Volume 58 1949 > Volume 58, No. 2 > Pare Hauraki - Pare Waikato, by George Graham, p 68-76
“PARE HAURAKI—PARE WAIKATO”
An old-time adage of the Hauraki and Waikato people, the origin thereof, and some of the significant history connected therewith as narrated to me by Wiremu Hoterene Taipari of Ngati Maru in 1887.
THE following is a narrative of an incident which occurred some time about the year 1816, or early in 1817, 1 and a few years prior to the destruction of the Marutuahu stronghold in 1821 at Totara—when Hongi Hika attacked the Hauraki district in that year.
The tragic tribal disaster which then befell the Hauraki people made a deep impression on the people of both Hauraki and Waikato. It served to show them the futility of the continuance of their internecine warfare, the original causes whereof were centuries old. The people of these two districts were both of “Tainui” descent and were, therefore, of close genealogical connection. These conflicts were really family quarrels, but none the less they served to weaken their military strength, as also their economic well-being.
This showed itself in the years of the subsequent Ngapuhi invasions, when unprovided with firearms, they were nigh decimated. Only the opportune coming of the “Pax Britannica” saved them from ultimate extinction.
However, to Hotunui (of about 1600 A.D.) is ascribed the origin of this adage—which he intended should be a guiding proverb in thus urging the unity of his Tainui people in both these districts.
How Hotunui's adage (ohaki) was more or less disrespected in after years, leading to wars and disunity, is elsewhere told of in detailed records.
However, this is the story of the occasion of Hotunui's giving his patriarchial advice—“Pare Hauraki—Pare Waikato.” It also is fuller detailed elsewhere. Thus it is here given in brief:—- 69
Hotunui had, he claimed, been wrongly blamed for the theft of some of the tupu kumara (kumara seedling plants) of his father-in-law, Mahanga. 2 He felt thereby deeply ashamed before his wife's people.
His wife (Mihirawhiti) 3 was expecting a child. Hotunui decided to leave his home and migrate to Hauraki, “to the East.” He directed his wife, if her child was born a boy, to name him “Marutuahu,” 4 and when grown an adult, to send him to seek him, his father, at Hauraki, “to the East.”
Hotu's wife was originally known as Whaeatapoko. She then changed her name in accord with Maori custom to “Mihirawhiti” (i.e., Greet the East). In due time her child was born a son. He was named Marutuahu in accord with his father's directions.
When grown up, he set off with an escort to Hauraki, and there at Whakatiwai, found and joined his father.
His father thus welcomed him—“Welcome my son—Let now Pare Hauraki and Pare Waikato be as one—and we be we.”
Thus the origin of this proverb, still extant, as it still forms the main theme (kaupapa) in song and oratory between these two people in their mutual assemblies. It serves to confirm goodwill in their inter-tribal relationships, as also to conserve the memory of their genealogical connections. Such are the bases of Maori tribal pride and esprit de corps.
WIREMU HOTERENE'S NARRATIVE.
(Explanatory notes by Tukumana Te Taniwha.)
Taipari, the father of Wiremu Hoterene Taipari and the head chief of the Marutuahu, the senior tribe of Hauraki, descended from that common ancestor, Hotunui, decided to erect a whare runanga (assembly house) at Hauraki, to thus honour that ancestor. Therefore, he named the house “Hotunui.” 7
The house was erected on the tribal marae at Parawai 8 and all tribes were welcomed (powhiritia) to honour the opening and dedication of the house (tomo whare). These - 70 powhiri were sent to the tribes throughout these islands, to “the four winds,” as the expression is (“ki nga hau e wha”).
Special envoys inviting to this important tribal function went to Waikato, Kawhia, and to the Rohepotae 9 (King Country). Thus there came to honour their ancestor Hotunui, representatives of Tainui from all those parts.
Taipari in his welcome speech to Waikato thus spoke:
“Welcome! Welcome! Oh my elders of Waikato taniwha rau 10—you my elders and younger relations. Here we are now foregathered to honour the memory of this our common ancestor—your ancestor, my ancestor, Hotunui.”
Concluding a long oratorical effort intermixed with much genealogical recitative, and appropriate ancient chants, he said:
“Nau mai! Haere mai! Haere mai ki Hauraki, he aute 11 tē awhea. Kia wetea ai nga ahi-komau, 12 me nga whakamauharahara roa o aua ra o mua atu. Haeremai! e Pare Waikato ki Pare Hauraki. Tatou tatou. 13 Me noho marire tatou.”
(Come closer hither! Welcome hither! Welcome hither to Hauraki, where even the leaves of the aute are not beruffled. Let the slumbering fires be extinguished, and the ill-feelings of those days of yore. Welcome, oh Pare Waikato unto Pare Hauraki. For we are one. Let us now in peace abide.)
As noted down by me from Tutunana Te Taniwha's account in 1912.—G. Graham.
NGA KORERO A WIREMU HOTERENE TAIPARI.
1. Tera ano tetehi ope na Potatau ki Hauraki nei, i nga ra o mua. I toia mai nga waka ma Maramarua ki Pukekorokoro, 14 ka whakawhiti mai ki Hauraki. Ka noho te ope ki te taha tonga o Kauaeranga pa, ki tetehi taha o te awa.
2. Katahi ki whakapaea e Hauraki, ara e Marutuahu katoa. Ka kakati te taha ki te moana, 15 haunga te tuawhenua. Kua whakapaea katoatia e nga iwi o Hauraki.
3. Kaore he putanga, ka tiko noa iho te tangata i roto i te pa. Huaina tonutia iho, ko “Tiko raurohe” 16 te ingoa o taua wahi. Ko te matenga tenei o Waikato i a Marutuahu.- i
Family Tree. Showing the connection of various prominent families of the Waikato and Hauraki districts. Hotunui=Maramatahanga (of “Tainui” Canoe), Marangai, 6 generations to, Te Ata=Tuheitia (of Kawerau), Ngati Waitahanui a Hei and Te Uri o Pou, Te Whatu, Mahanga (N/Mahanga)=Paretai, Waitapu ===, Hotunui II====Mihirawhiti, Ruahiore (N/Pou), Waiokehu=Rangitihi, Hinehehua=Paka, Marutuahu==Paremoehau (N/Maru), Takakopiri ==, Kahureremoa, Kumaramaoa=Tuparahaki, Waenganui=Taurakapakapa, Tamatera and others, Hekeiterangi=Hekemaru, Taharua, Mahuta (Ngati-Mahuta), Haua (Ngati Haua), Tauhakere=Paoa (of N/Kahungunu and Te Kawerau) ==, Tukutuku, Hinetera=Kahurautao, Uerata, Toawhena, Toapoto, Te Papa, Horowhenua, Kiwi, Rautao, Tapaue, Paretipa, Taheke, Putoa, Hape, Te Putu, Kautu, Porokitua=Papa, Rangimahora, Te Maunu=Te Tiwha, Tahangai === Hauauru, Te Tawhiakiterangi, Te Aonui, Te Motuiti, Horeta Te Taniwha, Rongotukiterangi, Te Kahuhurangi=Tuata, Te Tiwha=Te Maunu, Rangimahora =, Te Mahia or Totokarewa), Te Poutu, Patea, Kitahi Te Taniwha, Karukino, Tiatia, Te Haupa, =========, Paterangi, Hone Nahe, Tukumana (no issue surviving), Parengahope=Rauangaanga, Hori, Puku= Tomairangi, Te Rauroha, Hoterene Graham, Taipari, Raharaha=Potatau (Te Whero-whero), Tamati Ngapora=Hera, Te Puhi, Te Tawai=Wiremu Hoterene Taipari, Tawhiao, ===, Herakuao, Eruini Taipari, GENEALOGY OF NGATI POU, Mahuta and others, Tiahuia=Tahuna Herangi, (or Uri o Pou), Rata, Mapara (came in “Arawa” Canoe), Koroki, Hera, Te Puea and others, 6 generations to, Pou (of Tainui, Waikato), Poutukeka=Huakaiwaka, Whaturoto, Rangihuamoe=Hua=Rauwhakiwhaki, Te Tahuri, ===, Te Ikamaupoho, Huatau, Te Atairehia=Tapaue), Kiwi Tamaki, 6 generations to), Pouate), Ngati Te Ata, Descendants with Ngati Pou (at Rangiriri), Te Mahia (see above), Te Horeta=Huiawarua)
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4. Ka puta te whakaaro i a Potatau kia tukuna he tangata kia Te Haupa i Hikutaia. Ka mea a Manukau o Ngati Te Ata, ko ia e haere kia Te Haupa—he karere mo Potatau.
5. Ka haere a Manukau, ka tae ki Hikutaia. Ka korero atu ki te kupu a Potatau: “Ko te kupu tenei a Potatau—Nau moi-haere ki a Te Haupa ki te tono tetehi maramara totara 17—he kawe i au ki Tahunakaitoto 18—Ko tatau tatau—Pare Waikato, Pare Hauraki.”
6. Ko te kupu tenei a Te Haupa: “Ka tika—ko Pare Hauraki Pare Waikato.” Ka homai te waka. Ka ki mai, “Kei a Te Tiwha 19 tetehi.” Ka tae ki a Te Tiwha, ka tukua mai tona waka. Katahi ka hoea mai nga waka ki Kauaeranga pa—ka hoea ki Potatau.
7. Ka utaina a Waikato ki runga i nga waka; ano aoake te ra, kua riro a Waikato, kua hoki. Ka ora a Waikato.
Na reira tenei kupu i whai-mana ko “Pare Hauraki Pare Waikato.”
8. Mehemea kaore he ara whanaunga, kua mate a Waikato. Na nga huarahi whanaunga ki roto a Hauraki i ora ai.
9. Whakamaua i konei hei kupu korero—ara whakatauki “Pare Hauraki Pare Waikato.” Ko te mutunga tenei o nga ope haeremai a Waikato ki Hauraki nei.
1. There was yet another war party of Potatau here to Hauraki in the by-gone days. The canoes were dragged hither by way of Maramarua to Pukekorokoro,13 and crossed over to Hauraki. The war party settled down on the southern side of Kauaeranga Pa, on the opposite side of the river.
2. Then (they were) besieged by all the Marutuahu. They were cut off on the sea side14—as also on the inland side. (Thus they) were completely besieged by the people of Hauraki.
3. There was no escaping—the men therefore relieved themselves within the pa. Hence was “Tiko raurohe”15 (the latrine in the bracken fern) bestowed as the name of that place. Such then was the humiliation of Waikato by the Marutuahu.- 72
4. There came the decision to Potatau to send a man to Te Haupa at Hikutaia. Then Manukau of Ngati Te Ata decided that he would go to Te Haupa, as a messenger on behalf of Potatau.
5. So went Manukau and reached Hikutaia. He told of the message of Potatau: “This is the word of Potatau. Go you to Te Haupa—to ask for a fragment of totara16 to carry me to Tahunakaitoto.17 For we are Pare Waikato, Pare Hauraki. Tatau tatau.”
6. The reply was thus of Te Haupa: “Tis well—for we are Pare Hauraki Pare Waikato,” and he gave his canoe. He said, “With Te Tiwha is another.” When he arrived at Te Tiwha's she gave her canoe. Then hitherward were rowed the canoes to Kauaeranga pa, to Potatau.
7. So Waikato embarked aboard the canoes, and ere dawn of next day—Waikato had departed; having thus returned, Waikato was saved. Hence (the significance) of this expression“Pare Hauraki, Pare Waikato.”
8. For if there had not been a line of relationship Waikato would have perished. Because of their pedigree in relationship within Hauraki, they were saved.
9. Thus was then accepted as a term in oratory, or as a proverb “Pare Hauraki, Pare Waikato.” This was the last of the expeditions of war parties from Waikato, here to Hauraki.
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1 Late in the year 1816 or early in 1817 may be fixed this affair at Kauaeranga. For Te Haupa mentioned herein, accompanied Hongi Hika in an attack on the East Coast people. In the fighting at Whetumatarau, he lost his life, soon after this incident at Kauaeranga.
2 Mahanga, in his hasty temper, came and pulled up the kumara plants—and trampled over and destroyed the mounds prepared by Hotunui. Hence the humiliation of Hotunui was added to in his being accused of theft of the plants.
Some elders of Hauraki state the correct name of this incident is “Te Mara-tuahu-kau” (the cultivation mounded without result); for it was so much labour expended by Hotunui in vain, due to Mahanga's hasty temper.
3 Mihirawhiti, was the daughter of Mahanga (ancestor of the Tainui tribe Ngati Mahanga). She had married Hotunui at Patea (Taranaki). Her former name was Whaeatapoko. She came to Kawhia with her husband to rejoin her father, and he allotted the couple a cultivation at Powewe (Kawhia township). When Hotunui directed her to send her expected child, when grown up to follow him to Hauraki “to the East”—she took the name “Mihirawhiti” (Greet the East) in accordance with Maori custom. Hence also when she gave birth to a son, she named him Marutuahu (vide pedigree).
4 Marutuahu (the tuahu, or mounds formed whereon the kumara plants are set: maru, crushed or broken. (vide pedigree.)
5 Uri o Pou (or Ngati Pou). They were a people of mixed ancestry descended from the aboriginal Tini o Toi, and of the later Tainui and Arawa settlers. They take their tribal name from Poutukeka of Tainui. These were the people with whom Hotunui came to reside at Hauraki and from whom he took his wife Waitapu. They were formerly a numerous and widespread tribe, occupying all the Hauraki district, and westward inland of Waikato, unto the shores of the Manukau. Their descendants today live about Rangiriri, Whangape and Waikato Heads. (Vide genealogical chart.)
6 Marutuahu's journey to Hauraki to join his father (vide J.P.S., Vol. 50, p. 120).
7 “Hotunui,” the name of Taipari's house was given thus to honour their Tainui ancestry. He was the second man of that name, descended by some eight generations from Hotunui, who came in the Tainui canoe.
The tekoteko, the figurette surmounting the frontal gable of the house, is by name also “Hotunui.”
8 Parawai. This was the name of an ancestral cultivation at Tahiti, as also the name bestowed by Tamatekapua (of the Arawa canoe), whose was the first Arawa cultivation formed at Kaituna (Maketu). When his son Huarere settled here at Hauraki, he also gave this name to his marae at Hauraki.
9 Rohepotae (“the rim of the hat”). A name symbolic of this, the residue of the former extensive tribal territories of the Kingite Maoris. The confiscation edicts subsequent to the Waikato War, had in Maori opinion so reduced their tribal area, that it was like unto taking away their very hat (potae) leaving them only the rohe (rim), a mere vestige of their former dignity as a landed people.
The term potae is nowadays applied to a hat, which in olden times the Maoris did not wear. It was in fact the name of a form of head-gear—a kind of wreath (pare) and decorated with colourful featherwork. These wreaths were worn on gala days, woven from strips of the bark of the houhere.
Another type of potae was interwoven with black dyed fibres—and worn in times of mourning by widows and female relations of important chiefs. During the period of mourning, they remained secluded indoors, in houses built for them; hence the name given to the mourning period—the “whare potae.”
During the time of the “whare potae” the mourners took no part in tribal festivities, and remained so apart until ceremonially released (whaka-putaina) from their tapu condition.
10 Waikato taniwha rau: (Waikato of the many or hundreds of taniwha, i.e., chiefs). Along the course of this river and at each bend and tributary, dwelt many chiefs, and each chief had his guardian saurian monster (taniwha).
Hence also the adage, “He piko, he taniwha, he piko he taniwha,” i.e., at each river bend or branch is a taniwha (i.e., a chief). (The Kingite emblem of today shows the taniwha “Haumia” as their official coat of arms.)
11 He aute tē awhea (i.e., the aute (Broussonetia papyrifera) not beruffled). The aute was a shrub or small tree brought to New Zealand by the immigrants of 1350 A.D. This attempt at acclimatisation was, however, unsuccessful, due to the adverse climatic conditions, hence the aute gradually died out.
At Hauraki, however, it lingered on till the early decades of the 19th century. At Waihihi (Wharekawa) a grove of aute grew, said to have been planted by Maramatahanga, and was known as “Te uru aute o Maramatahanga.” A hapu of the Ngati Whanaunga was known as Ngati Aute. Kiwi Te Aute was a lineal descendant of Marama (also known as Ngati Aute). He died about 1900 A.D.
This adage of the aute, in Hauraki thriving here unruffled, was symbolic of the comparatively peaceful and prosperous conditions formerly said to have been prevalent among the peace-loving tribes of Hauraki. (However, it would seem that their actual tribal history amply falsifies their tribal motto.)
12 Nga ahi komau: “The slumbering fire” symbolic of long nourished tribal ill-wills which might be relit at any time. An ahi komau was one left banked up with covering ashes by those temporarily absent from home. Being easily relit, it thus saved the laborious effort of the fire-stick process of re-kindling.
(Vide Journal 57, p. 276, note 5, for further details re the ahi komau.)
13 “Tatau tatau”: (We (are) we), i.e., of one blood. Still a very common phrase used between relatives, or those closely connected ancestrally, in greeting one another.
14 Maramarua te Pukorokoro (or Pukekorokoro); a usual canoe (to waka) or portage from Waikato to Hauraki or vice versa. This was the portage (also one via Piako) used by Pomare in the last Ngapuhi raid on Waikato (1826). (Vide map.)
15 The Marutuahu tribes had captured overnight the canoes of Potatau, hence the Waikato war party was marooned at Kauaeranga.
16 Tikoraurohe: A place name still extant, and whereby the memory of this abortive war expedition of Waikato against Hauraki is still remembered in Hauraki.
17 Maramara totara: (A shaving or scrap of totara), i.e., a canoe made of a totara tree. Such a canoe was more durable in use for portaging over land. Thus Potatau indicated his intention to abandon his hostile intentions against Hauraki, and to return the way he had come. Te Haupa therefore so understood Potatau, and lent his canoe to expedite the return of Waikato.
18 Te Tahunakaitoto: (The sand-dunes be-soaked in blood). here had been fought in former days there at the mouth of the Waitakaruru River a decisive battle so named between the Marutuahu and the Uri o Pou in alliance with their Ngati Huarere allies.
The result of this combat was the conquest of the Hauraki district by the Marutuahu people. (Vide map.)
So many perished in this battle on the sand-dunes, or mud-flats, that the site of the battle was as it were literally “besoaked with blood”). (Vide “Wars of Ngati Huarere and Ngati Marutuahu,” J.P.S., Vol. 29, pp. 31 et seq.)
19 Te Tiwha. A prominent chieftainess of Ngati Mahuta and Ngati Maru connections. She held the mana (authoritative prestige) as a taharua (related to both sides), and was frequently appealed to as a takawaenga (a go-between), and as an arbiter in the many domestic and tribal difficulties that from time to time arose between Waikato and Hauraki. Hence the appeal by Te Haupa to her for canoes to enable Potatau to peacefully return to Waikato, and so ensure the cessation of further hostilities. Such a peace-making was of special significance and effect. Hence the proverb is: “He whakahohou rongo wahine, he tatau pounamu,” (i.e., a peace secured by a woman is as a greenstone door-way—endurable and lasting).
By Te Tiwha's step-son, Te Mahia, her grand-children were Te Haupa and his sister Tiatia—who were both of outstanding importance among their people. Te Tiwha was also the mother of Horeta Te Taniwha (also known as Te Tiwha Te Taniwha), the outstanding leader in his time among his people in peace and war. (Vide genealogy.)
NOTE.—There may be some uncertainty as to some details set forth in the appended Genealogical chart—but I compiled it after careful enquiries made by me among the present day representatives of the various family groups concerned. Also I have carefully compared it with such records as are nowadays available for research, including Tukumana Te Tanwiha's History of the Marutuahu Tribe of Hauraki. To Tukumana I am also indebted for much of the data included in the appended notes; which though digressing much from the narrative by Hoterene, are of interest as illustrating the times, wherein occurred the happenings at Te Tikorauroha. Having heard Hoterene frequently quote the adage “Pare Hauraki—Pare Waikato,” and refer to the place name “Te Tikorauroha,” I took occasion to ask him how the name originated, and its application to the locality. He then wrote out the narrative herewith which Tukumana embodied in his history.—G. Graham.