Volume 61 1952 > Volume 61, No. 3 + 4 > The translation and publishing of Maori material in the Auckland Public Library, by Bruce Biggs, p 176-191
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Volume 61, Nos. 3 and 4 Sept. and Dec., 1952
THE JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY
DEVOTED TO THE STUDY OF THE NATIVE PEOPLES OF POLYNESIA, MELANESIA AND MICRONESIA

Published Quarterly by the Polynesian Society, Wellington, N.Z.

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CONTENTS

(Authors alone are responsible for their respective statements)

  • THE TRANSLATION AND PUBLISHING OF MAORI MATERIAL IN THE AUCKLAND PUBLIC LIBRARY. By Bruce Biggs 177
  • TE PUEA HERANGI, C.B.E. By Eric Ramsden 192
  • SIKAIANA OR STEWART ISLAND. By H. MacQuarrie 209
  • A RECENTLY DISCOVERED MARAE IN THE TUAMOTU GROUP. By Bengt Danielsson 222
  • SOME GRAMMATICAL NOTES ON THE TEOP DIALECT. By G. G. Carter 230
  • THE POLYNESIAN FAMILY SYSTEM IN KA-U, HAWAI'I. By E. S. Craighill Handy and Mary Kawena Pukui 243
  • EXCAVATIONS OF MAORI BURIALS AT LONG BEACH, OTAGO. By E. W. Dawson and J. C. Yaldwyn 283
  • FIELD ANTIQUITIES 292
  • BOOK NOTICES 303
  • BOOKS AVAILABLE NEW FROM THE SOCIETY 310
  • A SECOND ANCIENT PATU FROM HOROWHENUA. By G. L. Adkin 311
  • THE HADFIELDS ON THE WANGANUI RIVER. By A. D. Mead 316
  • BATHING THE BONES. By R. G. Roberts 319
  • LETTER TO THE EDITORS 322
  • OBITUARY 324
  • NOTES AND QUERIES 326

Copyright of all texts is reserved. No article may be reprinted wholly or in part without permission from the Society.

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY BY THOMAS AVERY & SONS LTD. NEW PLYMOUTH, N.Z.

Agent for Australia: Angus & Robertson, 89 Castlereagh St., Sydney.

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THE TRANSLATION AND PUBLISHING OF MAORI MATERIAL IN THE AUCKLAND PUBLIC LIBRARY

SIR George Grey's gifts to the South African Public Library at Capetown included a large collection of Maori matter, much of it in manuscript and unpublished. It lay there unavailable to Maori scholars in New Zealand for sixty years until after protracted negotiations an exchange of material pertaining to the respective countries was arranged and carried out in 1922-23. Much of the material which the Auckland Public Library thus acquired is original Maori manuscript collected before 1850 and of great ethnological and historical value. It includes tribal lore and legend told by notable chiefs, accounts of rites and ceremonies by priests, and records of wars fought in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Much of this material has not yet been published and it is my intention as time permits to make some of the more important Maori and other items available to the student. I must thank Mr. J. Barr, Chief Librarian at the Auckland Public Library, and the Auckland City Council Library Committee for permission to publish these manuscripts.

In the legend of Tiki-tawhito-ariki I have closely followed the original manuscript which was in this case, quite clear. Only in punctuation have I altered the original, for the absence of stops, the erratic use of capitals, and the running together of words made the manuscript a little awkward to read.

The task of the translator of any language whose genius differs markedly from English is a difficult one. A course must be steered somewhere between the extreme literalness of, say, the analysis of a Trobriand spell by Malinowski, 1 and the effusiveness of some of the early translations of Maori songs which bear little resemblance in word or thought to the - 178 originals. Grey recognised the difficulty but seemed rather to fear a lowering of English style than the loss of the meaning and atmosphere of the original. He says, “It is almost impossible closely and faithfully to translate a very difficult language without almost insensibly falling somewhat into the idiom and form of construction of that language, which perhaps from its unusualness may prove unpleasant to the European ear and mind.” He goes on to say that his translation of “Nga Mahi a nga Tupuna” is “close and faithful,” but it is difficult to agree with him here and those writers on the Maori who have relied on Polynesian Mythology rather than Nga Mahi a Nga Tupuna as their authority have sometimes been misled. Buck discusses a case in point where Grey in his English translation says that the Aotea was a double canoe though there is no such statement in the Maori. “The translation of a Maori text should be as literal as possible, but some allowance made for the different grammatical style of the two languages,” 2 Buck says, and his own translation of the legend of Wairangi 3 is a good example of what is required.

I consider that though there is room for free translations in popular versions of legends, and traditions (and on this count Grey should be freed from Buck's charge of committing “literary atrocities for which there is no excuse”), yet in scientific publications the translation should conform as closely as possible to the sense of the original, sacrificing, if necessary, style to accuracy. Elaborate explanations of native terms should be confined to footnotes and where there is no English equivalent of the term, the translator should sometimes retain the original rather than use an English word which is not a true equivalent.

The connotation of Maori words is often very wide and the same word in different contexts will often require a different English equivalent. I am not referring here to homonyms derived from different roots such as English “bow” (the front end of a ship: to genuflect), or the Maori “ra” (a sail, the sun), which are derived from different roots and whose various meanings are obviously not connected. I refer rather to such cases as that of the Maori “moe” which together with its primary meaning of - 179 “sleep” embraces such cognate meanings as “marriage” and “sexual intercourse.” Here we have a case of the cultural reality behind a word extending and moulding its meaning. In English, and I suppose in most languages, “to sleep with” a person of the opposite sex implies sexual intercourse but in English at least it does not connote marriage but rather an absence of the legal bond. In Maori, however, where the essential sexual partnership of marriage was not obscured by the concept of the spiritual union of souls the case is different and “moe” may be translated by “sleep, marry” or “have intercourse with” to mention only a few of the possible meanings. The choice is determined by context, not only the spoken or written context but also what Malinowski has called the context of situation embracing all the circumstances of the utterance. It is when we cannot completely reconstruct this context of situation through insufficient knowledge of the culture itself, or of the locale and set of circumstances surrounding the particular incident that we most often flounder in our efforts to understand a Maori text.

In my translation of the legend of Tiki-tawhito-ariki I have tried to keep the English version as literal as possible without descending to broken English. On a few points I have consulted and must thank Pei te Hurinui, Kahi Hara-wira and Richard Davis. Where their explanations did not agree the choice of and responsibility for the version adopted is mine.

We have insufficient information telling us how Grey collected his Maori material, but much of it is written in Maori hand on the same type of paper for it was his custom to supply likely informants with manuscript books in which they could enter their observations and forward them to him. Wi Maihi te Rangikaheke, an Arawa chief who was also known as Wiremu Marsh or Te Rangi, supplied a great amount of written material and he deserves to be remembered for the quality and quantity of manuscript on Maori matters that he gave to Grey. It runs into hundreds of neatly written pages, the content of most of which has already been published but without any acknowledgment by Grey. Te Rangikaheke's occasional remarks contrasting Maori and European beliefs, customs and history are apposite and it is a matter for regret that they have been omitted from Nga Mahi a Nga Tupuna. The editor appears - 180 to have wished to give the impression that the informants were quite unfamiliar with Europeans and their ways and beliefs. Although one reviewer of the third edition expresses regret that the loan word “marenatia” (married) was allowed to remain in the text, the fact is that the authors did use this and many other loan words and the substitution of genuine Maori words appears to me to be an unnecessary interference with what would otherwise be, as well as an extremely valuable record of old Maori beliefs, an indication of early reaction to the culture contact situation.

Although the authorship of all the MSS. cannot be ascertained it is safe to say that we are indebted to Te Rangikaheke for the greater part both of “Nga Moteatea me nga Hakirara” with its appendix (He korero apiti), and “Nga Mahi a Nga Tupuna.” It is worth noting here that the prose matter in the appendix to “Nga Moteatea” is much closer to the original MSS. than are the legends in “Nga Mahi a Nga Tupuna.”

Grey tells us that the traditions were “all either written down from the dictation of their principal chiefs and high priests or have been compiled from manuscripts written by chiefs.” He was sometimes the scribe himself, e.g., “The Legend of Hinemoa,” and in some other cases we know that the scribe was a Maori. For example, Matene Te Whiwhi took down the legends narrated by Te Rangihaeata.

What Grey does not tell us is that he took a great many liberties with the original texts, liberties which even when they added to the clarity of the story (and in many cases they did not do so), detracted from their value as accurate original versions of the traditions as told by the older generation of Maori experts. Such editing falls under several heads as follows:—

(1) Rearranging and combining material from several sources to fill out the legends, and failing to indicate where this had been done. He said, “I . . . collected a large mass of materials, which were, however . . . in a very scattered state; for different portions of the same poem or legend were often collected from different natives in very distant parts of the country; long intervals of time also frequently elapsed after I had obtained one part of a poem or legend before I could find a native accurately acquainted with another portion of it; consequently the fragments thus obtained were scattered through different notebooks, and - 181 before they could be given to the public, required to be carefully arranged and rewritten.” 4 While some of this arrangeing may have been necessary much of its does not appear to have been so. For instance, Te Rangikaheke's long narrative concerning Maui was quite clear before Grey arranged the episodes in a more strictly chronological order. After this rearrangement we find the story referring to events that had not yet taken place because of this alteration in sequence. Then Grey introduced a paragraph from another unknown source which referred to Mahuika as a koroheke (old man) although she had been spoken of as kuia (old woman) all through the rest of the story. This necessitated a note by Williams who suggested that “koroheke” was a mistake for “koroke” (rascal), an unsatisfactory explanation as “koroheke” occurs twice in the same paragraph and in any case “koroke” would also normally refer to a male. The real explanation was that Grey had inserted a fragment of a legend which, as several versions do, regarding Mahuika the fire goddess, as a male whereas the Te Rangikaheke account plainly regards her as female.

(2) The omission of passages which revealed that the authors were familiar with European culture, and of passages which were evidently considered to be too strong for our cultivated tastes. Maori legends are not remarkable for the amount of humour they contain and their main relish is decidedly Rabelaisian, while euphemism is not a characteristic of the language. Grey sometimes tried to steer round awkward passages as when he transferred the awesome description of the sex organs of Hinenui-te-po to her mouth, with the result that the reader is left in some doubt as to the direction in which Maui was trying to pass. The ludicrous situation which at first caused the little birds to contort their faces in restrained mirth and finally forced the fantails to burst into loud laughter is denied us though it is vividly portrayed in the original.

(3) The alteration of the construction of sentences which was indulged in freely, often making for awkwardness and sometimes obscuring the sense. Thus we find “ko te kauae o tona tupuna, o Muri-ranga-whenua, kua riro mai koa i mua atu” substituted for the original more flowing - 182 “Kua riro mai koa i mua atu te kauae o tona tupuna, o Muri-ranga-whenua” for no apparent reason, and “e tika ana ano ena kupu” replacing the crisper “he tika ena kupu.” Such instances could be multiplied indefinitely.

The third edition of Nga Mahi a Nga Tupuna, published in 1928, was a complete revision which ironed out most of the misprints and improved the punctuation of the earlier editions. We shall always be indebted to H. W. Williams whose unrivalled knowledge of the Maori language made this edition the fine work it undoubtedly is but he did not make any of the major alterations to the text which would have been necessary to meet the criticisms under 1 and 2 above and it is doubtful whether he had the opportunity to make the close study of the original MSS. which would have been necessary.

Williams' own editing endeavoured to disregard the areas from which the material was obtained. He set each legend against the yardstick of a supposed classic Maori form making alterations which although partially obscuring the district from which the material came, do not in fact, for the task would be impossible, reduce each story to a common dialect. Furthermore, his alteration of what he called “erratic and undiscriminating” use of “a” and “o” forms of the possessives tends to oversimplify a problem of Maori grammar which has never been satisfactorily solved, and it may be suspected that some of the “iregular constructions” which were altered were not in fact the “solecisms” he considered them to be.

Because the missionaries learned Maori in the Ngapuhi and Waikato districts, dialects of which are closely related, the Bible was translated accordingly and it is regarded by many as being standard Maori, the speech of such areas as the Urewera, the East Coast, and the Bay of Plenty being regarded as dialect. The speech of any one area is not inherently superior to that of any other and whilst it may be of practical advantage to have a standard Maori this will not be achieved by altering “tetehi” to “tetahi” and “ratau” to “ratou” each time they occur. To do so produces written Maori which is neither dialect nor standard for the true differences between the speech of the different areas are far more subtle, involving besides letter changes, the use of different words, changes in the relative frequency of the use - 183 of certain constructions, different interjections and particles, and all the nuances of idiom which are only acquired by those native to each locality.

It should not be thought that these variations are of such an order as to make communication difficult between Maoris of different tribes. While the everyday speech of certain areas has become very localised, presenting difficulties to the student of Maori, the same student will find in, let us say, the formal speech of Maori radio talks only such differences as serve to identify the speaker as being of a certain district. Thus while the student may be unable to follow the clipped localised conversation in a Ruatoria barber-shop, and, for a different reason have difficulty in grasping all of an allusion-loaded speech on a Tuhoe marae, he will follow with ease radio talks or news sessions whether the speaker be from Te Aupouri, Ngati-Porou, Ngai-te-Rangi, Ngati-Maniapoto or Te Whakatohea.

To confine students to the study of texts from the Ngapuhi and Tainui areas alone would deprive them of the material collected by Best, all of Ngata's work, the teachings of Te Whatahoro and Nepia Pohuhu, and most of Grey's collected legends which, as I have shown, came principally from Te Arawa. To attempt to reduce these texts to an artificial standard is impractical. We are left with the more fruitful alternative of studying material from all areas exactly as it was written or spoken, noting the dialectal variations where they occur. To this end it is necessary to note the source of all collected material.

THE DEEDS OF TIKI-TAWHITO-ARIKI 5

Tiki-tawhito-ariki was the ancestor of former times who was the first person guilty of incest. 6 His crime originated in his yearning glances at the beautiful form of his sister. 7 He decided to stroll about on the beach. On seeing the fine sand on the seashore he sat down, and heaping up the sand, behold, he formed a body complete with legs, arms, head, eyes and mouth, exactly like a man. Then he patterned on it the tattoo of the face, the buttocks and the thighs, and the whole was completed.

Then he stood off to admire it. How beautiful was his image. Then he covered it with garments, and left it lying - 184 there. He returned to the village and found the women gathered together discussing the charms of a handsome man from another tribe whom they had seen. They said to Tiki's sister, “Oh, maid?”

“What is it?” she asked.

“Do not marry an ugly man but one as handsome as you are beautiful so that we may enjoy looking at the pair of you. It is an evil thing to see a beautiful woman with an ugly husband. So choose a man as handsome as yourself in order that your people may love you and your husband.”

Her brother, Tiki, heard these words of the women and said, “All you women, listen to what I have to say. Your words are correct and here is mine. When I went down to the shore I saw a man lying near the sea and thinking that he was dead I ran to lift his garments and uncover him. On parting his cloaks, lo, it was a living man I saw lying there.”

Then Tiki asked him, 8 “Why do you lie there and not go to the village?”

The man said, “I lay down because I was tired.”

Then Tiki went on, “Let us go and rest at the village. You will die of loneliness here.”

“No,” he said, “You go back to your village by yourself.”

“Therefore I came back, 9 and I tell you women that he is more handsome than the man you have seen.”

The women replied, “Is he as handsome as all that?”

“Yes. He is very handsome indeed,” said Tiki.

“What is his face like?”

“His face is as if pecked by the saddle-back,” said Tiki, “and his thighs are marked like a mackerel.” 10

“What about his eyes?” ask the women.

“Tattooed. His thighs and buttocks also are tattooed appropriately, hence my admiration of his fine appearance. If you see this man you will desert your husbands. Therefore I say to you, let such a man be chosen for my sister and he will command the respect of everyone.”

His sister said, “Won't you go and fetch him to stay with us here?”

“Good,” said Tiki. “You and your attendants go and get him since he was deaf to my entreaties.”

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So they went to meet the man, Tiki saying to them, “Do not take this path but go the long way round for it is where that track comes out that he is lying.” So they went by the roundabout way.

Tiki took the short cut and before his sister had arrived by the longer way (he had reached the sand formed by him into the image of a man and lay beneath it), he had reached the sand image formed by him, lifted its garments, laid himself down underneath it and drawn the clothes back again.

Before long his sister arrived and drawing back the cloaks—lo, he was mottled like a lizard by the kauri 11 and mangrove.7 “Let us go up to the village,” the woman said. “I and my servant have been sent by my elders to fetch you to the settlement.” The Sandman 12 replied, “I shall not go tonight but if you come back in the morning we shall go to the village together. Now go back and in the morning I shall come.”

“Then we shall all stay here and sleep and go in the morning,” said the girl.

“Go back,” said Sandman, “You are arguing with me. Tomorrow morning I will come.”

“No,” said the girl, “This is why I am come to fetch you. I heard of you from my brother and I came to take you to the village so that my people might see you and marvel at your appearance. Now that I have seen you I am smitten with desire for you. If you stay now, we stay together and I shall send my servant to tell my people.”

Sandman said, “It is for you to say whether you both go back, whether you both stay, or whether we two stay alone.”

“We two will stay by ourselves,” said the woman.

Accordingly the servant went back and Tiki's sister remained. The servant had not disappeared round the headland before she had stripped off Sandman's garments and exposed his skin marked like a mackerel with the kauri pigment in the patterns designed for the thighs and the buttocks. Like one distracted she leaped up and lay flat on his belly. Then the man struggled pretending to be afraid in order that he might see how persistent she was. As often as he repulsed her she rushed back to him. At last he ceased the struggle, and smoothed and prepared a place for them to sleep. It was then the middle of the night and they slept together. The sun rose from the pit and finally stood on - 186 high but they continued to sleep fast. Exceedingly great was the woman's desire for the man and she conceived that very night.

Their people assembled on the beach where they slept, bringing them food and gifts and when the food was laid out they came to arouse them in order that they might eat. But it was quite impossible to awaken them. In the evening their relatives tried to arouse them again but the woman said, “What sort of food is that food you have? I have seen food before, but now for the first time I experience the joys of marriage. What is food to me compared to my husband; but perhaps tomorrow I shall be prepared to neglect him.”

Neither of them took their heads out of the coverings to look about them. They remained covered up and she spoke to her people from underneath the covers. But his people had noticed that Tiki was absent from their ranks and they thought, “Tiki is perhaps collecting food from his food preparing camps.” The people slept together on the beach and at daybreak got up to prepare food for the bride and groom. As soon as the food was cooked the two sat up and as soon as they did so the people gathered to see them. They looked closely and lo, it was Tiki himself who had been sleeping with his sister. Their tribe was quite overcome with astonishment. At last they said, “You and your brother come and have something to eat.”

The woman replied, “I have a brother, but this is my husband.”

The people said, “Well then, take a look at him.” Then she turned towards him, “Alas, it is Tiki himself who is my fine husband with whom I have been sleeping.” Then the people said, “How do you two feel about each other?”

“Why ask,” said the woman, “the matter is effected. I have changed my status and it is well. This is marriage and moreover I have conceived.”

Then Tiki said, “It was not because of me that we slept together. It was because of her persistence. I refused but she persisted so what could I do. If we had acted hastily then we would have sinned. On the other hand my people we like each other as much as if we were not in fact related.”

Then their tribe said, “We agree then as you love each other and we will not object. You two remain to bring forth children for all of our sub-tribes.”

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Their first child was Tikiāhua. Tikiāhua had Tikiiapoa. Tikiiapoa had Tikiwhakaringaringa. Tikiwhakaringaringa had Tikiwhakawaewae. Descending from Tikiwhakawaewae are the three named Uru, Ngangana and Waionuku. Uru had Waiorangi. Many are the descendants of Tiki-tawhito-ariki.

NOTES.

13

THE LEGEND OF TIKI-TAWHITO-ARIKI.

Ko Nga Mahi a Tiki-tawhito-ariki:

Ko Tiki-tawhito-ariki te tupuna o mua, nāna i ako tenei mea te puremu. Ko te mea i timata ai tona kinonga he tiro-hanga atu ki tona tuahine he āhua pai tana ki tana titiro atu. Na reira ia i mahara ai kia haere ia ki te akau o te moana haereere ai. A kite ana ia i te āhua pai ake o nga onepu o te akau, ka noho ia ki raro. Kei te apuapu i nga onepu, ehara, kua whai tinana, kua whai waewae, kua whai ringaringa kua whai upoko, kua whai kanohi, kua whai waha, kua rite tonu ki te āhuatanga o te tangata. Katahi ka whakairoirohia nga moko me nga rape me nga puhoro. Ka rite tonu.

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Katahi ia ka haere ki tahaki titiro mai ai. Ano taua whakapakoko rakau nei me te rearea. Katahi ka whakauhia iho ki nga kākahu. Ka waihotia ia kia takoto ana. Ka hoki atu ia ki te kāinga, rokohanga atu e ia e noho hui-hui ana nga wāhine. Ko te korero o te runanga wahine ra he korero wawata ki tetahi tangata pai i kitea e ratou no etahi hapu ke atu. Ka mea mai ratou ki te tuahine o Tiki, “E hine.”

Ka mea atu ia, “He aha?”

“Kaua koe e moe i tetahi tangata āhua kino, erangi kia rite ano ki tou āhua tetahi tāne māu kia tirohia paitia atu ai e matou. He mea kino hoki te āhua pai o te wahine, te āhua kino mai o te tāne. Erangi kia rite tahi ki a koe te pai kia nui atu ai te matenuitanga a ou iwi ki a korua ko tāu tāne.”

Ka rongo atu tona tungāne a Tiki i nga kupu a te tini wahine nei. Katahi ka hamumu atu te māngai o Tiki, “E te tini wahine nei, whakarongo mai hoki ki taku kupu. Ka tika a koutou nei korero, tenei hoki taku kupu. I ahau i haere nei ki te akau o te moana ka kite au i tetahi tangata e takoto ana i te tapatai moana katahi au ka rere atu ki te huaki ake i nga kākahu, i mahara hoki au he tangata mate. No taku waenga ake i nga kakahu, aue, he tangata ora ano e takoto nei.

Katahi a Tiki ka ui iho ki a ia, “He aha tāu i takoto ai i konei tē haere ai koe ki te kāinga?”

Ka mea ake taua tangata nei, “He ngenge toku i tāpapa ai au i konei.”

Ka mea atu a Tiki, “Hoake tāua ki te kāinga noho ai. Ka mate koe i te mokemoke.”

Ka mea atu ia, “Kaore. Haere koe, e hoki ki tou kāinga.”

“Heoi, ka hoki mai nei au.”

“Koia ahau ka mea atu nei ki a koutou, e te tini wahine nei, he nui atu tona pai i ta koutou tangata i kite atu na.”

Ka mea mai te tini wahine ra, “Ati he tangata pai tena.”

Ka mea atu a Tiki, “Ae, he nui atu tona pai.”

“He aha kei te kanohi.”

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Ka mea atu a Tiki, “Kei te āhua o tona kanohi ano he houhounga na te tieke, kei ona papa ano he anuhe tawa-tawa.”

Ka mea mai nga wāhine, “He aha to nga kanohi?”

“He moko. Kei ona papa he rape, he puhoro; koia au i mahara ai nui atu tona pai. Ki te kite koutou i tenei tangata, tena a koutou tane e mahuetia e koutou. Koia ahau ka mea atu ai ki a koutou, kia penei tetahi tane ma toku tuahine, ka whakanuia ake te manaakitanga a nga tāngata katoa.”

Ka mea mai tona tuahine, “E kore ranei koe e pai kia haere atu ki te tiki kia haere mai ki te kāinga nei tatou noho ai?” Ka mea mai a Tiki. “E pai ana. Tena, koia haere atu koutou ko āu pononga me ou teina ki te mau mai, ta te mea kua turi hoki i taku ngarenga mai.”

A, haere ana ratou ki te whakatau i taua tangata nei. Ka mea atu a Tiki, “Kaua koutou e haere ma tena huarahi erangi haere ma te huarahi awhio. Kei te putanga atu ki tatahi o taua huarahi kei reira e takoto ana.”

A, haere ana ma taua huarahi awhio.

Ko Tiki i haere ma te huarahi poka tata. Ehara kua tae atu a Tiki ki te āhua oneone i apoapotia ra e ia hei tangata, kua takoto ki raro a Tiki. Kaore ano tona tuahine i tae noa mai he ara awhio i roa ai.

Tae tonu atu a Tiki e takoto ana ano te āhua oneone i hangaa ra e ia. Ka tango atu ia ka huakina ake nga kākahu ka takoto ia ki raro i taua āhua oneone nei. Huhia iho ano nga kākahu. Kihai ano i roa kau iho, ehara, kua tae mai tona tuahine ki reira, huaki rawa ake i nga kākahu. Ehara, me te moko whakairoiro nga mahi a te kauri, a te mānawa. Heoi ano kua mea iho te wahine ra. “Hoake tāua ki te kāinga. I unga mai māua ko taku pononga e oku hunga koeke ki te tiki mai i a koe kia haere tatou ki te kāinga.

Ka mea ake a Oneone, “E kore au e tae atu i te po, erangi mei tae mai koe i te awatea katahi tatou ka haere atu. Tena ko tenei, haere korua e hoki. Erangi mo te ata ahau ka haere atu ai.”

Ka mea iho te kohine ra, “Ia, ka noho tahi tatou i konei moe ai. Ko te ata tahi tatou ka haere ai.”

Ka mea ake a oneone. “E hoki korua. Ka ngangaretia ahau e koutou. Apopo i te ata.”

Ka mea atu a kohine, “Kahore. Na konei au i haere mai ai ki te tiki mai i a koe. I rongo hoki au i toku tungane - 190 koia au i haere mai ai ki te tiki kia haere koe ki te kāinga, kia kitea koe e toku iwi, e nui ana hoki te whakamoemiti ki tou āhuatanga. A, ka kite nei ahau i a koe, e tino mamae ana ahau i a koe. Ki te noho koe aianei ka noho tahi tāua, erangi ko taku pononga ka whakahokia atu e au ki te whakarongo ki toku iwi.”

Ka mea mai a Oneone, “Ki a koe te whakaaro ki te haere korua tahi, ki a koe te whakaaro ki te noho tahi korua, a tāua anake ranei.”

Ko te wahine, “Ae, tāua anake e noho aianei.”

Heoi, ka hoki te wahine pononga. Ka noho te tuahine o Tiki. Kihai ano i ngaro atu i tua i te more, ehara kua heuea atu e te wahine nga kākahu o Oneone. Mahue kau atu ano nga kahu, ano te kiri me he anuhe tawatawa, nga mahi a te kauri, nga rape, nga puhoro. Heoi ka rere porangi tuawahine ki runga i te takapu, tāpapa ai. Heoi ka kowheta te tangata ka wehi nukanuka he mea kia kitea te tohenga o tuawahine.

E nuia pananga atu a te tangata ra, e nuia ano pekenga mai a te wahine ra ki runga i te takapū. Heoi ano katahi ka mutu te ngangare. Heoi katahi ka whakatikaia paitia he moenga mo raua. Kua turuawaipo hoki. Heoi ka moe nei raua. Ehara, ao roa te ra. Whanake noa te ra i te rua moiri noa ki runga poutū. Mārō tonu e momoe ana. Kua nui noa atu te hiahia o te wahine ki tana tane e moe nei raua. Otira kua hapu ke i po kotahi nei ano hapu tonu ake.

Ko to raua iwi e huihui ana mai ki taua one e moe nei raua ki te hari mai i tenei mea, i te kai i te taonga hoki. Heoi maoa noa te kai ka tae mai nga tāngata ki te whakaara kia maranga ki te kai. Nohea hoki kia ara ake, momoe tonu. Ahiahi noa ka tino pouri ka tae mai ano nga whanaunga ki te whakaara. Ka mea ake raua otira ko te wahine, “Hei kai aha tena kai. Kua kitea ake rapea te kai e au i mua. Tena ko taku tane katahi nei au ka kite ki tenei mea a te moe tane. Hei kai aha tena maku i taku tane. Erangi mo apopo ra ano ahau ka whakangongotia ai.”

Kaore e puaki nga kanohi o taua tokorua ki waho o nga kamacr;kahu titiro ai. Kei roto tonu e huhi ana, a he mea korero ake i roto nga kupu a te wahine ki tona iwi. Otira ko tona iwi e tirotiro ana ki a Tiki kua ngaro i roto i te aroaka-patanga o tona hapu. Ka mahara tona hapu, “Kei te ami kai pea a Tiki ma tona taokete i nga kāinga, ona pahi mahi kai.”

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Heoi moe tonu iho tona iwi ki te akau tahi moe ai a i titiro ata ka maranga te hapu o Tiki ki te whakaute kai ma te tane hou ma te wahine hou. Maoa kau ano te kai ka maranga nga tokorua nei ki runga nonoho ai. Te kitenga mai ano te iwi ka maranga ki runga katahi ka huihui mai ki te matakitaki. Titiro rawa mai. Ehara, ko Tiki ano te tane i moe nei i tona tuahine. Hinga noa ake ano to raua hapu. Kaore i whai iwi, kaore i whai aha. Katahi ka mea atu ki te tuahine, “Haere mai ra korua ko to tungane ki tetahi kai ma korua.”

Ka mea mai te wahine, “He tungane hoki noku. Taku tane nei.”

Ka mea atu te iwi, “Tena koa, titiro atu.”

Katahi ka tahuri atu, “Aue. Ko Tiki ano taku Tane pai e moe nei maua.”

Katahi ka mea mai to raua iwi, “E pehea ana korua ki a korua?

Ka mea atu te wahine, “Ki te aha hoki? He kawanga ake hoki tenei. He maunutanga ake hoki tenei. Kua pai nei hoki. Heoi ano he pai tenei. He moe tenei. Kua hapu nei hoki ahau.”

Katahi ka mea atu a Tiki, “Ehara i ahau i moe ai maua ko toku tuahine. Nāna ano te take i totohe mai. I whaka-kahore ano ahau; a tohe tonu mai ia koia ka moe nei maua a e taea koa hoki te aha. Mehemea ra i kai mata i aha ranei he hē to maua. Tena ko tenei, e toku iwi, kua rite tahi ano maua ki to te tangata ke e pai ana.”

Ka mea mai to raua iwi, “Ka whakaae atu matou e pai ana korua ko to tuahine, kaore a matou hakuhaku atu. Ka waiho ano korua hei whakaputanga mo enei hapu katoa.”

Heoi ka whānau to raua tamaiti matāmua ko Tikiāhua tona ingoa. Na Tikiāhua ko Tikiiapoa. Na Tikiiapoa ko Tikiwhakaringaringa. No Tikiwhakaringaringa ko Tiki-whakawaewae. Na Tikiwhakawaewae ko nga tāngata toko-toru o ratou ingoa ko Uru, ko Ngangana, ko Waionuku. Na Uru ko Waiorangi. Heoi ka nui haere i konei nga uri o Tiki-tawhito-ariki.

1   e.g., see Coral Gardens and their Magic, Vol. 2.
2   The Coming of the Maori, (1949), p. 45.
3   “Wairangi, an Ancestor of Ngati-Raukawa.” J.P.S., Vol. 19.
4   Preface to Polynesian Mythology. 1855.
5   This legend was written in 1849 by Te Rangikaheke (also known as Te Rangi, Wiremu Maihi, and Wiremu Marsh) an Arawa chief to whom we are indebted for much of “Nga Mahi a Nga Tupuna,” Grey's collection of legends in the Maori language.
6   The word puremu is usually translated as “adultery” but in this case it obviously refers to the type of irregular sexual union we call “incest.”
7   The word tuahine is the sister of a male in the classificatory sense. Here, however, it must be translated either as “sister” in our sense or “first cousin” since marriage outside these relationships was permissible.
8   Here we have examples of the sudden change of person which are fairly frequent in Maori narratives.
9   Here we have examples of the sudden change of person which are fairly frequent in Maori narratives.
10   “Pecked by the saddle-bird” is a rather unusual figure of speech but “marked like a mackerel” commonly refers to the work of the tattooer.
11   Kauri gum and mangrove wood were burnt to form the black pigment for tattooing.
12   In the Maori text the figure is referred to as Oneone, literally “sand.”
13  The unidentified examples given in Williams' Maori Dictionary (5th Ed.) under “rearea” and “awhio” are from this legend.