu o Ureia ki roto ki Puponga, ka arahia tonutia e Haumia ki roto i te mahanga a taua iwi, ka uru te pane. No te takanga ki te kaki, katahi ka kumea, ka mau. He mano ki tetehi taha, he mano ki tetehi taha, ka mau a Ureia, ka kori.

20. No te taitimu i mau ai. Tutuki noa te tai e kori ana, ara e ora. Tutuki noa, makoa noa—ara e wha taitimu, e wha taipari, katahi ka mate.

21. Kanui te maharo o nga iwi na ratou nei i patu a Ureia. Ta te mea, ko tenei iwi, he iwi patu taniwha. Ko Ureia anake te taniwha i penei te roa e ora ana, ara kia wha taitimu, e wha taipari. Heoi ano, ka mate a Ureia.

22. Kanui nga ope o Hauraki i haere ki te patu i nga iwi o Waikato, o Tamaki, o Manuka, ki te takitaki hoki i te mate o Ureia i patu kohurutia nei e ratou. I ea marire te mate o Ureia i patu kohurutia nei. Heoi ano, ko te matenga o Ureia i mate ai.

23. Ko tana rua kei te kongutu awa o Te Kirikiri, katahi nei ano ka ngaro te ahua o tona rua, Te Rua-taniwha (ara Te Rua-Taniwha-o-Ureia). Ara te huki o te ia, ahakoa kua mate noa atu a Ureia, mau tonu te ngaru me te ia i tena rua. A e tahurihuri ana te waka i te ngaru i te ia hoki o taua wahi, ana ka pari te tai, ka timu ranei.

24. Mehemea ka pa te hau, ka nui rawa atu te moana. No naianei tata nei i ngaro ai tona ahua taniwhatanga o tera wahi.

Heoi ano, ko te mutunga tenei o nga korero mo Ureia, te Atua o nga ngohi. Kua mate hoki ia, u ana!

25. Ko te whakatauki ara pepeha mo tenei moana, mo tenei whenua, me nga tangata whenua e penei ana:

“Ko Tikapa te moana, Ko Hauraki te whenua, Ko Marutuahu te iwi.”
Ko tetehi whakatauki,
“Ko Hauraki te moana, tona taniwha ko Ureia.”

26. Ko Pakira te tangata nana nei i arahi te ope a Marutuahu, ara i kawe, nga ope o Hauraki i patua ai nga iwi o Waikato mo ta ratou patunga i a Ureia.

27. Ko tenei tupuna he tama na Kairangatira, mana i patua ai a Ngati-huarere mo te tinihanga i a Waenganui, i te wahine a Taura-kapakapa.

I mahue hoki nga karakia a tana matua a Kainangatira ki a ia kia Pakira.

TE KORERO APITI

1. Heoti inaianei, koia tenei te tikanga o Hauraki (ara a Te Tini-o-Marutuahu), e titiro atu ana ki nga mahi o te Kingi o Waikato. Na hoki na Haumia i ki kia Ureia, “Me haere ki Puponga he hakari mau, he taonga mau”.

2. Haere ana a Ureia, mate tonu atu i te kohuru. Heoti inaianei—Kanui te titiro tupato o Ngati-maru ki nga tikanga, me te papai o te korero a te kingitanga o Waikato.

3. I puta tenei kupu i a Ngati-maru mo runga i te kupu a te Kingi, “Me hui nga iwi katoa o te motu nei, o Hauraki hoki, ki Te Kuiti. Ki te kore e rongo, ka mate”.

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19. On Ureia arriving inside Puponga, he was led by Haumia right into the snare of that people, his head thus passing in. On the catching of the neck, it was hauled upon and so caught. There were a thousand men on one side and on the other side a thousand; thus Ureia was caught, and then struggled.

20. It was on the ebb-tide he was caught. On the change of tide he was still struggling and alive: still so on the changes of the tides, and on four ebb-tides and four flood-tides, he struggled, and then died.

21. Great was the wonderment of the people by whom Ureia was slain. Now this people was a taniwha-slaying people—Ureia was the only taniwha who lived thus so long, for four ebb-tides and for four flood-tides. However, such was the death whereby Ureia died.

22. There were many war-parties of Hauraki which went to fight with the people of Waikato, of Tamaki, and of Manuka, to revenge the death of Ureia, slain thus treacherously by them—fully revenged was the death of Ureia thus so slain.

23. His den was at the mouth of the river at Te Kirikiri. It is only recently that the site of that den has disappeared—known as Te Ruataniwha (or Rua o Ureia). Although Ureia has long since died, the flow of the current still prevails there, as also the tidal rip at that deep pool. Be it flood-tide, or be it the ebb-tide, canoes may capsize in the waves of the swirl of the current.

24. If the wind is blowing, then there is a very great sea. Only recently has disappeared the taniwha-manifestation of that place. So now, this is the end of the narrative concerning Ureia, the atua of the fish: he also is passed away in death.

25. The proverb or motto concerning this sea, for the district and for the people of this land is thus:

“Tikapa is the sea, Hauraki is the land, Marutuahu is the people.” Another proverb is:
“Hauraki is the sea, its taniwha is Ureia.”

26. Pakira was the man by whom was led the war-party of Marutuahu, and who brought the war-parties of Hauraki which slew the people of Waikato for their slaying of Ureia.

27. This ancestor was a son of Kairangatira, by whom was slain Ngati-huarere, because of their seduction of Waenganui—the wife of Taurakapakapa.

The incantations also were bequeathed to him by his father, Kairangatira, to him, Pakira.

A FURTHER NARRATIVE

1. So now indeed this is the policy of Hauraki—that is the people of Marutuahu in viewing the doings of the King of Waikato. For in this wise Haumia had spoken to Ureia: “Go to Puponga, and there partake of a feast prepared for thee, and to get the presents there (prepared) for thee”.

2. Ureia goes, and is slain there by treachery. So nowadays, great is the caution observed by Ngati-maru as to the methods and the fair words of the kingship of Waikato.

3. There went forth this pronouncement by Ngati-maru concerning the word of the King—“Let all the tribes of this island assemble, those of Hauraki included—at Te Kuiti. If they do not obey, they will perish”.

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4. Ka whakahokia e Ngati-maru tera kupu penei, “Ko Tikapa tenei moana, ko Hauraki te whenua, ko tona taniwha ko Ureia. I mate a Ureia ki Puponga; i haere i runga nga korero whakapaipai a Haumia. Ko Haumia to Waikato i mua, ki te Kingitanga i naianei. Ko Ureia to Hauraki i mua, ko nga tangata inaiamei. He kupu tenei na matou: kati koia me mate kuare, kaua matou e rite kia Ureia”.

5. Heoi: mehemea koia pera me Ureia, kua mate ano nga tangata o Hauraki i te Kingitanga.

Heoi ano ra—me mutu ona korero i konei.

HUMUHUMU A NGATI-WHATUA TUPUA OR TANIWHA
(As narrated by Mihaka Makaore, Uriohau, Kaipara).

The above narrative of the taniwha or tupua Papakauri, reminds me of a similar story told me by Mihaka Makaore. This concerned a weird being whom he called a tupua, apparently of the same ilk as Papakauri of Hauraki.

This Kaipara tupua was named Humuhumu; he dwelt in the lake or rather lagoon, therefore so known as Te Roto o Humuhumu at north Kaipara heads. I regret I have mislaid the MS. of the story written out for me by Makaore (about 1885)—however it was somewhat to this effect:—

This tupua was a totara-log, or rather that log was the sign (or tohu) under which Humuhumu lived, and drifted about the lake for many generations. He was a reputed guardian of, and a contemporary arrival from Hawaiki of the Ngati-whatua immigrant canoe Mahuhu 4 which arrived here from the Pacific about 1225 A.D. Like Papakauri, he wandered about the waters of his home as often with as against the wind, and regardless of current conditions, favourable or adverse—the sure sign of his mana as a tupua.

Thus it was till about 1820, when this tupua disappeared; perhaps became water-logged. But that disappearance was regarded as an ill-omen of impending tribal tribulation. Indeed, some months thereafter, came the already fire-armed Ngapuhi under Tareha. These marauders laid waste the ripening cultivations, destroyed many villages and decimated the people. Many refugees fled to the supposed security of the Tauhara 5 pa, and there held out for some time. At last the pa was captured by the Ngapuhi, after a resistance which was regarded as an epic in the long drawn-out story of Maori inter-tribal warfare.

Thus was fulfilled the omen of a pa-horo (fallen pa) of which the disappearance of the tupua Humuhumu was considered to have been the portent.

Humuhumu reappeared again about 1885 but for a brief period of several months. Subsequent thereto, came a severe epidemic (a whiu), an illness of the nature of rewharewha (influenza). This occasioned the deaths of many people, including prominent chiefs, throughout Kaipara. Humuhumu has never again re-appeared, thus terminating his uncanny career.

Connected also with this final brief re-appearance and disappearance of 1885, was the belief that the doings of Humuhumu's were not unconnected with King Tawhiao's visit to Kaipara at that time. He had come with a retinue of Waikato chiefs to an assembly held at

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4. The reply of Ngati-maru to that word was thus: “Tikapa is this sea; Hauraki is the land, and its taniwha is Ureia. Ureia died at Puponga; he went because of the deceitful words of Haumia. As was Haumia of Waikato in former days, so is the Kingship now. As was Ureia of Hauraki in former days—so are the people now. This is our word: ‘Sufficient be death, the outcome of trustful ignorance. Let us not be like unto Ureia’.”

5. So it was. If they were like unto Ureia, death would have come to the people of Hauraki at the hands of the kingship.

Therefore here he ended this narrative.

Aotea (Shelly Beach, south Kaipara heads); his object was diplomatically to invite the Kaipara tribes to join the Kingite movement; or at least to co-operate with him. This they declined, also diplomatically but politely, to do. A dissatisfied King returned to his Waikato territory. Hence in Maori opinion, that refusal led to an ill aftermath, the consequent epidemic, regarded as the sinister effects of probable makutu or whaiwhai-aitu (ill will of the deities), resulting from probable Maori royal displeasure.

Now again Humuhumu's brief appearance in 1885 was also regarded as a fore-warning also of his displeasure and of impending misfortune resulting from still other ill doings of his people. For among other indiscreet actions they had gathered shell-fish (kakaehi) and eels in the sacred water of Humuhumu. From that lake such foods might not be gathered, nor birds there snared or shot; yet all such transgressions had been committed to supply the gathering at Aotea. Hence, in fact, the epidemic, and the final disappearance of Humuhumu in disgust because of those mistaken doings of his people, whom he had desired to protect. They had become an incredulous people, had degraded his tapu, belittled his mana, the ways of their ancestors.

MOKO-IKA-HIKUWARU THE FISH-LIKE LIZARD OF THE EIGHT TAILS
(A narrative by Anaru Mahiwhara of Ngai-tai, Maraetai.)

This taniwha was a sea-monster of the lizard kind; it had eight tails—hence its ancient and full name. He was a taniwha of the Tainui canoe. When that canoe passed up the Wai-o-taiki (Tamaki river), some of its people settled down here at Tamaki. Then it was also that this taniwha remained here. Its den (rua) was the deep pool at the river entrance to the lagoon; hence the name also of the lagoon Te Wai-roto-o-mokoika. The lagoon was the feeding-ground of this taniwha, for there it came to feed on the aua (herrings), eels, and patiki which then abounded in the lagoon. This taniwha also came into the lagoon to drink of the spring waters of Waipuna-atea. That spring was so named by Taikehu of the Tainui canoe when he came there to drink of that spring. Thus he took possession of the locality for the Tainui people. The lagoon also then got its name “Te Kai-o-hikuwaru (the food of Hikuwaru), the fish foods there were therefore sacred to that taniwha, and as such remained tapu until quite recent times.

Now when Koperu, a close relative of Hongi Hika came here to Tamaki to visit relatives, he was invited into the pa near by (where now is the Panmure bridge). Koperu was murdered there. When that

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murder took place, the taniwha Mokoika swam about the river, lashing the waters, then swam away to the outer sea of Tikapa (Hauraki gulf), where he disappeared and was never again seen since. That indicated his anger at the murder of Koperu, an omen of coming revenge by Ngapuhi. And so it happened for Hongi Hika came, destroyed the pa, scattered its people the Ngati-paoa tribe whose chief Paraoarahi had committed that murder of Koperu.

In later times that pa was called Mokoia 6 and the lagoon Te Kai-o-hiku but the above are the origin and fuller names of those places.

Such is the short story of that taniwha of whom much was formerly told—but much now forgotten.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

These various narratives of taniwha and tupua indicate the influence such beliefs held in former Maori times, and how such dominated their doings. To this day, the memory of those legendary beings lingers. The fear of trespassing on the taniwha-lairs, or otherwise disrespecting their probable latent mana, holds strong sway in modern Maori mentality. To quote a specific example of the extant belief in the taniwha cult. Haumia is still the potential river-god of Waikato—a representation of him is the emblem prominent in the Maori Kingite insignia. Their tribal pepeha or motto is “Waikato-taniwha-rau” (Waikato of the hundred taniwha) for at every bend of the river there is conceived to be a taniwha. Hence also that other oft quoted adage He piko he taniwha, he piko he taniwha (at each and every bend is a taniwha). These Waikato adages are also freely interpreted to imply that along the course of the Waikato river, from source to mouth, are found many people of chiefly rank.

Maori nomenclature 7 also teems with references to local taniwha and tupua, which serve also thus to perpetuate these memories of the past.

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“THE OLD FRONTIER”

The Secretary has a few copies of this interesting book for sale to members at 7/6, post free. It was published in 1922 and has not been easy to secure for some time.

1   1. Ureia's death: This story is also recounted in much detail in Ancient History of the Maori, vol. 5 (1888), 75, that version being apparently obtained from the Akitai tribe of Manukau. They are therefore regarded as the lineal descendants of the people who slew Ureia. This death being an unjustifiable kohuru (murder) by Ureia's Hauraki protégées it lead to the war of revenge as detailed in Story 2.
2   2. Pakira. The Hauraki chief who led the Hauraki invading war-party into the Tamaki and Manukau districts to revenge the death of Ureia. There were of course many other stated causes (take) for that warfare (see J.P.S., 50 (1941) 123). Then it was that Mt Eden pa (Maungawhau) and many other important fortresses of Tamaki and Manukau were captured and the people decimated; all those tragic doings are attributed to the murder of Ureia.
3   Motu-o-hiaora, also known as Motu-o-hiaroa (island of the long desired); this is Puketutu (Pinnacle hill) also known as Weeke's island. The tuahu (ceremonial place) at Puketutu was one of great mana from ancient times—prior even to the coming of Tainui and other canoes of “the fleet” of the 14th century. It was there at Puketutu that Rakataura the tohunga went when he left the Tainui canoe, accompanied by his sister Hiaora (or Hiaroa). She remained with the aboriginal people there living, the Waiohua. This famous tuahu, like many other such ceremonial places, was a raised mound and located on the summit of the hill; and in fact may still there be located. From that vantage point Rakataura (who had a grievance against his Tainui shipmates) performed appropriate incantations to prevent the coastal navigation of Tainui (see J.P.S., 14 (1905), 97). At this identical tuahu it was that the Manukau tohunga likewise did the incantations to beguile Ureia into the Manukau, and come to his death.
4   Mahuhu. This was the ancestral canoe of the Ngati-whatua and other related Kaipara tribes. The Mahuhu seems to have arrived some generations prior to “the fleet,” Tainui, etc. (See an account of this canoe in J.P.S., 48 (1939), 186 on.)
5   Tauhara pa. An account of the siege and capture of this pa by Tareha's war-party is given by S. Percy Smith in connection with his account of Tareha's invasion of Kaipara in 1820. (See his Wars of the 19th Century, p. 145. Polack (who visited the locality in 1832) also refers to this pa and its capture in his New Zealand, vol. 1, p. 201.)
6   Mokoia pa (Panmure) vide the fuller account of the siege and destruction of this pa by Hongi Hika (1820) in revenge for the death of Te Koperu—S. Percy Smith's Wars of the 19th Century, p. 176 on.
7   Taniwha nomenclature and connected folk-lore is very ably and fully dealt with by J. C. Andersen in his monumental work on Maori Place Names, p. 70, etc.