Volume 5 1896 > Volume 5, No. 1, March 1896 > The Maori tribes of the East Coast of New Zealand: Part IV, by W. E. Gudgeon, p 1-12
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VOL. V. 1896.
Part IV.

OF the early Maori history of Poverty Bay and Te Wairoa (Northern Hawke's Bay) we have no record, for Maori tradition as to these districts deals only with the advent of the ancestor Kahungunu, son of Tamatea, who flourished about eighteen generations ago, and the subsequent history of his descendants.

It must not, however, be supposed that this portion of New Zealand was unoccupied at the period preceding the arrival of Tamatea and his sons, for such was not the case. Indeed we have every reason to believe that there were then, as now, powerful tribes in occupation, not only of the Coast, but also of the inland and less fertile districts. These tribes were descended in part from Maui-potiki, through the ancestor Toi, and other less known progenitors of the tangata whenua, and in part from the crew of “Horouta,” who had even then been eight generations in possession of the district lying between the Pakarae Stream, eight miles north of Gisborne, on the north, and the Turanga-nui River, falling into Poverty Bay, on the south. These people were the descendants of Paoa and Hakiri-o-te-Rangi, and were living under the mana of the chief Ruapani1 when Kahu-ngunu came from the north.

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Among the tangata whenua, were the descendants of the great Kiwa, who must have been a chief of exceeding mana, for not only is Poverty Bay known as Turanga-nui-a-Kiwa, but the ocean also is spoken of to this day as the Moana-nui-a-Kiwa. The descendant of this chief best known to tradition was Moeahu, whose three daughters married the well-known ancestor Rongo-whakaata, and so originated the tribe of that name, and also the Ngati-Ha, better known as the Ngati-Pukenga, of Opotiki.

At this same period, the Ngai-tahu tribe, that afterwards migrated to the South Island, lived at Te Muri-wai, Poverty Bay, and owned the land extending thence into Hawke's Bay, to the south of the Whakaki Lagoon, near the Wairoa River. Other members of this much scattered tribe resided at Whanganui-a-Tara (Wellington) and in the Middle Island.

The ancient tribe of Ngariki occupied the valley of the Waipaoa River, Poverty Bay, in the neighbourhood of Mangatu. Apparently thereare several tribes of this name in New Zealand, and it is probable that all of them may have been offshoots of the ancient tribe of Mangaia Island, Cook Group, of the same name, but this particular section does not claim relationship with the tribe which is now known as the Whanau-a-Apanui, but which of old were called Ngariki, nor do they belong to that Ngariki who are said to have come to New Zealand in the Rangi-matoru canoe, under the chief Rangi-whakaia, and under the care of the god Tu-kai-te-uru, who, strange to say, is also the chief deity of the Ngati-Maru tribe of Hauraki.

  • 23 Ariki-nui
  • Ariki-roa
  • Ariki-matua
  • 20 Ariki-tahito
  • Puhinga
  • Te Ihingarau
  • Maru-taiaroa
  • Te Pua-tahi
  • 15 Mumura
  • Te Waruhanga
  • Takitini
  • Ruaneke
  • Manuhiri
  • 10 Te Piunga-tahi
  • Nuku-pawhero
  • Riri-whare
  • Rangipa
  • Te Kapu
  • 5 Whakaware
  • Huka
  • Tuhanga-i-rangi
  • Wi Te Kura
  • Tiopira Tawhiao.
  • Ngariki Tribe of Mangatu, Poverty Bay.

On the coast, from Whareongaonga, six miles south of Poverty Bay, to Te Whakaki Lagoon in Hawke's Bay, the land was owned and occupied by the Ngati-Rakai-paaka tribe, that is, by the ancient tribe of that name, who claim descent from the ancestor Rua-kapua-nui, and who subsequently intermarried with the descendants of Rakai-paaka II, grandson of Kahu-ngunu.

The adherents of Rongomai-wahine and Tama-takutai occupied the Mahia Peninsula, and the Ngai-Tauira held the valleys of the Wairoa and Waiau rivers. Of these tribes, the first-named has been absorbed into the Ngati-Kahu-ngunu, but the descendants of Tauira are still numerous in the Wairoa District, and the Kahu and Kuru-pakiaka hapus ought really to be called the Ngai-Tauira.

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I have now named the leading tribes of mana who held possession of Poverty Bay and Te Wairoa District at and before the arrival of Kahu-ngunu. There were, however, other ancestors, if not tribes, who were less known and probably of less importance, but of whom the memory survives. Far inland, among the deep valleys of the Whaka-punake Mountain, the last home of the moa, in the classic neighbourhood of the Reinga Falls, and on the shores of Waikare-Moana, the most picturesque of New Zealand lakes, we hear of other ancestors, some of whom are more taniwha than man, who were contemporary with Kahu-ngunu. These shadowy beings are recognised as ancestors by the modern Maoris, but beyond that fact nothing is known of these beings of the remote past, who are usually spoken of with the respect due to those who lived in the very night of time, even before the creation of Ao-marama—the world of light and being.

The ancestors to whom I have referred are, first, Te Uoro, the original owner of the Waikare-iti Lake, also Paire, who had no less than ten generations of ancestors of the same name; Tawhaki, Maahu, who was probably identical with the ancestor of that name, the progenitor of the Nga-maihi tribe of the Bay of Plenty; Tamatea-moa, whose daughter Kura-pori cohabited with Rangi-nui, a son of Tamatea-pokai-whenua, is another of the remote ancestors; also Rua-kautuku; and last, but by no means least, Hine-Korako, whose taniwha ancestry will be given when describing the Ngati-Ruapani tribes.

The Ngati-Kahu-ngunu and other East Coast clans contend that they are from the migration that came here in the Taki-tumu canoe, but on what grounds this claim is made I have never been able to ascertain, inasmuch as no Maori with any reputation as a tohunga or exponent of Maori tradition has ever said that Tamatea-pokai-whenua came hither in the Taki-tumu canoe; nor do I know that any one of that chief's ancestors has been indicated as having come in that migration. Such a claim has indeed been made by those who collected for the late Mr. John White,2 but the work referred to is not reliable. The best that can be said of it is, that it is the natural result of the system on which the material for the work was collected. Manuscript books were sent round amongst the Maoris, with a request that some member of each tribe would write therein their history and traditions. These books did not as a rule fall into the hands of the old and learned men, for the very good reason that they did not write with sufficient facility to justify them in undertaking such onerous work, hence it devolved upon younger men, who not only had no real knowledge of their own, but furthermore had not the authority necessary to overcome the deeply-rooted feeling of distrust that may be observed in any old Maori if you venture to write down his words.

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The traditions relating to Paoa are of this class here, Mr. White's native writer gravely confounding the great chief and navigator of “Horouta” with Paoa, the son of Heke-maru, and the fact that the chief of Horouta lived about 400 years before the last-named Paoa is either ignored or unknown to the writers. The absurdity of the mistake will be seen by reference to the attached genealogy, which is that of King Tawhiao, and which is absolutely correct. Here we have ten generations from Mahuta, the brother of Paoa, both of whom were of the Arawa tribe, whereas there are twenty-six generations from the first Paoa.

Missing Image
Family Tree. 18 Tama-te-kapua, Kahu, Tawhaki, 15 Uenuku, Rangi-tihi, Kawa-tapu-a-rangi, Pikiao, Heke-maru, 10 Paoa, Mahuta, Ue-rata, Tapaue, Te Putu, Tawhia, 5 Tuata, Te Rau-angaanga, Potatau, Tawhiao, Mahuta,

Any matter personally collected by Mr. White, and corrected by him, would be valuable, but in the work to which I refer, Mr. White does not even express an opinion as to the reliability or otherwise of his authorities, even when they are in conflict.

Missing Image
Family Tree. 36 Ngu, Pei, Turei, Kau-whata, Mahuika, Wha-a-ure, 30 Whatu-maurea, Tiki-wharawhara, Tohi-a-nuku, Pure-i-ariki, Wanakau, 25 Rerewha, Mutu-rangi, Tauri-kuri, Rongomai-hito, Tai-rohutu, 20 Te Pupu,. Raro-whenua, Te Iringa, Te Kura, Hine-tapu,3 Tohe, 15 Tamatea, Hine-kura, Tahinga-iti, Te Reinga

Apart from the question of the Taki-tumu descent of Tamatea, no genealogy of the present day is more warmly disputed than his. The Ngati-Tamatea, or Rarawa, of Mangonui, claim this same Tamatea as their ancestor, and relate with natural pride his many great deeds, including the attempt to drain Lake Tangonge. I am unfortunate in being unable to relate the circumstances under pressure of which Tamatea abandoned his old home; it is, however, said that he was defeated in a battle fought at Rangaunu, northwards of the entrance to Mangonui Heads. He himself escaped, and fled with his family in a canoe. As he passed the rocky islet of Nuku-taurua, he was met by a war-party coming to his assistance, the chief of which called upon him to return. The reply given by Tamatea has passed into a proverb: “He rangai - 5 maomao ka taka i tua o Nuku-taurua e kore a kore a muri e hokia.” In this proverb, Tamatea compares himself to a shoal of fish (maomao), who, when they have passed Nuku-taurua, do not again return during that season.

Family Tree. Rua-waha, 10 Te Hautapu, Tai-Kumukumu, Wai-puia-rangi, Moko-tu, Te Ao-kaihi, Te Rua-kiri, 5 Turou, Te Karehu, Waitaha, Kaipara, Te Rakeua, Puwai, Kingi Rakeua, Te Rehu, Henare Kingi Timoti Puhipi, Whaene, Taka, Hoa-rangi, Uira-roa

The answer was very much that which might have been anticipated from the tangata whenua; it had none of the heroic and unconquerable spirit which had always characterised the Hawaiki emigrant. Tamatea continued his journey southwards to Turanga, where it is said his mother Hine-tapu had preceded him, and enroute called at Tauranga, where a quarrel arose among his children, with the result that Whaene left the family party and settled in the Bay of Plenty. I know of but one line of descent from this ancestor, viz., to Uira-roa, who, according to some authorities, married Awa-nui-a-rangi, while others assert that Ue-mua was her husband; but in either case her sons are admitted to have been Ira-peke, Rongo-tangi-awa and Awa-tope (the first of that name). Uira-roa4 was therefore the ancestress of Ngai-te-Rangi, Ngati-Pukeko and Ngati-Awa, not to mention Maru-iwi.

It is generally admitted that Tamatea came from the north, and was the ancestor not only of the above-mentioned tribes, but also of the Ngai-Tamatea of the north, and the Ngati-Rangi-nui and Ngati-Kahu-ngunu of the south. This point cannot, however, be accepted as settled in the face of the conflicting genealogies given for this ancestor. At page 211, vol. iii, of this Journal, it will be seen that Rongo-kako and Maurea are claimed as the parents of Tamatea by the southern Ngati-Kahu-ngunu, whereas the Ngati-Porou give him a very different ancestry—vide descendants of Toi;5 and as I have just shown, the Ngai-Tamatea claim an ancestry which differs from all others. Perhaps the Ngati-Porou are most likely to be correct, for all of the wives of Tamatea are claimed to have been the daughters of the East Coast chief Ira-kai-putahi. We are therefore justified in assuming that, even though he lived at Mangonui, he must have gone thither from Turanganui, or at any rate from some place on the East Coast.

The Ngai-Tahu, of the Wairoa, deny the Ira descent of these women, but admit that they belonged to the East Coast. The following is their genealogy:—

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Family Tree. Tawhaki, Taka-tu-moana, Tama-whetu-rere, Ihu-parapara, = Hanga-rua, Tamatea-ngana, = Hokio, Te, Moan-i-kauia, Iwi-pupu, Tamatea-upoko, Whaene, Kahu-ngunu,

These conflicting genealogies prove how very little is known at the present day of this ancestor, but whatever evidence there may be is in favour of Tamatea's descent from Toi-kai-rakau, and against the theory of the Taki-tumu migration.

Any narrative, purporting to be a history of the more remote generations of the tribes now under consideration, must necessarily be incomplete, and at the best fragmentary, since it would not at the present day be possible to obtain a connected account of the many vicissitudes through which they have passed. Something might indeed be done, if one could but spare the time necessary in order to visit each section of the tribe and question the few old men who still retain some knowledge, however crude, of their ancient history and origin, for in this way only could the numerous gaps and omissions which occur in all modern Maori tradition be filled up.

  • 21 Koro-tu-paku
  • 20 Tama-whetu-rere
  • Tama-tau-tahi
  • Ue-hanga-nuku
  • Awa-i-rau
  • Rapa
  • 15 Rongomai-wahine
  • Hine-rauiri
  • Hine-te-ngaru
  • Waha-rua
  • Tu-tawiri-ao
  • 10 Maihi
  • Te Ate-puru
  • Te Mauanga
  • Kura-wherau
  • Hira-anahi
  • 5 Whare-kaka
  • Te Mimiti
  • Te Rata-ao
  • Ihaka Whanga
  • Hirini Whanga

The modern Ngati-Kahu-ngunu are, it may be said, the descendants of the third wife of that ancestor, viz., of Rongomai-wahine, for they alone would seem to have inherited the force of character which, when combined with good birth, is said to produce mana in the individual.

Previous to the arrival of Kahu-ngunu, Rongomai-wahine had cohabited with Tama-takutai, a chief living at the Mahia Peninsula, and by him had several children, including Hine-rauiri, of whom I submit a genealogy. She left this husband for one of those absurd reasons which the Maoris are so fond of attributing to their ancestors, and it was then that she cohabited with Kahu-ngunu, and had issue the ancestors of the modern tribe of that name. As I have already hinted, this tribe was not obtrusively warlike, and so far as I can ascertain, did not produce any conspicuously great men; but none the less they have played a leading part in Maori history by the marriage of Mahina-rangi with Tu-rongo, of the Tainui migration, and that of Rongomai-papa with Tuhou-rangi, of the Arawa people.

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The chief lines of descent from Kahu-ngunu are as follows:—

Family Tree. Kahu-ngunu, Rongomai-wahine, Rua-tapu=wahine6, Kahu-kura-nui, Tu-te-ihonga Tamatea-kota7, Rongo-mai-papa, Tauhei-kuri8, Rongomai-tara, Rakai-hiku-roa, Rakai-paka, Kahu-tapere, Uenuku-Kopako, Mahaki, Te Ao-nui = Tupurupuru, Taraia, Mahaki-pure, Tama-turanga, Hine-taikura, Tu-mahanga, Hine-wai-mako, Kotihe, Hine-kai, Te Pa-o-rangi, Manaha, Hine-kaia, Whakahiri, Toha Rahurahu, (70 years old) Te Ropu-ake, Te Whaiti, Te Aweawe, Whare-pirau, Hine-i-tuhia, Hine-hurangi, Eketu-o-te-rangi, Hirini-te-Kani (68 years old) Whakaaue, Tu-tane-kai, Te Whatu-mai-rangi, Ariari-te-rangi, Tu-noho-pu, Tuna-eke, Te Tiwha, Ihu-tarera, Te Amohau, Akuhata, Mita (45 years old)
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Kahu-ngunu had other wives, and other children than those above-mentioned, but they have played only a subordinate part as compared with the offspring of Rongomai-wahine.

The first wife was Rua-rau-hanga, whose sons Rua-roa and Rongo-maire are among the leading ancestors of the Aitanga a-Hauiti, Ngati-Porou and Rongo-whakaata tribes.

Hine-pu-ariari, said to have been a descendant of Rua-kapua-nui, was the second wife, and her daughter was Po-whiro, of whom but little was known.

Hau-taruke was the fourth wife, and her children were Rakai-whakatau and Papaka.

Fifth in this long list was Pou-whare-kura, a captive, whose son was Rua-tapui.

The sixth and last was Kahu-kura-wai-arai, whose child was Po-tirohia.

At what particular period the children of Rongomai-wahine migrated from their maternal estate at Te Mahia to Turanga-nui is not known, but it is possible that they were attracted thither by the relationship existing between them and the children of Rua-rau-hanga. Whatever the reason, it is clear that all of them intermarried with the Turanga people, and that their descendants were subsequently virtually ejected by certain other branches of the same family.

Turanga-nui has always been famous for the migrations it has sent forth at the point of the spear to occupy other and less favoured districts of New Zealand.

The first perhaps, in point of time, was that of Tama-kopiri, who is now claimed as a son of Tamatea, but of which of the many Tamateas is by no means clear. Tama-kopiri migrated to Inland Patea about fourteen generations ago, and there, after dispossessing the Ngati-Hotu, founded the Ngati-Tama tribe. Such is the history of this migration, as told by themselves, but it is worthy of note that neither the Turanga nor the Wairoa tribes have any record of these events, and do not admit that Kahu-ngunu had a brother named Tama-kopiri. From this we may assume that the relationship is now only imaginary, but that Tama-kopiri must have been driven away from Turanga by the very people of whom one is now claimed as his brother. There is nothing unusual in the fact of brothers fighting bitterly one against the other, but it is very unlikely that such an incident would ever be forgotten.

  • 22 Te Ihi-o-tonga
  • Te Marere-o-tonga
  • 20 Te Mana-o-tonga
  • Takataka-putea
  • Tara=Hawea
  • Whata
  • Whatonga
  • 15 Te Rangi-whakauru
  • Weka-nui
  • Tawake
  • Rakai-maro
  • Korako-tan-noho
  • 10 Te Rangi-whakaewa
  • Pare-koau
  • Taua-rahake
  • Te Kura-iri-rangi
  • Kapo
  • 5 Ue-wha
  • Para-kiore
  • Te Rangi-kapu-rohe
  • Te Ropiha
  • Hori Ropiha

The next migration was the result of very serious fighting in the Turanga district, in which it would seem that all the southern tribes took part, even those who resided at Tamaki-nui-a-Rua (Seventy-mile Bush), who were led by Weka-nui, in order to assist Kahu-ngunu and Moe-ahu against their - 9 enemies. The cause of this disturbance was the murder of Rironga, a son of Moe-ahu, whose sister Moe-tai had married Tua-iti, a grandson of Tuira-a-rangi, chief of the Wairoa people, who at this period formed a very powerful tribe, and had many friends and supporters at Turanga.

The tale told is to the effect that Te Rironga, having paid a visit to his sister, was, during his residence with her, beguiled into the forest, and there murdered by her husband. Moe-tai had probably reasons of her own which caused her to be suspicious, for she was dissatisfied with the tale told her by her husband, to the effect that Te Rironga had gone to visit other villages in the vicinity. She therefore watched her husband, and found that he visited a certain place in the forest every day. With this clue to guide her, she followed him at a distance, and discovered him eating human flesh, which she well knew must have been part of her brother. The problem was now solved, but Moe-tai carefully concealed her knowledge of the crime until she was in a position to strike. Her relatives were duly warned, and Weka-nui brought the Rangi-tane tribe from Tamaki, while Moe-ahu and Kahu-ngunu led their own followers, with the result that at the battle of Kahu-te-reirei Tua-iti was slain, his two pas taken, and his tribe either killed or dispersed. It was here that Weka-nui captured Pou-whare-kura, a woman of high rank. As he led her away, Kahu-kura-nui called to him, saying, “Give me the woman.” At the same moment his father, Kahu-ngunu put in his claim. Weka-nui hesitated, but the woman settled the difficulty by saying, “I am no longer young, give me to the elder man.”

  • 21 Tura
  • 20 Ira-turoto
  • Ue-roa
  • Tahito-tarere
  • Rakai-nui
  • Te Ao-mata-rahi
  • 15 Rakai-whakairo
  • Rakai-te-iwi
  • Pirau-iti
  • Rakai-werohia
  • Rangi-tawhanga
  • 10 Te Umu-tahi
  • Mahaki-kaia
  • Te Hihi
  • Te Weranga
  • Hine-tarewa
  • 5 Hine-ki-runga
  • Tareroa=Kekerengu
  • Te Miha
  • Ratima
  • Te Ruihi

In this battle certain of the Ngai-Tahu were involved, their chief Tahito-tarere was slain, and those who survived of the tribe migrated under Rakai-nui to Whanganui-a-Tara (Wellington), and thence to the South Island. This was not, however, the first migration of the Tahu family to that island, for tradition relates that Tahu-matua himself left his home at Taumata-hinaki, on the Tuki-mokihi No. 2 Block, situated only a few miles from Te Wairoa, when he went to visit his son Tahu-tioro, who lived at Aro-paua, near Wairau. It was while residing here that the elder Tahu received intelligence that his brother Porou-rangi was dead, and - 10 thence returned to Turanga, where he co-habited with the widow Hamo, and had issue Tahu-muri-hape. I have in a previous article9 mentioned that the Ngati-Rua-nuku of Akuaku were of South Island origin, and brought thence by Tahu to attend on another of his sons, Rua-nuku.

The disruption of the Kahu-ngunu family commenced when Tui-te-kohe and others of that line expelled Rakai-pāka and his sister Hine-manuhiri from Turanga. The cause of the quarrel was a dog named Kauari-hua-nui, which said animal was supposed to have been killed by Rakai-pāka. That he was not the real offender was not known at the time, and therefore it came to pass that the culprit, Whakaruru-a-nuku, escaped punishment, and Rakai-pāka and Hine-manuhiri nearly lost their lives for his fault. It is the misfortune of the Maori people that they have never recognised any punishment short of death or slavery, and for this reason the very slightest ground of quarrel has frequently produced serious fighting and loss on both sides. It was so in this case, for, after the battle of Whenua-nui, both brother and sister would have been slain, but for the descendants of Porou-rangi, who, as relatives of each party, intervened, and would not allow matters to proceed to extremities. For this reason they were allowed to migrate unmolested, thanks to their Rua-pani and Porou-rangi connexions, who were too strong to be lightly offended.

The first migration of the Ngati-Kahu-ngunu, which included Hine-manuhiri and her children, Mate-te-rangi, Makoro, Pupuni, Hinganga-whakaruru, Maro and Pare-ora, together with Rakai-pāka and his family, viz., Kau-kohea, Pokia, Tama-te-ahirau, Maro-kore, Ure-wera, Maro-tauira, Mahaki-pure, Ngarua and Hine te-rongo, and their adherents, marched by way of the coast to Te Mahia Peninsula, where they were well received, and after a brief sojourn, made their way to Te Wairoa.

During this journey Pupuni is said to have been the custodian of a very celebrated and sacred heirloom,10 known as Te Kura-a-Tuhaeto, or Te Kura-Patapata-nui. This kura was a relic of very ancient date, and had probably belonged to the family of Tu-te-ihonga, or Rua-pani; most likely the former. Whatever the source, its mana was even greater than that of the famous kura of Tai-ninihi,11 and was in consequence of greater value to the fortunate possessors. For instance, it is recorded that when the warrior-chief Tapuae invaded Poverty Bay, and desired to keep his presence unknown until he could deliver his attack, his men were debarred from roaming about in search of - 11 food, and as a natural consequence were nearly starved. In this extremity, Tapuae ordered the Kura-a-Tuhaeto to be exhibited to the war-party, and, said my informant, as they gazed upon it the desire for food left them, and they were marvellously invigorated.

When the wanderers arrived at the Wairoa, they found that district in possession of the Ngai-Tauira, a numerous tribe of the tangata-whenua, but whether descended from the Maui-potiki people, as is the case with so many East Coast tribes, is not now known. Apparently the Ngati-Kahu-ngunu were well received by the owners of the soil, for it would seem that the two parties lived side by side for at least one generation, and even joined forces to repel or avenge outside aggression. It was at this period that a strange tribe of wanderers came to the Wairoa from some distant place. They are now spoken of as Te Ngarengare, but whether this was the name of the tribe, or of their chief only, is doubtful.

It was not long before a cause of quarrel arose between these people and that section of the Ngai-Tauira who lived at the Huru-mua pa, under the chief Iwi-katea. This hapu owned a very remarkable bird—a tui—known by the name of Tane-miti-rangi, who is said to have possessed more than human intelligence, for it could not only repeat the most powerful karakias, but also bewitch anyone to order. For these reasons the bird was greatly coveted, and therefore stolen by Te Ngarengare.

When the Ngai-Tauira discovered their loss they pursued the offenders, and overtook them at Turi-roa; but it would have been better for them had they not done so, for Te Ngarengare turned upon them and slew them at that place. This defeat compelled the Ngai-Tauira to call upon Rakai-pāka for assistance, and he, nothing loth to interfere in the affairs of the Wairoa people, made short work of the offenders, and drove the survivors to Hawke's Bay, where they amalgamated with the people of that district, and are now counted among the ancestors of Te Hapuku and other chiefs.

Family Tree. Meko Tauira, Tai-popoia, Tama-nui, Tua-iti, Mutu, Hine-kura, Te-o-kura, Tapuae

From this time there was peace in Te Wairoa, until Rakai-hakeke, a grandson of Hine-manuhiri, cohabited with Hine-kura. When Mutu was informed of the liaison, he made an insulting gesture, significant of his intention or ability to eat the offender. Unfortunately for Mutu this by-play was noticed by Rakai-hakeke, who presently called upon his tribe to avenge the insult. The call was promptly obeyed, and the followers of Rakai-pāka crossed the Wairoa River at Te Kapu, or Frasertown, where they were met and attacked in the water; they, however, gained ground, and drove the Ngai-Tauira up the valley of the Wairoa to Ramotu, where the Ngai-Tauira were finally defeated, and their pa, Rakau-tihi, taken. - 12 This affair is known as the battle of Taupara, and it firmly established the Ngati-Kahu-ngunu as a tribe in the Wairoa district, for it enabled them to seize upon all the lands of Mutu, from the Marumaru, on the Wairoa River, to Waikare-moana Lake.

It has been said that the whole of the Ngai-Tauira tribe were either slain or driven away after this battle, excepting only Hine-kura; but such is not the case, for those hapus of the tribe who lived under the mana of Iwi-ka-tere, Tai-popoia and Putara were not affected by the result of the quarrel between Rakai-hakeke and Mutu. They continued to live on their lands, independently of the Ngati-Kahu-ngunu, for many generations; and at a much later date, when the inland hapus of the last-named tribe, under the chiefs Te Wai-nohu, Tama-i-ouarangi, Te Whio, Te Kaka and Te Kahu-o-te-rangi, came to attack the Uwhi pa of Ngai-Tauira, Te Kau-iti of that tribe was chosen as fighting chief of the confederates, and he and Te Otane not only defeated Ngati-Kahu-ngunu, but also took the whole of the first-named chiefs prisoners. That they were not ignominiously slain is due solely to the fact that they were related to Te Rangi-tua-nui, chief of the Lower Wairoa. That relationship did not, however, save them from the most degrading indignities.

The Kahu and Kuru-pakiaka hapus of the so-called Ngati-Kahu-kura are still for the most part Ngai-Tauira, but the mana of that tribe has departed, for they no longer own the lands from the Reinga Falls to Ahuriri.

  • Tamatea
  • 15 Rua-ehu
  • Rua-whakatina
  • Tara-rahiri
  • Punua
  • Tu-korua
  • 10 Tama-pou
  • Whiti-kaupeka
  • Iro-kino
  • Tau-tahi
  • Ngahoa
  • 5 Te Pua-o-te-rangi
  • Ngara
  • Whare-rimu
  • Turi-takoto
  • Hori Tanguru
  • Ngati-Whiti tribe of Murimotu.

The third migration was that of Whiti-kaupeka, who left Turanga-nui and tried to establish himself near the source of the Mohaka River, on the lands of Kura-poto and Maru-a-hine. Here they came into collision with a tribe of the Arawa migration, who ejected them with but little ceremony, and drove them across the southern end of the Kaingaroa Plain, and thence to the Rangipo Desert, to Inland Patea, where they found shelter among their Ngati-Tama relatives, and sought consolation in a joint attack on the Ngati-Hotu tribe, which were in this way finally driven into the forest, and for ever disappeared as a tribe.

(To be continued.)

1  Papa-wharanui, who became the wife of Rangi-tihi and mother of Tuhou-rangi, was, it is said, a sister of Ruapani. Rangi-tihi was fifth in descent from Tama-te-kapua, captain of Te Arawa canoe.
2  White's “Ancient History of the Maori.”
3  Hine-tapu married Kauri.
4  It is claimed that Haruatai was a daughter of Whaene. This, however, is denied by her descendants, the Whakatohea tribe, who are probably better informed on this point than others.
5  Journal, vol. iv, p. 183.
6  Daughter of Rua-pani, ninth in descent from Paoa.
7  Married Rongo-kauae, daughter of Rongo-whakaata.
8  Married Tama-taipunoa, brother of Tu-tamure.
9  Journal, vol. iv, p. 177.
10  Said to have been a head-dress.
11  Journal, vol. ii, p. 234.