Volume 5 1896 > Volume 5, No. 1, March 1896 > The Moriori people of the Chatham Islands: their traditions and history: Chap. VIII - Ko Hokorongo-tiringa, by Alexander Shand, p 13-32
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- 13
The Migration of the Morioris to the Chatham Islands.

AS noted at the end of last chapter, Matangi-ao, or that part of the Moriori traditions which refer to the doings of their ancestors in Hawaiki, ends with the battle of Whanga-patiki, fought—as it is believed—in New Zealand, though said by the Morioris to have been in Hawaiki. With this chapter commences Hokorongo-tiringă, or “Hearing of the ears,” which relates to events subsequent to the abandonment of their ancient home.

Under the heading of “The Migration” it is proposed to give all the information collected concerning the various canoes which were alleged to have brought the ancestors of the Moriori race to the Chatham Islands. Although the Morioris declare there were autochthones, descendants of Te Aomarama and Rongomai-whenua, found on the island by Kahu, as well as by the later migrants, yet they can give no account whatever of any canoe or vessel which brought them here, but say they were no ro whenū(a) akĕ—developed, or sprung from the soil. This possibly may be taken to imply that they really could not account for their origin. Much of the story is very fragmentary, and there can be little doubt that a great deal of most useful information has been lost with the last generation of the old men, many of whom could have shed light on the subject.

The first canoe of which the Morioris have any tradition was Kahu's (Ko ro waka a Kahu), and of this story there are two versions. The people of the north end of the island hold that Kahu arrived first at Kaingaroa Harbour, where he planted his fern-root (eruhe) at a place named Tongariro. This was called Kahu's fern-root, and was known as such until after the arrival of the Maoris in 1836, when it was destroyed by pigs. Another name for fern-root was “Kahu's root” (Te aka a Kahu), a simile. There was a difference between his - 14 fern-root, it is said, and the ordinary kind. That of Kahu had a very light fibre (kăkă), and when the outside rind was scraped off, was white and soft; it was evidently a finer variety, not having the strong yellow fibre of the ordinary kind.

He brought with him his god—Kikokiko—also named Kahu, which he secreted at Rangikapua, the point on the western side of Kaingaroa Harbour. He also brought the kumara (sweet potato), which he planted on the island, but it would not grow. This was the karakia (incantation):—

Kumara no Aropawa1 i ko
Kumara na rau toro, tinaku2 e.
Homai e i ahu ai o wahine3 'ti.
E kaha, takina4 na rau toro, tinaku e.
Kumara from distant Aropawa,
Kumara of the spreading leaves, increase (or grow deep);
Come, be heaped up by the (your) junior wives,
Be strong, spring up the spreading leaves, increase.

By this recital, which is a very ancient one, it will be seen that the Morioris preserved the knowledge of the kumara plant in their isolation. Beyond the fact of its having been brought here, they knew nothing more, until told of it by the Maoris on their arrival in 1836. Prior to this, on seeing potatoes brought to the island by the early ships, they said they were kumara; also called pākămara. It would appear from this that both Moriori and Maori carried their seed kumara, &c., with them on their journeys, and they must have had canoes (or perhaps vessels) constructed so as to keep them safe from sea water, which would have rotted them. The Morioris fix the date of Kahu's arrival in the time of their autochthone ancestors Kahuti and Te Akaroroa, who lived at Kaingaroa; of Maripane, who lived at Matarakau; of Tamakautara, who lived at Te Awapatiki; of Karangatai and Karangatua, who lived at Whangaroa; and of Tāpĕnĕkĕ and Tapŏnī, who lived at Waitangi. The name of the canoe was said to be “Tāne,” and the crew were hokorū(a) (forty in number). Some of the old men appeared to be in doubt as to the name, and referred to it generally as Kahu's canoe—Ko ro waka a Kahu. On arrival, Kahu found the island in an unsettled state—kauteretere (floating)—and he joined together some places, and separated others.

According to another story, his canoe arrived first at Tuku, as it is called—the name in full being Tuku-a-Tamatē(a), who was one of the crew of Kahu's canoe, and apparently a man of distinction. Leaving the canoe there, Kahu proceeded round the island by way of the cliffs of the south coast to Ouenga, and afterwards to Te Awapatiki on the east coast, where he slept, and the place was called by his name, Kahu. There were many places on his journey where he could not sleep. Proceeding on his journey, he went by the north coast as far as Waitaha (where he found the sea breaking through from coast to - 15 coast) and into Whangamoe in Petre Bay, thus making a separate island of the north-west corner of the island, so that he could not go to Maunganui. From Waitaha he went across to Whangamoe, where he signalled by fire for his canoe to come to him from Tuku. The crew complied, and came across to Ohuru or Tei-kohuru (calm sea), another name for Whangaroa Harbour. Previously to this, however, he had joined together the gaping waterway, presumably to get across to his canoe at Tei-kohuru.

What the origin of this part of the story is, would be very difficult to conceive. At present there is nothing whatever in the configuration of this part of the island to suggest a passage of the sea from the north coast across to Whangamoe. None of the Morioris could throw any light on the subject, or say what was meant.

After rejoining his canoe at Whangaroa, Kahu then sailed across to Waitangi, and planted his kumaras at a place called Okăhŭ, at Mongoutu, with the result that they would not grow. After staying there for some short time, he departed, saying that the land was a whenua rei (a wet land), and returned to Aropawa and Hawaiki, as shown by the karakia called “Kahu's Tides” (Ka Tai-a-Kahu):—

Ko tai miti, ko tai whano,
Miti tai ki Aotea,
Whano tai ki Hawaiki.
'Tis the ebbing tide, 'tis the departing tide.
Ebb, O tide! to Aotea,
Depart, O tide! to Hawaiki.
Paonga, e miti5 ka tai o Aotea,
Paonga, e miti ka tai o Aropawa,
Paonga, e miti, Paonga e horo.
Whakarongo ki tai nei,
Ka ki te tai o Pehanga-riki,
Ka pa te tai ki Tauwaehoro.
Ko tai mitikia e Kahu,
Ooi! ko tai rere ki Hawaiki.
Paonga, lick up6 the tides of Aotea;
Paonga, lick up the tides of Aropawa.
Paonga, lick up, Paonga, devour.7
Listen to the (this) tide.
The tide sounds at Pehanga-riki,
The tide beats on Tauwaehoro.
'Tis the tide swallowed up by Kahu,
Ooi! 'tis the tide which flows to Hawaiki.

The story of Kahu's canoe staying at Tuku appears doubtful, as it is only a boat-harbour, and unsuitable for a canoe to stay at in certain winds, and more so for a vessel such as this must have been to have come even from Aotea (New Zealand), not to speak of Hawaiki. However, the story appears so far circumstantial in the lighting of a fire-signal for the canoe to come to Whangaroa, and it is given as related.

- 16
Rangihoua and Rangimata Canoes.

The next canoes to arrive at the island were Rangihoua and Rangimata. The cause of this migration, they say, was fighting in Hawaiki. There appear to have been various take (causes) of disturbance. First, the troubles of Manaia;8 second, the killing of Rakei;9 third, the burning of Ta-Uru-o-Monono or Manono.10 The last trouble, which caused the immediate departure of these canoes, arose through one Tama-te-kohuruhuru, son of Tu-moana, who killed his wife or sweetheart, Papa, in a fit of rage, because she accused him of impotency.11

Tu-moana's tribe was named Wheteina, and it is evident from the story that they lived in pretty close proximity to the Rauru tribe, to which Papa, or Tahu, and her father Horopapa belonged. It would appear that, although said to be of different tribes, they both were evidently of the same stock, and related to one another, as Tu-moana called Papa his son's sister (no doubt a cousin of some kind or other), and Horopapa he speaks of as his uncle. On discovering the murder of his daughter, Horopapa and his people surrounded the house of Tu-moana, his son, and people at night, and killed them all, with the exception of Tu-moana, who escaped into “his thickets” (hitiki), and hid there for some time. Tira, his brother-in-law, connived at his escape. (Tira was a younger brother of Horopapa, and married Tu-moana's sisters—a Ra Puhi raū ko Ro Pua—Te Puhi and Te Pua.) Tu-moana, after this, gathered his people and commenced fighting with the Rauru tribe. One of the Wheteina, Koro-wahia, lying in ambush in the hollow of a totara tree (Podocarpus totara), killed Tira, which added fuel to the fire. Horopapa then sent to fetch his elder brother Hāpā-kiore (all three were sons of Tchura-huruhuru = Maori Tuara-huruhuru), who gathered all their tribe, the Rauru-motchihere, or -motuhake—the true Rauru—to fight with the Wheteina and their allies. The battle took place on the sand-beach of Whanga-patiki (said by the old men to have been a short one, not more than half a mile in length). One of the headlands was called Tauranga, the other Tapuika. The Rauru occupied the Tauranga, and Tu-moana, with his allies, the Tapuika end of the beach. The latter people were exceedingly numerous, covering the beach, hence Horopapa's proverb—“Tapuika is dark, Tauranga is light” (Ka po Tapuika, ka ao Tau-ranga), in allusion to the multitude of Tu-moana's people, and the few of the Rauru. The names of the tribes who assisted Tu-moana were Ruarangi, Muturangi, Wheteina, Harua, Tch-Eitara, Makao-a-uhă, Makao-a-to(ă), Matanga, Poutama, Tch-Eituhi, Tch-Etikoke and Tch- - 17 Etiao or Etiaw'(ă).12 They fought, it is said, until the sea on the shore was red with blood, and in the end the Rauru defeated Tu-moana and his people. The account is vague as to how long the fighting was going on previous to the battle; but during that period the canoes Rangihoua and Rangimata were being built, and they put to sea during the fight. Rangihoua was not properly completed when she was launched, though Rangimata was. To this fact they attribute the former's ill-luck in getting ultimately wrecked, and in consequence very little is known about her people, of whom only a few were saved. All the legends and karakias concentrate around Rangimata and her arrival at the island. Although it is said Tu-moana and his tribal allies were defeated, it does not appear from a further part of the account that they were so completely. When Rangimata was afloat with Rangihoua, before setting forth on her voyage, the Rangimata people recognised the voice of Kirika, elder sister of Tu-moana, reciting the incantation of girding the marowhara13 (Pikinga i ri marowhara) of her brother. After recording this, the story says, Ka torikirikitii Ta Uru Manuka (“Ta Uru Manuka became small in the distance”).

Their home left, they “set out to live or die” (Pokai ta uru o te whenua, pokai ta uru o te moana), to wander round the crown of the land, to wander round the crown (expanse) of the ocean, to arrive after all their wanderings at the Chatham Islands. It is evident from the accounts that they endured severe privations on the way, particularly in the case of the Rangihoua canoe, whose crews were dying from lack of food and water, and in their helpless condition were wrecked on the north coast of the island, at Okăhŭ. Another canoe, called Pouariki, made at the same time as Rangimata and Rangihoua, was said to have left with them, but, beyond this statement, nothing more was heard of her after leaving. From the short account given of her, however, she appears to have been a double canoe of some kind, having a consort, “Katoko” by name—He whakapiri no Pouariki (“An adjunct”—lie close together—“of Pouariki”). As the Moriori raft-canoe was not in the least like this, of which the tradition alone is preserved, it is evident that the original canoes or vessels in which they came here from Hawaiki were entirely of a different character to any thing now in use either by Moriori or Maori. With Pouariki was another canoe, Poreitua, whose consort (whakapiri) was named Mano, which came likewise, but, as in the case of Pouariki, nothing further is known of her. There were also two other canoes, called Te Rangi-tu-makohakoha and Turore; these were canoes of witchcraft (E waka - 18 makutu). It does not appear if these were double or not, and nothing further was known of them by the narrator.

The canoe-launching chorus (Tau to waka) was as follows:—

E Pouariki, Ooi!
Tokina mai au, E-ei, E-ei!
E ka ki ku rung' o Pouariki.
E kei, e ke rō.
O Pouariki, Ooi!
Drag me along, E-ei, E-ei!
It sounds (of dragging) on Pouariki,
She moves (or rises), she moves altogether.

The Rauru people are said to have had seven canoes which did not come with the others, but were left in Hawaiki. Their names were Tama-korŏrŏ, Tupu-ngaherehere, Mātā-răngi, Tŏhoro-i-ongongo (waste of nettles), Hape, Karangatai, and the last, Tihauwea, was another canoe of witchcraft. The karakias (or prayers) only of these canoes were said to have been brought to the Chathams. Nothing further is known of Rangihoua after being dragged down to the water, followed by Rangimata in the darkness of the early morn (tchi ată marua po). They were launched silently, for fear of their enemies, and after a while their crews set out on their long voyage with anxious hearts. Rangihoua, after being buffeted about, her crew weak and dying with thirst, arrived on the north coast of the island, where the vessel, apparently out of control, was either beached or driven ashore among the breakers, and was rapidly smashed up; many of the crew being drowned, or dying on landing. The few known to have escaped, and whose names have been handed down, are Tunanga, Taupo and Tarere. The captain of Rangihoua, Te Raki-rō(a), apparently died, or was drowned. Many of them died on landing, through exposure, and from drinking water. This was the case with their ariki and priest, Honĕkĕ, who in his extreme thirst, forgetting that he was carrying his god, Rongomai-whiti, on his back, proceeded to drink. The god, in his anger at this desecration, killed him, the priest dying as he drank. It is reasonable to suppose that whatever rites and religious ceremonies were known to the Rangihoua people, were equally well known to those of Rangimata, and would be preserved by them; but owing apparently to this wreck, and to the fact that all the old men of the north-west corner of the island were dead before these traditions were collected, such (if any ever existed) were lost with them. The account given by the others is, that the Rangihoua immigrants left no rites and ceremonies.

The season when these canoes arrived was Te Whitu o Rongo (the seventh of Rongo or July, sometimes including part of August), the stormiest weather about the island; so that, apart from the rough strong winds, the cold of these southern latitudes must have been most trying to the immigrants, accustomed as they were to milder climates.

- 19

To return, however, to Rangimata and her crew. Her captain or chief was Mihiti, whose wife was Kimi. The names of three of their sons were remembered; the eldest, Mawake, was said to be a bad man; the second, Tama-te-kahia, they are silent about; but the youngest, Mawete, was a good man. But how they showed these qualities is not recorded. Mawake, the eldest, was the husband of Wairaka, who was a woman of rank, and of whom further mention will be made later on. The builder of Rangimata was Ru, of the Rauru clan; his wife's name was Pē, a niece (timit'-a-kahu) of Kahukura. Others who are remembered to have come in Rangimata were Nunuku, Pĕhĕ (a nephew of Kahukura), Mihi-torō, Tarewa (with Tokoraro, his wife, and their son Kauitia), with other passengers, Hapa and Kăkătai. Maruroa and Kauanga were also of the crew, with Tchu-te-ngană and Mātārangi, whose house was Whareama, as well as many others whose names are forgotten.

Maruroa and Kauanga were brothers, and it was they who are said to have gone to the land of Tahīri, Ireā and Momŏrĭ (prior to the migration), who told them of Rēkohŭ, or the Chathams, and taught them many other things. The place they went to was called Huku-rangi, from whence they assert they brought the karaka tree, the kumara or pākamără, with the marautara. It would appear therefore, if this statement is correct, that the Morioris knew of the island and its position before coming to it. At the same time, their case must have been urgent, to cause them to leave their homes at such a time of the year. There once existed a karakia called a kenewaka (utanga waka in Maori) which recited all the names of the crew and people of Rangimata, but unfortunately it could not be remembered by the old men, otherwise all her passengers would have been known. Before dragging the canoe into the water, they performed the ceremony of burning the chips from the place where Rangimata was made (a ra kohanga o Rangimata), and chanted the following umere (awa-moana in Maori):—

Wēra, wēra te rangi14 [or ra] tu-nuku, tu-rangi,
Ka pai a Nuku, ka pai a Rangi,
Kahukura15 wahia te moana,
Tungia i Hhiawaiki [Hawaiki] 'a16 wēra,
Ka puta ki waho Tu-ta-wake,17
Hiko,18 hi marŭa tō, hiko ki marua tō.
Wēra, wera te ra tu-nuku, tu-rangi.
Ka pai a Nuku, ka pai a Rangi,
Kahukura wahia te moana,
Tungia i Hhiawaiki 'a wera,
Ka rapū Mataihāwātă, Tāne,
Ka mahuta a Tu-tāwake.
Hiko, hi marua to, hiko hi marua to,
Rere atu, rere mai, rere papa.
Kia tuia19 te kohao,
- 20 Hokoihoko20 te manu ka turiki,
E rongo Kenowaka (= kenewaka).
Burn, burn, O sun, shining on earth, in heaven,
Nuku is propitious, Rangi is propitious (Earth and Heaven).
Kahukura, divide the sea!
Light up Hawaiki that it may consume.
Tutawake comes forth,
Remove, remove quickly. Remove, remove quickly.
Burn, burn, O sun, shining on earth, in heaven,
Nuku is propitious, Rangi is propitious.
Light up Hawaiki that it may burn
The weird ones Mataihāwātă, Tāne.
Tu-tawake comes forth,
Remove, remove quickly. Remove, remove quickly.
Rush forward, rush hither, rush gliding along,
To fasten the connection (or seising).
Leave, start!
Let the fledgling bird flap its wings,
'Tis a sound of departure.

After this they recited the kenewaka, a fragment of which only is remembered, beginning:—

1. Maruroa, Kauanga e pa'21 ki whea taua e?
E pa' ki roto, ka pangē ko roto, ka pangē ko roto, e.
E Haupapa, e Haupapa mo Tahiri22 te rangi
Ka pangē ko roto, ka pangē ko roto, e.
2. Maruroa, Kauanga e pa' ki whea?
E pa' ko waho, ka pangē ko waho, ka pangē ko waho, e.
E Haupapa, e Haupapa mo Tahiri te rangi
Ka pangē ko waho, ka pangē ko waho, e.
1. Maruroa and Kauanga, where shall we two be placed?
Be placed inside, be placed inside, e.
O Haupapa, Haupapa! the day is Tahiri's—
Place him in, place him in.
2. Maruroa and Kauanga, where shall (they) be placed?
Throw them out, throw them outside, e.
O Haupapa, Haupapa! the day is Tahiri's (Mangatea)—
Throw them out, throw them outside, e.

And in this manner all Rangimata's crew were recited, verse after verse. It seems not improbable, however, that this was composed after the event, by way of commemoration, and to prevent the names of the crew being forgotten.

When the above ceremonies were over, the morn began to break (Ka pē tch ată o Heia), and the canoes moved out to sea, about which time, probably, the incident occurred of Kirika reciting the maro of her brother Tu-moana, which was as follows:—

1. Ko Tu, ko Rongo te maro ka mehorī, Tāne, Tangaroa.
Pera hoki e tapu, taputapu,23
Te maro o ti Ariki,24 te maro o Waiorangi.
- 21 Tangohia i tih'(i) o Ro Mākā,25
E taua ki Whiti, taua ki Tonga, taua ki Whiti te wāwā,2627
Eke tu mai runga,
Rawea mai ke whiti makorapa,
No wai te maro ka mehori?
2. Ko Uru, Ngangana, Aiorangi,
Ko Tahu, ko Moko, ko Maroro, ko Wakehau te maro ka mehori,
Pera hoki ra e tapu, taputapu,
Te maro o ti Ariki, te maro o Waiorangi,
Tangohia i tih'(i) o Ro Mākā,
E taua ki Whiti, taua ki Tonga, taua ki Whiti te wāwā,
Eke tu mai runga,
Rawea ke whiti makorapa,
No wai te maro ka mehori?
1. 'Tis Tu, 'tis Rongo the outspread maro, Tāne and Tangaroa,
As also the sacred ends,
The maro of the Lord, the maro of Waiorangi.
Seize the crown of the Mākā,
Fight to the east, fight to the west, fight to the distant east,
Rise, stand up!
Gird that it may encircle.
Whose is the maro which is outspread?
2. Uru, Ngangana, Aiorangi,
Tahu, Moko, Maroro and Wakehau is the outspread maro,
As also the sacred ends,
The maro of the Lord, the maro of Waiorangi.
Seize the crown of the Mākā,
Fight to the east, fight to the west, fight to the distant east,
Rise, stand up!
Gird that it may encircle.
Whose is the maro which is outspread?

This, as regards the Rangimata migrants, was the last they heard or saw of their Hawaiki home (if such it was), where these incidents took place, until some considerable time after, when Moe, one of the Rauru adversaries, came to the island with his people in the Oropuke canoe. It is at this stage that Ko Matangi-ao ends,28 and all later stories of their voyage to the Chathams, and their subsequent war with Moe and his people, are called Hokorong'(o) tiring'(a) (“Hearing of the ears”), in opposition to the former “dawn of existence.”

The karakias in connection with their voyage show that they must have suffered considerable hardships, presumably from contrary and baffling winds, as well as lack of food and water. Hence their voyage is referred to as kimi (the searching) and waipu (immensity of water, ocean only). It is highly probable that these karakias were based on, or were the original ones used in their Polynesian voyages, but subsequently modified and brought more into accord with their sur- - 22 roundings. They still bear the strong impress of the troubles the people passed through. Thus in the story of “Waipu,” the first karakia is called Ta Upoko Haŭtă (hau-ta) (“Slaying the head of the wind”), in which are recited the names of the gods, together with the “Heaven-born.” Apparently in all these cases they are invoked to give effect to the karakia

TA UPOKO HAŬ-TĂ. 1. Ko Tu, ko Rongo, Tāne, Tangaroa,
Ka tuakīna29 ki te rakau hanga30 mua,
Ka tuakina ki te rakau hanga roto,
Ka tuakina ki ta uru o Mahutā,31
Ka tuakīna ki ta uru no Mahutā, a.
2. Ko Uru, Ngangana, Aiorangi,
Ka tuakīna ki te rakau hanga mua,
Ka tuakīna ki te rakau hanga roto,
Ka tuakīna ki ta uru o Mahuta,
Ka tuakina ki ta uru no Mahuta, a.
3. Ko Tiki, ko Toi, Rauru, Whatonga, &c.
1. 'Tis Tu, Rongo, Tāne and Tangaroa
Who perform the tua with the first-made timber,
Who perform the tua with the inner-made timber,
Who perform the tua with the crown of Mahuta,
Who perform the tua with the crown from Mahuta, a.
2. 'Tis Uru, Ngangana, Aiorangi,
Who perform the tua with the first-made timber,
Who perform the tua with the inner-made timber,
Who perform the tua with the crown of Mahuta,
Who perform the tua with the crown from Mahuta.

The third and remaining verses continue to recite the rest of the “Heaven-born,” down to the last, Ro Tauira.

The next karakia, of which we give an example, is recited by the Morioris in this order, and is called Ko e hau te kamakama (Maori, Ko hau te kamokamo)—“The light-puffing wind.”

1. Ko e hau te kamakama,3233 Kamakama appears to be the equivalent to the Maori, to bubble up, as water, with a slight variation in this case, light puffs of air, barely perceptible.
Kamakama i runga, kamakama i raro,
Ka tu me re kamakama,
Ko ro toki āī?
Ko ro toki a Uru,
Ko ro toki āī?
Ko ro toki a Ngana, hei whakarehua,
Nganangana34 i tche Nuku, nganangana i tche Rangi
E Tchuā.35
Koē36 ra ta mătă mo Ruanuku37
Kuai te mătă mo Mauhika?
Ko au ko Rāwa38
Hurauwa, hurauwa, hupaka, hupaka, hutoi te rangi.
2. Ko e hau te kamakama
Kamakama i runga, kamakama i raro
- 23 Ka tu me re kamakama
Ko ro toki āī?
Ko ro toki a Uru
Ko ro toki a Ngana i te Nuku ai whakarehua
Nganangana i tche Nuku, nganangana i tchia Rangi
E Tchuā.
Koē ra te măta mo Ruanuku.
Kuai tă mătă o Mauhika?
Ko au ko Rāwa.
Hŭrauwa, hŭrauwa, hupaka, hupaka, hutoi te rangi.
3. Tuakīna i ta uru o tch Anīni,39 o tch Arōhĭ
Hiti ki roto hau te kamakama
Ko ro toki āī?
Ko ro toki i a Tiki, i a Toi, i a Rauru, i a Whātonga.
Ko ro toki āī?
Ko ro toki i a Rongomai, i a Kahukura.
Ko ro toki āī?
Ko ro toki i a Motuariki, i a Ruanuku, Tch Aomarama.
Ko ro toki āī?
Ko ro toki i a Tumare me Ta Ranganuku,
Matirito, Wari ko Ro Tauira
Ka tu me re kamakama
E Hina40 tae ake ru—u41
E Hina tae toro, e—.
1. 'Tis the light puffing wind:
It puffs above, it puffs below,
It comes with puffs.
Whose is the axe?
'Tis the axe of Uru.
Whose is the axe?
'Tis the axe of Ngana, with which to destroy.
To fight in earth, to fight in heaven.
Oh, 'tis a Tchua [=Tua].
Thou art the face for Ruanuku [you are doomed to destruction].
Whose is the face of Mauhika?
'Tis I, 'tis Rāwa.
Be gathered, be gathered together, be roasted, be roasted [dried up].
Let the heaven [or sky] be shrivelled up.
2. 'Tis the light puffing wind:
It puffs above, it puffs below,
It comes with puffs.
Whose is the axe?
'Tis the axe of Uru.
Whose is the axe?
'Tis the axe of Ngana with which to destroy.
To fight in earth, to fight in heaven.
O, 'tis a Tchua [=Tua].
Thou art the face for Ruanuku:
Whose is the face of Mauhika?
'Tis I, 'tis Rāwa.
Be gathered, be gathered together, be roasted, be roasted,
Let the heaven be shrivelled up.
- 24
3. Chop down the crown of the Anini [sensation], of the Arohi [shimmering air]
Veer into the puffing wind.
Whose is the axe?
'Tis the axe of Tiki, Toi, Rauru, Whātonga.
Whose is the axe?
'Tis the axe of Rongomai and Kahukura.
Whose is the axe?
'Tis the axe of Motuariki, Ruanuku Tch Aomarama.
Whose is the axe?
'Tis the axe of Tumare and Ranganuku,
Matirito, Wari, and Ro [te] Tauira.
It comes with puffs.
O Hina! come forth there.
O Hina! come! Toro, e—[a song-ending].

The following karakias apparently show what straits the people were in owing to lack of water. There are three, called Waihau o Waipu, as well as Ka Kapu hokaina o Waipu, “Drinking from the hollow of the hand, or from a wooden vessel.” The Morioris made drinking vessels of wood, called hakana, to hold water, with lids, and the same to keep ornaments in or to hide the relics of their gods, but generally on land they used puwai, i.e., tightly laid up blades of green flax in a long funnel shape, which lasted until the flax shrivelled up and had to be renewed.

  • 1. Tena e Tu, e Rongo, kotia ta uru o Moti-hangai,42
  • Taapa te hou ki te rangi ko whakataunarewa
  • Ka utu au taŭ43 kapu e
  • Utu ki te rangi a Utua44 ka roa koi toro, e.
  • 2. Tena e Rongomai-whiti, e Rongomai-rau, kotia, &c.
  • 3. Tena e Rongomai-mana, e Rongomai-ha, e Rongomai-tauira, kotia, &c.
  • 4. Tena e Tiki [reciting all the “Heaven-born”], kotia ta uru, &c.
  • 1. Then, O Tu! O Rongo! cut off the crown of Moti-hangai,
  • Pierce direct into the high exalted heaven.
  • I fill (or dip) the hollow of my hand,
  • Dip to the heaven of Utua, 'tis long indeed—toro, e.
  • 2. Then, O Rongomai-whiti! Rongomai-rau! cut off the crown, &c.
  • 3. Then, O Rongomai-mana! Rongomai-ha! Rongomai-tauira! cut off, &c.

There are a number more of verses reciting the “Heaven-born,” but all commencing the same as the first verse. This incantation, with others, was used by the Morioris in dry summer to bring rain, when the water was dry in some parts of the island.

Another Waihau.

This is evidently a more recent version of the above. The names mentioned are those of people who came to the island in the canoes, but, with that exception, the words are the same, and need not be translated.

- 25
1. Tena, e Mehoriki, e Patea, e Kahukura-hangaitorea, kotia ta uru o Moti-hangai,
Taapa te hou ki te rangi, ko whakataunarewa,
Ka utu au taŭ kapu, e.
Utu ki tă rangi a Utua ka roa, koi re,
Ka utu au taŭ kapu, e.
Utu ki tă rangi a Utua ka roa, koi toro.
2. Tena, e Maruhoanga, e Tutoakĕ, kotia ta uru, &c.
3. Tena, e Rongomai-taihongo, e Tchutemĕ, kotia, &c.
WAIHAU O WAIPU. 1. Hunake i raro nei ko wai pupu, ko wai whanake,
Kia homai kia utuhia ki te mauru o Utihau,45
Takina46 e, takina, takina rangi, takina, e.
2. Hunake i runga nei ko ua nui, ko ua roa, ko ua torikiriki,
Ko ua topanapana, ko pata ua, ko pata awha
Kia homai kia utuhia ki ri mauru o Utihau.
Takina e, takina, takina rangi 'taina,4748 e takina, takina, rangi takina.
3. E whaoa rangi whao,
E k' whakataka, whakataka, whakataka te kăpu
Whakataka e, 'taina, takina rangi 'taina.
1. Rise up from beneath, waters bubbling, waters ascending,
That it may be given and dipped from the spirit of Utihau.
Oh draw it, draw it, draw from heaven, oh draw it.
2. Come forth from above, the great rain, the long rain, the small rain,
The pattering rain, the drops of rain, the tempest drops,
That it may be given and dipped from the spirit of Utihau.
Oh draw it, draw it, draw from heaven, fill it (the vessel),
Oh draw it, draw from heaven, draw it.
3. Oh fill in heaven, fill,
Oh pour down, pour down, pour down (into) the vessel,
Oh pour down, fill in, draw from heaven, fill in (or lade it).

It will be seen by this last incantation, or it may be called a prayer, how much the Rangimata people must have suffered from lack of water. It was contended by some of the Morioris that the stories told under the head of Waipu did not belong to Rangimata, but referred to the Oropuke canoe. This does not, however, appear to be the case, as in the second Waihau, or Kapu hokainu, or Whakainu, the names of Maruhoanga and Tutoake appear, who were admittedly Rangimata people.

Another form of incantation, to beat down an unfavourable wind and obtain a fair one, also used by the migrants, was called an Umu-toa-rangi (“Oven to roast the heaven”), of which there were many, but only one example will be cited here, called Ta Umu-o-Waipu or Tongaminino (otherwise Tongamanī), strong south-east wind:—

TONGAMININO. Taona tă umu, popokia atu ki te Marangai te Marepe, e Tongaminino!
Taona tă umu, popokia atu e Tongaminino! e Tongaminino!
- 26 Ko ta umu na Horohoro, e Tongaminino! e Tongaminino!
'Taina ta umu popokia atŭ te whakŭrū(a), tch angaiho, e Tongaminino!
'Taina ta umu popokia atŭ ta Uru rō(a) tă Raki rō(a).
Popokia atu ta Uru rō, te Tonga rō e Tongaminino!
Ko ta umu na Horohoro, na Whaminino hoki, na Wawao, e.
E Tongaminino! e Tongaminino!
Taona ta umu popokia atu tch Anini,49 tch Arohi, e Tongaminino! e Tongaminino, e!
Light the oven, press back the east and north-east wind, O Tongaminino!
Light the oven, press it back, O Tongaminino! O Tongaminino!
'Tis the oven of Horohoro, O Tongaminino! O Tongaminino!
Load up the oven, press back the north and north-north-west winds, O Tongaminino!
Load up the oven, press back the south-west and west winds,
Press back the south-west and south-east winds, O Tongaminino!
'Tis the oven of Horohoro, of Whakaminino also, of Wawao, e.
O Tongaminino! O Tongaminino!
Light the oven, press back the Anini, the Arohi, O Tongaminino! O Tongaminino!

There is also another incantation used, called “The Basket of T' Whai Tokorau” (Ko ro Kete o T' Whai Tokorau). This Whai Tokorau was a son of Tahiri Mangatē(a), the wind-god, or father of the winds, but this incantation was not used until that of “The Axe of Heau-mapuna” (Ko ro Toki o Heau-mapuna), the swaying-wind, had first been recited, after which Ro (te) Kete o T' Whai Tokorau (“His Basket in which to confine the winds”). Then, to produce a calm, came Ta Umu a Huirangi (“The Oven of Huirangi”). These, with others, may appear at another time.

All these incantations, but especially those to allay tempests, were constantly used by the Morioris in their fishing excursions, or passages from one island of the group to another, when caught by strong winds. Their raft-canoes, being slow of progression, made it difficult to get home or into safety.

Rangimata, it is said, arrived at or made the land on the north coast of Chatham Island, and some of her crew landed and planted the karaka5051 tree, which they called wairarapa, at a place called Wairarapa, as well as the marautara52 (a kind of convolvulus creeper), also at Wairarapa, on the coast near Te Ika-rewa, at Te Umumoki. It grew nowhere else on the island, hence possibly the especial note made of it by the Morioris.

Rangimata's next place of call was Te Whakŭru(a), at the north-east part of the island, where she anchored, and there Maruroa, Kauanga, and others landed, finding, it is said, Rongopapa and his people (autocthones) at that place.

On their meeting, Rongopapa enquired, “Wari ko tere?” (“Who are the strangers—party?”) Answer, “Maruroa and Kauanga”; who, in reply, asked, “Wari ko hunua?” (“Who are the people of the place—tangata whenua?”) Answer, “Rongopapa.” Upon this, - 27 Maruroa and Kauanga enquired, “What are those things which you are killing?” They replied, “Hipuku (sea-elephant), puhina (fur-seal), mimiha (hair-seal). The skins are our clothing, but what is your clothing?” They answered, “Waruwaru [weruweru in Maori]. Ko te pere nui a Tāwaru” (a proverb). Rongopapa said, “Your clothing is chilly and cold (mătăānu, măkăriri), but this is the skin of our ancestor, Hhia Maitai,53 and cannot be worn for its warmth.”

After this, Rangimata arrived at Okawa. Here Utangaroa landed and dwelt; although another says he landed at Mairangi and stayed there, his name being retained in the Tokotoko-o-Utangarō(a). The canoe was nearly wrecked, however, at Okawa, on the sunken rock of Manapo, but she was luckily got off, on which occurrence Wairaka's voice was heard to exclaim, “A, te rere mai i roto whaiti” (“See, she sails in the channel, or passage”). By others it is alleged that Rangimata came from the south, and got on to or else into very close proximity to Kairā, a sunken wash about four miles off “The Horns,” where Wairaka saved her by the incantation Ko ro Tutaki a ra Wākū (“The closing of the Wākū”), and added, when in safety, Ka tō ra manino (“The calm prevails”). Whether either of these stories had any real foundation in fact appears to be questionable. Had Rangimata touched on Manapo Reef in fine weather she might have escaped, but Kairā is a wash on which a heavy surge constantly breaks, and from which, unless carried by, nothing could escape destruction. It seems not improbable that the story had its origin either in or on their way from Hawaiki, as the name Wairaka is common to the Maoris as well, and a very similar occurrence is said to have happened to the Mata-atua canoe after her arrival at Whakatane, in New Zealand, in which another woman named Wairaka took part.54

After her escape from this danger, Rangimata sailed to Te Awapatiki, where she and her crew landed, as described in a former paper, and were opposed by the Kau Tc Hamata (Hamata people), the autochthones of the place. Marupuku and his people, on seeing the migrants, put in a post in the sand with the image of their god, Heauoro. But the general account of Rangimata was, that on landing at Te Awapatiki, the Whanga Lagoon was full, and ready to burst out, as it does sometimes. In dragging the canoe up, it made a small channel, which the waters of Te Whanga entering, forthwith burst out and wrecked Rangimata. A small island of jagged limestone rocks in the Whanga Lagoon is fabled to represent Rangimata's crew. There appears very little reason to doubt that Rangimata was wrecked at the place, and in the manner stated. After this occurrence, it is said the crew went to Rangatira, and gave names to different places, such as Nukutaurua, Nukutaotao, Mana-aotea and Moreroa, with many others, and also to a plant called arapuhi, which grew at Hakepa (near the - 28 Red Bluff). This plant had twelve branches, representing the twelve months of the year. It was peculiar to the one place, and is now extinct. No one but the old men ever saw it. It was said to be in existence on the arrival of the Maoris; it has evidently been destroyed by the stock.

There was, in connection with this plant, a belief or mythical story that its twelve branches were again subdivided into twelve months. The names of the twelve years as first given were (1) Hitanuku, (2) Hitarangi, (3) Hitara, (4) Hitikaurereka, (5) Hitikaupeke, (6) Towhango-poroporo, (7) Towhanga-rei, (8) Muruwhenua, (9) Murutau, (10) Murukoroki, (11) Muruangina, (12) Putihāpă; but in another place the years (apparently a mistake for the months) are given as (1) Poapoarangi, (2) Nukutaotao, (3) Nukutaurua, (4) Meretaura, (5) Putchihāpă, (6) Morero, (7) Merekohai, (8) Muruwhenū(a), (9) Murutōakĕ, (10) Muruangina, (11) Wairarapa, (12) Mana-aotea.

It is not impossible that there was some old legend or story in connection with this, but, although the old men were carefully questioned on the subject, they could afford no further information, nor did these names appear to be in general use as far as could be discovered.

According to Tamahiwaki, from Rongopapa to himself (inclusive) are twenty-six generations, then since his time there are two adult and one more of children, say twenty-eight generations. Giving a period of twenty-five years to a generation, by this it would appear that 700 years have elapsed since Rangimata's arrival with the Morioris on the Chathams.


Touching the arrival of this canoe, there is not any direct evidence of the way she arrived at the island, or where she touched first, but that she did arrive some years after Rangimata there appears very little reason to doubt. The chief of this canoe was Moe, a grandson of Horopapa, of the Rauru tribe, who, it will be remembered, was left fighting Tu-moana and his allies as Rangimata and Rangihoua left, at which date Moe was said to be a growing or nearly grown lad. Hopu was Moe's father, who, with his other sons and a daughter, came iu Oropuke. Moe was a younger son, the cause of his prominence being that he was a valiant warrior and the most noted of Hopu's sons. What induced the Rauru people to migrate and come to the same place as their adversaries does not appear, nor could the Morioris assign any reason for it. There is, however, a tradition that, long before Moe left, peace had been established.

As before mentioned, Moe, when Rangimata left, was a lad. On arrival at the Chathams he was of mature age, and was spoken of as recognisable by a bald patch on his head (not necessarily very old). This may form a slight basis on which to estimate the time which - 29 elapsed between the arrival of these canoes. The only suggestion that offers regarding Moe's leaving, although there is no mention of it handed down, is that Tu-moana and his allies, who were left fighting the Rauru, had ultimately vanquished them, causing them in turn to migrate from their home in Manukau. Before leaving, Moe went to see his grandfather Horopapa, who addressed him thus: “Grandson, come and measure me” (Mokopuna whānganga i au), which he did, finding that he was E whitu, e waru ki ri pata (seven and a half stretches, or fathoms). Horopapa added, E tae koe ki tă ika, e uia mai ko, E hi tō(a) o Manukau? E whitu, e waru ki ri pata” (When you reach the land and you are asked, What length is the warrior of Manukau (say) Seven, eight with the half, or bit over—meaning seven and a half whānganga, or stretches). It is farther said that Horopapa admonished his grandson, on leaving, that on reaching “ta ika” (the land) they were to cease manslaying and live peaceably, which they did, until provoked by one of the Rangimata people, named Hangarua, who commenced the old troubles by killing Henga-mai-tawhiti, and ate part of him. Moe and his brothers then killed Hangarua, and fighting with man-eating began again. According to the story, many were killed, and after fighting for some time on the main island, Moe with his people crossed over to Pitt Island (Rangiaurī), and, it is said, fought the Rangimata people there, killing and eating several. There is considerable conflict in the accounts regarding Moe at this period. The general story was that the Rangiaurī people, the Mātangă, and others, burnt him and his people in their huts at night, so ending the fighting. Another account says he returned to Hawaiki; and yet another states Oropuke was wrecked at the cliffs of Chatham Island, in Pitt's Strait, so giving the name to all that part of the cliffs and up to trig, station L, about a mile inland. The crew landed in safety. As many of the Morioris claim descent from the Rauru people of Oropuke, this, coupled with the doubtfulness of the statement of her return to Hawaiki, makes it appear that not much reliance can be placed on these latter accounts, and in all probability the story of Moe's being burnt, as it was the one which received general acceptance, represents what actually took place. Further, had Moe lived, it seems hardly probable that the others would have preserved their independence, but would have been enslaved.

Be that as it may, at this time Nunuku-whenua, one of the autochthones, said to be a relative of Moe's (how does not appear), a man of great influence among his people, convened them, and made a law that henceforth man-slaying and man-eating were to cease for ever, and that in the case of quarrels, the first blood shed, no matter how trifling, even an abrasion of the skin, was to end the strife. In consequence of this ture (law), which was kept until the arrival in 1836 of “Ka Kaupeke,” as they called the Maoris (the general meaning of which is wicked and mischievous people=nanakia), with one known exception, - 30 four generations after Moe, when the Rangitihi people, who had cherished their old grudge against the Rauru since Moe's time, came to Porua at Manukau and attacked the Rauru, who, with Tutĕmĕ, their chief, defeated them there, killed and roasted a number of them in an oven at Whakărĕ, this was, as far as is known, the last occurrence of the kind. Through the cessation of war and man-slaying, the Morioris had no further use for their old weapons of offence, which thenceforth were laid aside, and the art of war ceased. Consequently the Maoris on their arrival found them an easy prey, being an inoffensive, harmless people, and forthwith enslaved them without resistance. The only weapon they retained (unless it was a subsequent invention) was the tupurari, a kind of long quarter-staff, elsewhere described. With this they went to their tauu (tauas, so called), in which they kept up and recited all their old war ceremonies, as if in actual battle, but, beyond which, no harm was done.

Rangimata's crew were said to be hokowha (eighty), and Oropuke's the same. How far these numbers are reliable may be an open question. Probably they are correct, as the old Moriori could count by name about seventy of Rangimata's crew, and it appears reasonable to suppose that Oropuke's crew were fairly equal, or they would hardly have dared to make war with the former people as they did.

In the matter of the cessation of man-slaying, the Morioris appear to be the only section of the Polynesian race that established and kept such a law. One, Houmaitawhiti, when taking farewell of his sons, attempted to impress on the original Arawa migrants to New Zealand the observance of this law. In the case of the Morioris, the same thing took place when Moe took leave of Horopapa, but the reality was subsequently established by Nunuku.

- 31 Page is endnote

- 32 Page is endnote

1  —The question suggests itself, whether by this name Aropawa, the ancient name of the north part of the Middle Island of New Zealand is intended, or whether the name was brought from Hawaiki.
2  —Tinaku. Williams's Dictionary gives the meaning as ‘Seed potatoes; a garden and cultivated ground’; evidently implying cultivation. The Moriori meaning is, to grow deep and strong, or increase.
3  —O wahine 'ti; in Maori, O wahine iti. Junior wives. Presumably the senior one was exempt from work; but whether this is correct or not, the wahine iti were evidently assumed to do the hilling up of the Kumara.
4  —Takina, draw forth, spring, shoot forth. Ka tāki i [= te] tupu, the shoot comes forth.
5  There is a legend in which one Pupaonga or Paonga went to a certain island with a party of people, and there killed an ogress—Tipū(a)—called Tchura-whateitei, whose custom it was to entice and then devour all people landing at her place. Whether this is the same Paonga or not is uncertain, although, as he was one of the Moriori heroes, it appears not improbable.
6  The word miti (lick), scarcely embodies the full meaning of the original, which here implies swallowing up, exhausting the tide.
7  Devour, bolt whole, leave no remnant.
8  Journal, vol. iii, p. 187.
9  Journal, vol. iv, p. 89.
10  Journal, vol. iv, p. 161.
11  Journal, vol. iv, p. 209.
12  Eitara would be the same as Maori Ngai-tara; Eituhi, Ngai- or Ngati-tuhi; Etikŏhē and Etiao, Ati- or Ngati-kŏhe, and Ati-ao or Ati-awa.
13  The above ceremony, when performed by an elder sister, was imagined to be very effectual in assisting the wearer to victory, marowhara (broad girdles) being always used by chiefs and warriors going to battle.
14  Although rangi is also used, ra is preferable, not clashing with Tū-rangi.
15  Kahukura, a shark god, hence the invocation.
16  'a = kia. The ki left out because of the ki in Hawaiki.
17  Ka puta or mahuta a Tutawake; in Maori, Ka puta te Waka-ariki, “'Tis a war-party!”
18  —Hiko, &c., might also be rendered. ‘Stride, spring away.’
19  —Tuia, sew, reeve the sennet lashings to bind the parts of the canoe together.
20  —Hokoihoko (in Maori, Hokahoka) te manu hauturuki. ‘Like a fledgling bird they leave and take flight.’
21  —Pa (= panga), to throw, place.
22  —Tahiri-mangatea; committing themselves to the winds, represented by this god. Those favoured were thrown (placed) in Rangimata, those unfavoured were not.
23  —Ends waving: ends of the maro at back and front of wearer.
24  —Or senior chief.
25  —Tih' o Ro Maka. Another variant of this is: Kapihia [= Kapchia] i tchu o Ro Maka, ‘snatch it from beyond the Mākā.’ There is nothing to show who this Mākā really is.
26  —Whiti te wawa. Wawa also bears the meanings of ‘scattered’ and 'dispersed. It appears to be a question whether this does not refer to a much farther off Whiti than the one they came from, especially as the recitation of the Maro referred to was alleged to have taken place in Hawaiki.
27  Perhaps Whiti or Fiji.—Editors.
28  Ko Matangi-ao, “the dawn of existence,” the name given to the whole body of the Moriori traditions up to the date of their leaving for the Chathams.—Editors.
29  —Tuakina. It suggests itself as a reasonable rendering of this word Tua, here used in the passive form, that it had originally in its first use, as well as in these incantations, the meaning of chopping down or felling, as a tree—symbolically, of course—to overcome the object, or to achieve the end desired, using at the same time in the ceremony sprigs of trees—manuka and others—as the visible medium of breaking (chopping down) the power fought against. The same idea is seen in ancient incantations, both Maori and Moriori, which speak of “Taku toki whanatu ana e hahau i te takapu o te rangi” (slightly altered in certain cases), “my axe which proceeds to chop the belly of the sky,” i.e., induce a calm. Sometimes the Karakia is compared to an Umu, oven, “to roast the crown of the sky.”
30  —Te rakau hanga mua, roto, &c., are evidently pieces of wood used in the construction of the keels (Hua) or stem-piece (Koua) of the canoe for which the fair wind is desired.
31  —Uru o Mahuta. The hair of the crown of the head of Mahuta, one of their ancient ancestors. The head being the most sacred part of his body is used figuratively here as an agent to break down the adverse power. Mahuta also represents the woods, with their fragrance.
32  —Ko ĕ hau te kamakama. The Morioris have a peculiar manner of pronouncing the word hau (= wind), apparently in accordance with an undefined rule of sound; in other cases pronounced heau—Ka heau, the winds, all the vowels being sounded and blended.
33  This pronunciation appears to be remarkably like that of the North New Zealand Maoris. The h with them is sounded much as if it had a y before it, i.e., Yhokianga, Yhauraki, Yhau, or as if there were an i barely sounded before the h, as iHokianga, &c. Sometimes again it sounds as if an i were introduced after the h, as Hiŏkianga.—Editors.
34  —Nganangana is evidently a play upon the name Ngana (Maori Ngana and Ngangana), to contend, to strive—hence, in this case, to fight against Nuku and Rangi, to obtain the wind sought for.
35  —Ē Tehuā. “'Tis a Tchuā (= Tua)—an incantation to chop, fell, the evil power. This is really identical with the Maori Tuā, to subdue the winds.
36  —Koē ra te mata mo Ruanuku. “Thou art the face for Ruanuku”—under the symbol of Ruanuku, old age, shall die, &c.
37  —Koē ra te mata mo Ruanuku. “Thou art the face for Ruanuku”—under the symbol of Ruanuku, old age, shall die, &c.
38  —He, Rāwa, in assuming the face of Mahuika, i.e., attributes of fire, will burn and crumple up the heaven, or the evil power of the wind.
39  —Still with the simile of an axe to chop down or fell the sacred crown of Teh Anini and Teh Arohi, classed as winds, but really having no compass bearings, meaning as in translation.
40  —E Hina tae ake ru—u (= ra). The Morioris are unable to explain who Hina may be, or what it refers to. From the construction of the sentence, Hina would appear to be a person, or, what is probable, the object desired—fair wind and weather personified. An old Maori incantation to subdue and change a wind may throw some light on the meaning: Takataka to hau ki te Uru, whakataka to hau ki te Tonga, kia tu mahinahina i uta, kia tu marokeroke i tai, &c. Mahinahina was explained as referring to the way the silver gray of the leaves turned with the wind appeared when a storm of wind and rain abated and the general appearance showed fine weather, which last is the object sought by the incantation.
41  This ru—u has a peculiar sound, more like u in French—not at all the broad Maori ū.
42  —Utihau, another name for the wind.
43  —Takina, draw, induce, shoot forth.
44  —'Taina (=utaina), fill in, lade.
45  —Motīhangai is said to represent heaven or the sky; there is nothing to show any other meaning, and the above would appear to be in a figurative sense.
46  —Taŭ (= taku). This pronunciation seems as if the Morioris had retained here the pronunciation of their Tahitian brethren.
47  —Utua, figurative for heaven, where the water was supposed to be.
48  —Tongaminino, the south or south-east wind. The additional word Minino is said to be derived from the story of Tawhaki's ascension to heaven, in which his foot slipped in ascending on the south-east wind. Ko ro minitangă [maniatanga in Maori] o ro wēwē o Tawhaki ku rung' i Tongă, the slipping of Tawhaki's foot on the south-east wind.
49  —Anini and Arohi, as remarked in a previous note, are merely mythical winds.
50  —It appears strange how persistently this tradition of bringing the Karaka berry and planting it is held by both peoples, Maori and Moriori, separated as they each were for at least six hundred years. With the exception of the Kermadec islands, to the north of New Zealand, the tree does not appear to be known elsewhere, and what has originated the legend?
51  See note 28, Journal, vol. ii, p. 126,—Editors,
52  —Marautara, a kind of creeping plant of the convolvulus family, which one of the Ngati-tama Maoris recognized as growing over the old decayed huts at Poutama, White Cliffs, Taranaki, New Zealand: he called it Popohue. It is now extinct. From its close proximity to the sea, it seems not improbable that the seed was drifted here and thrown up by a gale to the place where it grew.
53  —Maitai is an ancient word, both Maori and Moriori, denoting all kinds of fish, including seals; hhia is a particle, introduced for euphony—Ko hhia Maitai.
54  Journal, vol. iii, p. 66.—Editors.