Volume 71 1962 > Memoir No.34. Polynesian Navigation, edited by Jack Golson > Table 2: A table of accidental and deliberate voyages in the South Pacific, p 137-153
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TABLE II A TABLE OF ACCIDENTAL AND DELIBERATE VOYAGES IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC

(See Map 3)

The following table is as exhaustive as a reading of the better known works on the Pacific would allow: undoubtedly there are many more instances known by personal experience or to be found in the manuscript and newspaper sources of Pacific history. The voyages in the Polynesian area have been supplemented by some on the fringes of Western Polynesia and Melanesia from information received from Mr. Parsonson. Capt. Brett Hilder has also supplied some west-east voyages (Nos. 148-152) from his own experience. They testify partly to the invisible force of the equatorial counter-current and partly to the influence of unexpected westerlies. They may add point to the suggestion made by both Mr. Parsonson and Mr. Dening that while accidental voyages to the east have been frequent enough in the far west and equatorial zones to have occasioned the initial Polynesian dispersal, the dominant stream of accidental voyages in the Polynesian area proper has been to the west.

The division between accidental and deliberate voyages in the table is one of rough convenience only. A more realistic division would include a whole scale of drift voyages, vaguely deliberate voyages, off-course voyages on which the course has been recovered, accidental voyages which have ended in a successful return, etc. For this reason such details as are known of the voyages are supplied in the table so that the reader may judge for himself their category. How, for example, would he classify Nos. 37, 42, 43, and what relevance do they hold for his theory of the Polynesian dispersal? Are we to take the evidence of temporary Polynesian visits to the uninhabited islands (Nos. 135-147) as sad endings to one-way accidental voyages, when in Nos. 2, 9, 18, 30, 54, 99, we have examples of just such accidental arrivals at uninhabited islands, followed by a determined effort to return or push on?

Under accidental voyages we have included a variety of driftings, human and non-human, by Polynesian canoe as well as by European open boat, without any limitation of date. We have assumed that these all are relevant evidence for the direction and tendencies of natural forces in the South Pacific. Under deliberate voyages we have been more particular. They have been confined as far as possible to instances in which it is certain or at least highly probable that the Polynesians were using their own craft and their own navigational methods. Despite the increased geographical knowledge of the Polynesians brought about by the European intrusion or the possible added incentive to experiment in voyaging, we feel that these voyages still have relevance to the problem of Polynesian navigation. One or two very late incidents have been included, either because they throw some light on the motives for voyaging (No. 172), or because they illustrate some interesting features of canoe voyaging (No. 215).

The dominant purpose in the table has been to record voyages found in sources other than Polynesian traditions. There are some few exceptions which are noted in the table and which the sensitive may omit if he will. They have been included either because they have been discussed in the body of Mr. Dening's article (e.g. Nos. 186, 193), or because they record very - 138 recent events (e.g. No. 187), or because it is not altogether clear from the source whether personal experience or tradition is being cited.

Finally, it should be noted that the voyages are classified according to their point of departure and their landfall. There has not always been consistency among commentators on this point, some referring to the place of origin of the canoeists, some to their pen-ultimate point of departure. To avoid confusion, the original source of the voyage has been indicated where possible in the table first and unbracketed: the bracketed references are those more prominent commentators who have cited the incident. The occurrence of more than one incident between the same two islands has been indicated by prefixing the incidents—(a), (b), etc.

ACCIDENTAL VOYAGES
  • 1. Aitutaki to Niuafoou: Williams 1837:508-9. (Sittig 1895:527; Lesson 1884:50; Best 1923:25; Sharp 1957:61.) Williams conveyed Aitutakians back to A. after they were carried to N.
  • 2. Aitutaki (or Atiu) to Palmerston: Gill 1885:27. “Drift canoes from Aitutaki and Atiu would fetch up at Palmerston's with the prevailing SE. trade wind. On the return of the NW. wind in Jan. and Feb., they could easily return to their original home, as was actually done a few years ago.”
  • 3. Aitutaki to Tonga: Dillon 1829a:271-2. (Williams 1837:508; Lesson 1884:45; Sittig 1895:527; Best 1923:24; Sharp 1957:63.) Dillon found five survivors of ten native missioners at T.: voyage in mission boat Aitutaki to Rarotonga: gale in trades: driven past port: five months at sea: killed four sharks and few sea-birds: rain for water: driven to Tonga.
  • 4. Anaa to Hao: Beechey 1831a:168. See No. 9 Anaa to Vanavana: second canoe blown to Hao: brother and family of Tuwarri recognised by Tuwarri when he visited Hao with Beechey.
  • 5. Anaa to Manua: Barstow 1877:232-4. (Best 1923:20.) 1844: whaleboat “Sarah Anne”: one European and natives: voyage from Anaa to “Hanea” with intention to come on to Tahiti: storm: lost oars: blown south and west: tried to make Tahiti, then Aitutaki: drifted to Manua.
  • 6. Anaa to Rarotonga: Gill 1856b:6. c. 1800 (?): 2-3 natives driven in storm in canoe.
  • 7. Near Anaa to Hereheretue: Lucatt (Lucett) 1851b:40-1. “Many years ago”: native of island near Anaa and four children (son and three daughters): caught in north gale: driven to Surry Is.(Hereheretue ?): uninhabited: remained with their children till Lucatt's (Lucett) arrival: old man killed when L. was forcing them to leave.
  • 8. Anaa to Tahiti: Barstow 1877:232. 1844: See No. 5 Anaa to Manua: Barstow saw lashed oars of whaleboat washed ashore at Tahiti: later met Clerke, the mate, who survived.
  • 9. Anaa to Vanavana: Beechey 1831a:162, 168-72. (Lang 1877:8; Lesson 1884:58; Best 1923:25; Sharp 1957:65.) 1821: three canoes, 150 natives: voyage from Anaa to Tahiti via Mehetia: early monsoon blew off course: canoes separated: one canoe attempted to regain course: becalmed, some dying: second storm: blown to Vanavana (uninhabited): stayed 13 months: set off home: fell in with uninhabited island, then another: stayed here (“Byam Martin”—Ahunui): were preparing to move on when Beechey found them.
  • 10. Angatau to Anaa: Lucatt (Lucett) 1851a:248-9. Anaa had information of Angatau “from a few half-starved beings who got blown from Angatau in a canoe many years ago”.
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  • 11. Abemama to Nukumanu: Woodford 1916:32. Two men and two women in canoe: three moved on to “Luaniua” after being driven to N.: Woodford informed by native who had seen one of them.
  • 12. Arorae to Ontong Java: Woodford 1916:32. Two castaways from A. 25-30 years before.
  • 13. Atafu (and Fakaofo) to Westward: Pritchard 1866:405. “Parties”, drifting in westerly direction from A. and F. had been picked up by whalers.
  • 14. Atafu to Samoa: Pritchard 1866:404. (Lesson 1884:52; Best 1923: 27.) 1862: King Fori of A. and party of natives: voyage from A. to Fakaofo: missed direction: drifted some weeks till Samoa: conveyed back in “John Williams”.
  • 15. Bellona to Gatukai (New Georgia Group): Woodford 1916:47. c. 1900: canoe drifted from B. to G.: castaways all killed.
  • 16. Easter Island to Atiu: Heyerdahl 1958:47. Boating fever caused by knowledge of Kon-tiki Raft: islanders setting off in unseaworthy boats, trusting in winds and currents to take them to landfall: one boat reached Atiu, another Reao. See No. 163.
  • 17. Easter Island to Reao: Heyerdahl 1958:47. See No. 16 Easter Island to Atiu.
  • 18. Fakaofo to Nassau to Palmerston to Mangaia: Gill 1876:22. (Sharp 1957:27, 67, 159.) January 1858: during prevalence of westerlies: numerous family drifted to each of these uninhabited islands and finally to Mangaia.
  • 19. Fakaofo to Samoa: (a) Gill 1885:20. (Best 1923:23.) 1862: 60 natives and “Timoteo” (“then a heathen”) drifted to Samoa. Note: probably the same drift as No. 14 Atafu to Samoa: also conveyed back in “John Williams. (b) Turner 1861:531. Turner mentions “two young men belonging to F. who had long been in S., were taken there (Fakaofo) recently”. Not clear how they arrived at Samoa.
  • 20. Fakaofo to Uvea: (a) MacGregor 1937:32, 28; Burrows 1937:171. 1846: hurricane devasted F.: to escape starvation natives set off in canoes presumably for Nukunono: winds dispersed canoes: only two survived: blown to Uvea: six weeks at sea. (b) MacGregor 1937:28. “It is certain that other voyagers from F. had landed there (Uvea) not long before, for a Tokelau girl on shore recognized the shipwrecked chief as uncle.”
  • 21. Fiji to Lifou (Loyalty): Garnier 1870:55. (Sittig 1895:526.) Not clear whether Garnier is giving example or making a deduction from anthropological or linguistic evidence. In any case, see No. 103 Tonga to Uvea (Loyalty).
  • 22. Fiji to Tonga: Lang 1877:7. c. 1800: Fijians fishing in canoe: blown to Tonga.
  • 23. Futuna to—?. Burrows 1936:44-5. “From time immemorial boatloads of Futunan fishermen have occasionally been swept to sea by storms. More often, perhaps, parties have put out voluntarily because of defeat in war, other disappointments or dangers, or simply from eagerness to see new lands. This was not rare in the time of the early missionaries . . . Some of these voyagers have reached other shores. I find no trace of them in genuine native traditions, perhaps because word has rarely or never come back to Futuna except from Wallis; and trips there were too frequent to be memorable. To Fiji perhaps they were not rare, but the Fijians had a custom of slaughtering castaways. Records of little expeditions from Futuna to Fiji in recent times point to a process which must have been going on long before Europeans arrived.”
  • 24. Futuna to Aneityum (New Hebrides): Burrows 1936:45. 1867: Irish trader with Polynesian wife and eight men of Futuna: put out to Fiji
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  • in open boat: carried off course by wind and current: trader and some F's died: driven to A.
  • 25. Futuna to Fiji: Burrows 1936:44-5. See No. 23 Futuna to —?.
  • 26. Futuna to Futuna (New Hebrides): Ella 1894:138. “The islands of Aniwa and Futuna in the New Hebrides are peopled by natives originally belonging to Tonga and Futuna, NW. of Samoa, intermixed with natives of Tanna.” Traditional? Burrows 1936:45-6 throws some doubt on this.
  • 27. Gilberts to Nui (Ellice): Whitmee 1878:274. Natives of Nui distinct in race and language to Gilberts: wearied with wars: drifted to Nui. Traditional?
  • 28. Gilberts to Ontong Java: Woodford 1916:32. Recent traditions of separate drifts from Abemama, Maiana, Tamana and Arorae.
  • 29. Gilberts to Rotuma: Turner 1861:359. (Whitmee 1878:266; Sittig 1895:525; Sharp 1957:64.) 1845: party of twenty men, women and children picked up by whaler: blown away in sudden gale: probably from Gilberts.
  • 30. Haapai to the two Hunga: West 1865:76-7. Tongan chief: voyage Haapai to Tonga: storm: expected to be blown to Fiji: wrecked between two Hunga: several weeks faced starvation: built small canoe: paddled forty miles to Tonga: returned with canoes.
  • 31. Huahine to—?: Ellis 1829b:51. Mr. Barff's boat: voyage Huahine to Tahiti: blown off course: never heard of again.
  • 32. Makatea (or Matahiva?) to Tahiti: London Missionary Society Trans., 1795:56. Double canoe from “Mataya” driven to Tahiti.
  • 33. Makemo to Reao: Danielsson 1955:49. Traditional? Danielsson tells story of native of M. arriving at R. alone in canoe: immediately attacked islanders: was drowned.
  • 34. Mangareva to Rapa: Ellis 1829a:49-50. (Moerenhout 1837b:331-2; Lang 1877:6-7; Lesson 1884:45; Sharp 1957:63.) Many years before arrival of missionaries: seven on raft arrived from M.: drifted in storm: despite fact that well treated four wanted to return: departed for island in ESE. direction.
  • 35. Mangareva to Sikaiana: Woodford 1916:44. c. 1886: eleven natives arrived at S. from M.: left M. after differences with missionaries: intended to make for Fiji but sighted no land: sailed before wind till reached S.: remained some time at Sikaiana: then eight of them left again: reached Ulawa in the Solomons, where they were killed.
  • 36. Mangareva to Timoe: Hale 1846:140-1. (Sittig 1895:528; Beechey 1831a:140-2.) c. 1770-80: defeated party of Mangarevans “were drifted to the island” of Timoe: returned later by missionaries: Hale took it as proof of like traditions, and noted it was against the trades on a raft. Emory 1939:35-7 discusses how the explorers found T. inhabited and uninhabited at various times.
  • 37. Manihiki to—?: (a) Gill 1856b:266. Tahitian lad had been dropped at M.: told M's of white man, etc.: “They (Manihikians) and their fathers had been in the habit of voyaging in their canoes to the islands of ‘Tokerau’ and ‘Fou’ and they had ‘heard’ of Rarotonga and Aitutaki and Tahiti, but now they began to think of them as in real existence . . . Some of the young men hoping to be taken by the gods to one of the above named set out in canoe expeditions . . . Many lives lost.” (b) Gill 1856b:267, 270. (Sharp 1957:60.) 1849: large party of M.: visit to Rakahanga: storm: few reached R.: rest came together in one canoe: eighty miles away picked up by whaler:
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  • taken to Manuae: finally returned to M. by mission boat: four days sail from Aitutaki—“some delay was occasioned by not knowing the exact position of M.” (c) Gill 1856b:274. Twenty canoes: two hundred natives: voyage M. to Rakahanga: storm: many wrecked: twenty drowned.
  • 38. Manihiki to Aitutaki: Williams 1837:470. (Sharp 1957:26.) c. 1770's: canoe full of people had drifted to A. from M.
  • 39. Manihiki to Nassau: Gill 1855:29, 30. Party of M.: six men and one woman: voyage to Rakahanga: adverse wind: off course: “thankful” to sight Nassau: stayed two years: built hut: returned to R. by passing ship.
  • 40. Manihiki to Nukulaelae: Gill 1876:22. (Whitmee 1871:11; Sittig 1895:527; Sharp 1957:151.) 1861: “Elikana” and party in canoe swept away in storm: half perished: arrived at N.: preached Christianity at N.: went on to Samoa to get missionaries. Note: not clear whether went to Samoa in canoes: seems likely.
  • 41. Manihiki to Samoa: Gill 1856b:266. See No. 37 Manihiki to—?. (a). “On one occasion some were taken to the distant island of Samoa.”
  • 42. Manihiki to Swain's: Turner 1884:275. (MacGregor 1937:28; Sharp 1957:151.) Native of M.: “he and other ten set out in heathen times to see and learn something of islands to the west of which they had heard. They left in a canoe with a small supply of coconuts and water in coconut shells. After being five weeks at sea they landed at Quiro's island (Swain's). Then most of them went in a whaling vessel to the Tokelaus group, but the man to whom I refer came to Samoa”.
  • 43. Marquesas to—?: Porter 1822b:51. Grandfather of “Gattanewa” sailed away with 4 canoes in search of land: Porter told of 800 who had left in this way.
  • 44. Matahiva to Moorea: Corney 1918:133-5. 1774: Rodriguez saw arrival of natives from Matahiva: blown off course: got from Moorea to Tahiti: given canoe to return home.
  • 45. Moorea to Manua: Gill 1876:22. (Piddington 1939:225; Sharp 1957:66.) 1862: boat accidentally blown from Moorea: no lives lost: seen by Gill at Manua.
  • 46. Mortlocks to Ontong Java: Hogbin 1940:201. One canoe “arrived in Ongtong Java” from M. in Hogbin's residence 1927-8.
  • 47. Nanumea to Anuta (Cherry): Firth 1936:34. “In olden days”: canoe came: crew killed. Traditional?
  • 48. New Ireland to Ontong Java: Woodford 1916:32. 1913: canoe of eleven Melanesian castaways: ten days at sea: one death: returned by Woodford.
  • 49. Niutao to Ontong Java: Woodford 1916:32. “recent traditions” of castaways arrived from Niutao (Ellice).
  • 50. Niuatoputapu to—?: West 1865:219. Many lost in effort to reach Niuafoou.
  • 51. Niuatoputapu to Fiji: West 1865:221-3. 1832: Ulukalaka, King of Vavau, voyaged to N. accompanied by Rev. Cross: reached N.: then seven canoes prepared to sail to “Haafuluhao”: only four canoes sailed—other three (mainly natives of N. deterred by “threatening appearance of weather, or by superstitious fears”)—stayed: storm: one canoe lost (60-70 natives) : another commanded by N. chief driven to Fiji: another with Ulukalaka and Cross “with immense difficulty and risk reached Haabai”: fourth canoe filled with Vavauans sighted island of Niuafoou—“after many days of toil and extreme peril”: landed: converted Niuafoou: some returned to Vavau.
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  • 52. Niuatoputapu to Haapai: West 1865:221-3. See No. 51 Niuatoputapu to Fiji.
  • 53. Niuatoputapu to Niuafoou: (a) West 1865:221-3. See No. 51 Niuatoputapu to Fiji. (b) West 1865:219. See No. 181 Niuatoputapu to Niuafoou.
  • 54. Nukutavake to Actaeon Group: Emory 1939:58. 1840's: Vahitahi natives on voyage Nukutavake to Vairaatea: drifted to Tenaroro: then moved to Vahanga where wrecked: then moved to Tenarunga, and finally reached Mature-ivavao.
  • 55. Nukunono to Samoa: MacGregor 1937:33. See No. 164 Fakaofo to Nukunono to Atafu.
  • 56. Ocean Island to Ontong Java: Woodford 1916:32. “Recent traditions” of castaways.
  • 57. Raiatea to Atiu: (a) Ellis 1829b:51. (Williams 1837:93-5, 508; Lesson 1884:44; Sittig 1895:527; Best 1923:24.) Williams' boat left R. for Tahiti with westerly wind: wind changed when out of sight of land: exhausted food: driven to A. Dillon 1829a:273 was not impressed with the boat building: same boat as driven to Tonga. See No. 3. (b) Tyerman and Bennet 1831a:120. (Best 1923:24.) Canoe with five people: caught in fog on voyage R. to Tahiti: storm: six weeks drift to A.
  • 58. Raiatea to Australs: Best 1923:26, quoting Threkeld and Williams. March 8th, 1921: canoe driven from R.: three weeks at sea.
  • 59. Raiatea to Tubuai: Ellis 1829a:53. (Hale 1846:141-2; Lesson 1884:48; Sittig 1895:528; Sharp 1957:27.) “A few years after this [peopling of T. from Rimatara] a canoe sailing from Raiatea to Tahiti, conveying a chief who was ancestor to Idia, Pomare's mother, was also drifted to this island.” Traditional, but in all likelihood well substantiated by Morrison 1789a:135-6: probably living memory.
  • 60. Rakahanga to Niuatoputapu: Williams 1837:468-70. (Sharp 1957:59.) American missionary and natives found R. uninhabited: pushed off and drifted to N. See No. 70 Rurutu to Manihiki.
  • 61. Rairoa to Tahiti: Corney 1913:20. Spaniards learnt of R. from canoe with some natives blown from R. to T.
  • 62. Reao to Hao: Emory 1939:61. c. 1868: Vahitahi native (died 1924) : family escaped from Reao for fear of invasion: went to Akiaki: steered for Vairaatea at night: storm: lashed two canoes together: driven to Hao: stayed twenty years: tried to return to Vahitahi: but unwelcome: went on to Tureia: soon invaded by canoe from Takoto which they drove off and which went on to Vanavana.
  • 63. Rimatara to Westward: Lang 1877:6. (Lesson 1884:48.) American seaman Roberts with natives: took some books from Rurutu to Rimatara: on return driven off course: perished with some of natives: boat picked up two hundred miles from R.
  • 64. Rotuma to Fiji: (a) Dillon 1829b:103. (Sittig 1895:525; Best 1923:24.) Canoes driven not infrequently from R. to F. (b) Lesson 1884:60. Lesson told by Spanish shipwrecked sailor that a Rotuman canoe had been blown to Fiji.
  • 65. Rotuma to ‘Mannicolo’ (Vanikoro): Dillon 1829b:269. “Many years ago a Rothuma canoe was drifted down here with five men on board, three of whom had died before my informant [from ‘Mame’] came to the island.”
  • 66. Rotuma to Mbukatanoa (Argo Reefs): Lesson 1884:68. Capt. Siddins: found natives of R. at M: on voyage to Vaitapu: blown first to Samoa islands, then to M.
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  • 67. Rotuma (? “Moreai”) to Ontong Java: Woodford 1916:32. Recent traditions of castaways from “M”.
  • 68. Rotuma to Samoa: (a) Dillon 1829a:294-5. (Sittig 1895:525; Best 1923:25; Sharp 1957:55.) Two canoes of Tongans brought two Rotumans back from Samoa to Tonga: Rotumans had set out from R. to Vaitupu to procure shells: contrary winds: three months at sea: drifted to Samoa. (b) Dillon 1829b:103. Implies that there were other incidents.
  • 69. Rotuma to Tikopia: (a) Dillon 1829b:103. (Best 1923:24; Sharp 1957:55.) On voyage to Vaitupu, Rotumans not infrequently driven to Fiji, Tikopia, Samoa. (b) Dillon 1829b:133. 1798: canoe with four men from R. drifted to T. disabused fearful T's about white people. (c) Lesson 1884:48. Lesson saw “several” natives of R. at T.: blown there by winds.
  • 70. Rurutu to Manihiki: Williams 1837:468-70. (Lesson 1884:49; Sittig 1895:527; Sharp 1957:59.) Williams met missionary native at Niuatoputapu had built boat at Rurutu: sailed with ten natives of R. and two missionaries: made for Raiatea: lost way: driven to M.: six weeks at sea: one American and two R's went ashore: never heard of again: driven to Rakahanga, uninhabited: driven to Niuatoputapu.
  • 71. Samoa to Ellice: Whitmee 1878:271. Traditional only? Belief that only a few generations ago E. peopled from S.: Whitmee had staff which he claimed was that of the migratory party: staff of sort used in oratory at S.: made of wood which does not grown at E.: but patched by indigenous E. wood: recorded in tradition that two distinct parties from S.
  • 72. Samoa to Tanna (New Hebrides): Sittig 1895:526. Natives of S. drifted to T.: Sittig gives no date or reference.
  • 73. Samoa to Uvea: Burrows 1937:171. Henquel's manuscript history of Uvea mentions several Samoan boats and men: “some of these references are in his account of the post-European period”.
  • 74. San Cristobal to Rennell: Woodford 1916:47. See No. 188 Rennell to San Cristobal.
  • 75. Savaii to Tongoa: (a) Turner 1861:392; 1884:331. (Ella 1893:137; Sittig 1895:526; Best 1923:27; Sharp 1957:64.) “Sualo” of Savaii: voyage with fifty others, mainly Tongans, to Tonga: blown to Tongoa: fought way on shore: stayed two years: tried to return to Tonga: failed: made Efate.
  • 76. Sikaiana to Taumako (Solomons): Markham 1904b:490. (Dillon 1829b:269; Woodford 1916:38-9.) Accidental voyage? Quiros found S. lad, “Pedro” at T.
  • 77. Somes Island (N.Z.) to Chathams: Best 1923:22-3. Oct. 11th, 1915: bottle thrown into sea: picked up at Chathams December 27th.
  • 78. Starbuck to Manihiki: Moss 1889:17-21. (Best 1923:28.) 1886: crew of “Diana”: wrecked at S.: tried to make Maldon: baffled by winds and currents: made M.: nineteen days: four left behind at S. picked up by Moss.
  • 79. Tahiti to —?: (a) Lang 1877:9-10. Capt. Jos. Thomson in whaler fell in with T. canoe: several hundred miles from T.: “all but exhausted”: gave them a compass and they reached home. (b) Bligh 1792:125. “Oreepyah” returned from Tetiaroa to Tahiti: narrowly escaped being lost in bad weather: obliged to shelter at Eimeo: several canoes had been lost lately in their passage to and from Tetiaroa.
  • 80. Tahiti to Atiu: Anderson 1776a:121; Cook and King 1784a:200-2. (Ellis 1829b:51; Lang 1877:7-8; Lesson 1884:42; Best 1923:24; Sharp 1957:14.) Omai met Tahitians at Atiu: knew them: twenty men and women on voyage Tahiti to Raiatea, 1767: violent wind: many days without food or drink: canoe upset: four men survived: arrived at A.: unwilling to return to T. with Cook.
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  • 81. Tahiti to Mehetia: Corney 1915:117. Accidental? Spaniards found five or six natives of T. at M., who “had no means of getting back to T.”.
  • 82. Tahiti to Mopelia: Cook and King 1784b:177. (Sharp 1957:26.) Tahitians “reckoned a sort of prodigy that a canoe, once driven by a storm from Otaheite, should have fallen in with Howe's Island though so near and directly to the leeward”. Note: presumption is that the canoe returned safely.
  • 83. Tahiti to Rarotonga: (a) Williams 1837:106. (Best 1923:24; Sharp 1957:26.) Williams says that R. knew of Cook's visit to T. from a “heathen woman” who drifted to R. from T. (b) Williams 1837:199. Another incident: brought more information: “some natives drifted down to R. from T.”.
  • 84. Tahiti to Rimatara: Moerenhout 1837b:347. (Sharp 1957:161.) Several years before missionaries: canoe with only one woman alive: strong wind blew off course from T.: all rest died.
  • 85. Tahiti to Samoa: Whitmee 1878:269. “During my residence in Samoa a boat with some labourers who had escaped from Tahiti reached the island.”
  • 86. Tahiti to Tubuai: (a) Morrison 1789a:132. Six to eight men blown in canoe some years before: part of canoe still at Tubuai. (b) Ellis 1829a:55. (Lesson 1884:48.) 1817: “A few years before our arrival, a canoe from Tahiti, bound for the Paumotu, or Pearl Islands, had drifted to Tubuai.” Tried to convert T.
  • 87. Tahuata (Marquesas) to Rairoa: Cuzent 1884:38-9. 1861: boat manned by Nukuhivans forced by wind to sail from T. to R.
  • 88. Tamana (Gilberts) to Ontong Java: Woodford 1916:32. c. 1890: two castaways blown to O.J.: returned to T. in Fijian recruiting vessel.
  • 89. “Tappuhoi” (? Anaa) to Mehetia: Bligh 1792:90-1. Natives from “T”—island to the eastward—arrived at Mehetia: began to fight: all killed: except woman and boy whom Bligh saw: Bligh thought it probably accidental voyage. Sittig 1895:527 makes this voyage Tubuai to Makatea. Corney 1915:117 identifies “T” as Anaa.
  • 90. Tasmans to Ontong Java: Hogbin 1940:201. “Several” canoes from T. “arrived” at O.J. in 1927-1928.
  • 91. Tikopia to Banks: (a) Codrington 1891:6. “I have myself witnessed the arrival of eleven canoes from Tikopia among the Banks Islands. The men said they had come to see the islands and were hospitably received. One was shot at Ureparapara and they departed. Shortly before this a canoe from Tikopia had been driven by the wind to Mota.” (b) Codrington 1891:346. Two groups from T. in past forty years driven to Mota. (c) Firth 1936:32. “Fired by the lust of adventure and the desire to see new lands, canoe after canoe set out and ranged the seas and those members of canoes who returned contributed a great deal to such knowledge of the outside world as the islanders have.” (d) Capt. Brett Hilder. 1947: four or five men exiled from Tikopia in a canoe drifted to Banks Is. Drift 120, SW.
  • 92. Tikopia to Santa Cruz: Lesson 1884:48. Tikopias thrown up at Santa Cruz as castaways.
  • 93. Tokelau to Rotuma: MacGregor 1937:27. 1826 and 1827: two T. canoes driven by hurricane and settled at R.
  • 94. Tokelau to Uvea: (a) MacGregor 1937:27. (Burrows 1938:171; Sharp 1957:151.) Canoes several times driven from T. to U. (b) MacGregor 1937:27. 1832: Kura and Singana driven off course to U.
  • 95. Tonga to Aniwa: Ella 1893:138. See No. 26 Futuna to Futuna.
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  • 96. Tonga to Banks: Codrington 1891:7. (Sittig 1895:526.) Just before Codrington's arrival, people from T. arrived in two successive years and remained considerable time.
  • 97. Tonga to Futuna (New Hebrides): Buxton 1928:101. Party from T. arrived at F. while Buxton there.
  • 98. Tonga to Loyalty group: Whitmee 1878:265. Missionaries from Samoa c. 1858-60 found Tongans in various islands of Loyalty group.
  • 99. Tonga to Tuvana-i-Colo (Mikhailov Is.): Pritchard 1866:405. (Lesson 1884:51; Best 1823:27.) 1858: two canoes, two hundred persons: blown three hundred and fifty miles from T.: landed on “Mikaeloff”: repaired canoes: made for “Ono” (Ono-i-lau) against steady SE. wind: thence to Fiji.
  • 100. Tonga to Nengone: Erskine 1853:373. (Sittig 1895:525.) Erskine met old woman, only survivor of several canoes blown from Tonga many years before: children living at Nengone.
  • 101. Tonga to Ata (Pylstaart): Best 1923:26. Ata settled by drift voyages from Tonga. Not clear if Best's evidence is traditional.
  • 102. Tonga to Cikobia: Diapea 1928:75. Cikobians massacred “some thirty to forty Tongans who had drifted from some of the Friendly Islands to the eastward”.
  • 103. Tonga to Tikopia: (a) Dillon 1829b:112. “It appears from the account of Tucopians and Anutoans that in the days of their ancestors these islands were invaded by five large double canoes from Tongataboo.” (b) Lesson 1884:46-7. Lesson himself saw a native, born at Vavau: arrived when very young at Tikopia: on voyage with several others: blown to Tikopia.
  • 104. Tonga to Uvea (Loyalty): (a) Ella 1893:138. “On island of Uvea in the Loyalty group, some castaways from Tonga and Wallis Is. have long been settled, one party—Uveans (Wallis Is.)—occupying the northern end of the island, and the other on the southern extremity, which they call Tonga.” (b) Whitmee 1878:265. Whitmee saw Tongans in 1863 and 1870 at Uvea: had lost their way and carried to U. (c) Pritchard 1866:404. Pritchard knew of grandchildren of Tongans blown to Uvea and to the Loyalty group in general.
  • 105. Tonga to Vanikoro: Dillon 1829b:269. (Lesson 1884:46.) Tongan canoe with fifty aboard: long drifted about at sea: landed: all killed except fifteen who escaped in canoe. Note the native of “Mame” who gave Dillon the names of the following islands he knew: Ootooboa (Utupua, Solomons), Indenney (Ndeni, Santa Cruz), Tenacora (? Tinakula, Sta Cruz), Fonofono (?), Mame (?), Pillane (Pileni, Solomons), Nupaney (Nupani, Solomons), Ulaffa (?), Bowloo (?), Thamaco (Taumako, Solomons), Chiciana (Sikaiana), Towlealy (?).
  • 106. Tongareva to near Samoa: Pritchard 1866:405. (Lesson 1884:51; Sharp 1957:151.) Natives in canoe blown from T.: picked up by whaler near S.
  • 107. Tuamotu to —?: Barstow 1877:231. (Best 1923:19.) Barstow had seen canoe of ten men and four to five women at Tahiti: they were searching for a party blown from their island in the Tuamotu: visited many islands, including Eimeo, Huahine, Raiatea: had been waiting six months at Tahiti for fair wind.
  • 108. Tuamotu to Eimeo: Barstow 1877:233. (Best 1923:19-20.) Barstow saw two men and two women of T. at E.: small canoe: on trip to obtain cocos from uninhabited island: fell asleep: drifted fortnight to E.: subsisted on cocos.
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  • 109. Tuamotu to Tahiti: (a) Ellis 1829b:51. (Sittig 1895:528.) “Several parties have, within the last few years, reached the Tahitian shores from islands to the eastward, of which the Society Islanders had never before heard.” (b) Garnier 1870:46. 1867; Garnier met canoe of Tuamotu lost on way to Tahiti.
  • 110. Tubuai to Palmerston: Edwards 1915:36, 43; Morrison 1789a:88. Edwards found the “Bounty's” spar at Palmerston. Morrison had noted that spars and booms had been moored at Tubuai and went adrift.
  • 111. Tubuai to Manua: Williams 1837:412-3. (Best 1923:25; Lesson 1884:49; Sharp 1957:61.) 1832: boat returning to Raivavae after visit to Tubuai: lost way: three months at sea: twenty dead: found by Williams at Manua.
  • 112. Tubuai to Maurua: Williams 1837:39-40. (Ellis 1829b:51; Lesson 1884:57; Sittig 1895:527; Sharp 1957:62.) 1820: Chief Auura because of epidemic at Rurutu built two canoes with other chief: set off for better island: arrived at Tubuai: recruited strength: set off again: storm: three weeks driven to Maurua: heard of white men: sailed for Borabora missed and driven to Raiatea. Ellis 1829a:181-2—probably the same incident—speaks of the boat of a chief of Rurutu he had seen which had come more than six hundred miles.
  • 113. Tubuai to Raivavae: de Bisscop 1959:116. Two empty canoes in successive years blown from T. to R. to within fifteen yards of one another on the same beach.
  • 114. Ulie to Aur: Kotzebue 1821:122-3. (Sittig 1895:521-2; Lesson 1884:56-7; Best 1923:24.) Kotzebue found “Kadu” and two countrymen from Ulie and islander of Yap at Aur: on voyage Ulie to Fais: storm: driven to A: 8 months at sea.
  • 115. Uvea to —?: (a) Burrows 1937:48-9. Quotes Bishop Bataillon 1860: “This [leaving Uvea by canoe] is, at present, the principal wound of these missions, and we force ourselves by all possible means to combat it and cure it.” (b) Burrows 1937:48-9. Quotes Viala, 1919: habit of leaving Uvea rarer now, but still about ten a year.
  • 116. Uvea to Samoa: Burrows 1937:49. Number of Uveans now living at Apia: some said to have made the voyage in native canoes.
  • 117. Uvea (Wallis) to Uvea (Loyalty): (a) Ella 1893:138. (Garnier 1870:55.) See No. 104 Tonga to Uvea (Loyalty). (b) Erskine 1853:340. One or two generations ago: party escaped from Uvea (Wallis) because of death of chief's son: had to fight to establish themselves at Uvea (Loyalty). Burrows 1937:50-1 accepts this tradition as “beyond all uncertainty” and gives date c. 1800.
  • 118. Vahitahi to Anuanuraro: Cuzent 1884:25. 1874: canoe of V. surprised at sea by storm: driven to A.: lived there two years: taken back to V. in “Mesange”.
  • 119. Vahitahi to Paraoa: Emory 1939:62. See No. 210 Vahitahi to Nukutavake.
  • 120. Vahitahi to Vanavana: Emory 1939:62. See No. 210 Vahitahi to Nukutavake. These castaways were butchered by Takoto natives who drifted to Vanavana the same night.
  • 121. Vairaatea to Hao: Lesson 1884:50. Quoting Capt. Lucas in “Oceanie”: native blown to Hao.
  • 122. Vaitupu to Sikaiana: Markham 1904b:494. (Hale 1846:168; Woodford 1916:39.) Quiros told by native called “Olan” from Sikaiana (who was at Taumako) that a double canoe had been carried from V. to S. with 110 aboard.
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  • 123. Vaitupu to Taumako: Markham 1904b:493. (Hale 1946:168; Woodford 1916:39.) Fifty natives sailing from “Guaytopo” to “Mecayrayla” to get tortoise shell for earrings: in sight of “M”: driven off course: driven to T.: all but ten dead.
  • 124. Vavau to Lomaloma: Pritchard 1866:405. (Lesson 1884:52; Best 1923:27.) 1863: large double canoe: voyage from V. to Samoa: strong easterlies: drifted in “very dilapidated condition” to L.
  • 125. Vavau to near Samoa to Futuna: Mariner 1818a:307-322. (Sharp 1957:54-5.) Kau Moala: Tongan on voyage Fiji to Vavau: within sight of V.: unable to make landfall: made for Samoa: driven to Futuna: stayed a year: rebuilt canoe (no large canoes at Futuna): sailed for Rotuma: stayed short time: sailed from Rotuma to Fiji: driven off course: made Fiji: sailed from Fiji to Tonga.
  • 126. Vavau to Uvea: West 1865:221. Vavau canoe drifted to Uvea: rescued woman of Niuatoputapu and conveyed her back to N.
  • 127. —? to Fakaofo: (a) Hale 1846:157. (Sittig 1895:528-9.) Hale found windlass at Fakaofo: came from sea few years before: vessel lost in surf: two men ashore: one's name Fakaaukamea: the wood planed by tools. Hale surmised vessel from Viti-Samoa area. (b) Hale 1846:158. Spears and clubs had arrived at Fakaofo from the sea: no particular name for them at F.: Hale surmised them to be from Viti-Samoa area.
  • 128. —? to Aitutaki: Edwards and Hamilton 1915:42. Saw at Aitutaki a native “of another island who knew Capt. Cook and enquired after him, Onai and Oediddee whom he said he had seen”.
  • 129. —? to Banks: Codrington 1891:346. (Sittig 1895:526.) “Many single canoes from time to time have been blown away from Polynesian islands and have drifted to the Banks Islands.” Codrington found Polynesian man, woman and son cast up at Ureparapara.
  • 130. —? to Fataka (Mitre Is.): Dillon 1829b:111. “Many canoes with several persons on board are from time to time drifted down from the islands to the windward, and first land at Fatacca.” For that reason the Tikopians cut down the coconut trees.
  • 131. —? to Futuna: Whitmee 1875:270. Traditional account of forty persons arriving at Futuna many years before: some killed: rest taught Futunans new designs for bark cloth. Burrows 1936:54-5 analyses account: suggests Marshalls as origin of castaways over Whitmee's Japan and others' China.
  • 132. —? to Rarotonga: Gill 1856b:5. c. 1780: “canoe being drifted from one of adjacent islands to Rarotonga, in which there were natives who landed and remained some time on shore”. They had seen Cook and described him. Note: possibly one of incidents described in No. 83, but some different features. Does Gill's account indicate that the castaways stayed temporarily and returned?
  • 133. —? to Saddle Island: Sittig 1895:526. Codrington found children, descendants of Polynesians stranded at Saddle Island.
  • 134. —? to Tubuai: (a) Ellis 1829a:53. (Sharp 1957:27.) Canoe with skeleton drifted to T. (b) Ellis 1829a:53. (Hale 1846:140; Sittig 1895:528; Sharp 1957:27.) T. recently peopled from island to west (Rimatara?). “When sailing to a spot they were accustomed to visit [Rurutu ?], were driven by strong and unfavourable winds on Tubuai.”
  • 135. —? to Caroline Island: Emory 1947:54. Deserted marae: basalt adze.
  • 136. —? to Christmas Island: Emory 1934:24. Stones in heaps: platforms: house sites: basalt and shell adzes: petroglyphs.
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  • 137. —? to Fanning Island: Emory 1934:10-17; Finney 1958:70-2. Human bones: implements of bone and stone: platforms: remains of buildings: bones of fowl and dog. Finney argues for Tongan origin.
  • 138. —? to Henderson Island: Pacific Islands Year Book 1959:167. “Some mysterious skeletons were found in a cave there in 1958.”
  • 139. —? to Howland Island: Emory 1934:4-6. Taro pits: fragments of canoe: blue bead: skeleton: paddle of Tahitian type: rats: remains of hut.
  • 140. —? to Kermadecs: Buck 1926:197. Adze of Rarotongan type found at Sunday Is.
  • 141. —? to Maldon: Emory 1934:24-7. Remains of buildings: eighteen small maraes and shrines: graves.
  • 142. —? to Nassau: Beaglehole 1938:385. Stone adzes and pearl shell ornaments found in old grave.
  • 143. —? to Oeno: Emory 1939:6. Blue-grey tangless basalt adze found in 1858.
  • 143a. —? to Phoenix Islands (Canton, Hull Sydney): Emory 1938:7-8. Marae, cairns, graves.
  • 144. —? to Palmerston: Cook and King 1784a:217. Pieces of canoe: paddles: rats.
  • 145. —? to Pitcairn: Emory 1928:125-31; Lavachery 1936:3-42. Many stone implements: remains of habitation.
  • 146. —? to Suvarov: Best 1923:9. Stone building.
  • 147. —? to Washington: Emory 1934:8-9; Finney: 71. Stone walls: canoe in peat bog: adze: Finney gives the C.14 date of canoe (which had nail holes) as 160 ± 100 B.P.
  • 148. Salebabu (Sangir Group) to Witu Group (New Guinea): Capt. Brett Hilder 1947: November 13th, five men set out from their island of Salebabu, Sangir group, to visit Moratai. In late January they were wrecked on a reef in the Witu group, New Guinea. They had subsisted on floating coconuts, flying fish, rain and salt water. Their mean drift was 1,500 miles to ESE.
  • 149. Pulau Siau to Guam: Capt. Brett Hilder. 1960: September 26th, seven men left Pulau Siau in an outrigger canoe to visit the main island of Celebes. Four died before they were rescued by Japanese fishermen and landed at Guam, two months after setting out. Mean drift 1,300 miles, NE. by E.
  • 150. Marshalls to New Hebrides: Capt. Brett Hilder. 1950: five men and two boys set out in a 24-foot cutter to sail from Namu Atoll in the Marshalls on a visit to Ailinolap, a voyage of 30 miles usually taking about 8 hours: owing to storms missed Ailinolap, searched in vain for Bikini, in vain for Kusaie: captain died and they hoped to drift to Philippines: after 105 days without sighting land they reached Epi Island, in the centre of the New Hebrides, on Nov. 4. A study of the weather over the period suggests they drifted east of the Gilberts before running into light NE. winds. Possible track 7,600 miles at a speed of 1½ knots.
  • 151. Woodlark Island to Simbo (Solomons): Capt. Brett Hilder. 1959: group of canoes sailing home from Woodlark Island to the Laughlans were dispersed by strong tide rips. One canoe of seven people drifted in one, two, or three weeks to Simbo. A similar drift had occurred the previous year. Drift 200 miles to the ENE.
  • 152. Palau to Mortlocks: Capt. Brett Hilder. 1906: Mr. T. G. Aitchison of the New Guinea Administration visited the Mortlocks off the east coast of Bougainville in 1938: met woman aged about 40 who was sole survivor of a drift from Palau. She was a young girl at the time, and later married
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  • a man of the Mortlocks. The drift was 1,500 miles, SE., and is a good example of drift against the prevailing trade wind. It was probably caused by westerly winds and aided by the Equatorial counter-current running east.
  • —? to —?: Lang 1877:9. 1839: Capt. Duke fell in with large canoe: provisions spent: many hundreds of miles from island. Returned home.
  • —? to —?: Lang 1877:10. c. 1800: whaling captain discovered canoe with two bodies: many hundreds of miles from land.
DELIBERATE VOYAGES
  • 153. Aitutaki to Manuae: Gill 1880:125-6. Old woman at A. had belonged to tribe who had lived at Manuae: once a year she would visit island of her ancestors.
  • 154. Akiaki to Vairaatea: Emory 1939:61. See No. 62 Reao to Hao.
  • 155. Anaa to Angatau: (a) Lucatt (Lucett) 1851a:248. Anaan knew of Angatau from castaways: made many attempts to get there but unsuccessful. (b) Lucett 1851b:256. Successful canoe finally reach Angatau: met with hostility: some of crew killed.
  • 156. Anaa (?) to Gloucesters: Emory 1939:73: natives seen at Anuanurunga in 1803, though uninhabited: possibly from Anaa. (Accidental or deliberate?)
  • 157. Anaa to Raraka: Wilkes 1845a:327. Wilkes met at Raraka natives from Tahiti and Anaa: on shelling voyage in double canoe: “No difficulty in navigating, and are now learning the use of the compass, but I am informed they still prefer sailing by the stars and sun, and seldom make a material error.”
  • 158. Anaa to Takaroa: Director's Report Bishop Museum 1931:44. Takaroa was conquered by Anaa in 1810.
  • 159. Atafu to Nukunono to Fakaofo: Moss 1889:201. 1887: natives in canoes (six canoes in pairs) on “pleasure trip” from Atafu to Nukunono and Fakaofo: away three weeks.
  • 160. Atiu to Mitiaro and Mauke: Gill 1885:48; Lucatt (Lucett) 1851b: 121-2. Double canoes: use stars only: occasionally driven off course.
  • 161. Atiu to Rarotonga: Williams 1837:97-9. Direction stones at Atiu: followed by Williams and Rarotonga discovered.
  • 162. Borabora to Matahiva: Cook and King 1784a:177. Natives of Borabora visited Matahiva: caused massacre there: later Matahivans visited Borabora.
  • 163. Easter Island to Tahiti: La Fay and Abercrombie 1962:113-6 tell of three successful and five unsuccessful attempts to reach Tahiti since 1948. The case of Leonardo Pakarati is instructive. Fishing with three others and two sons on Christmas day 1948, he drifted out of sight of Easter Island: tried two weeks to get back. “We realised finally that we could never find the island. Our best chance was to steer for Tahiti to the northwest.” At evening steered just north to where the sun set, then aimed bow at Venus: by day steered by angle of waves as they hit boat: landed 37th day. Presumably this spate of sea-going is the one referred to by Heyerdahl 1958:47, but whether the two successful voyages mentioned by him (Nos. 16, 17) are identical with any of the three referred to above is impossible to determine.
  • 164. Ellice group in contact: Whitmee 1871:22. 1870: Whitmee found at Niutao that a hundred of the 360 islanders were away at the other islands, mainly at Vaitupu.
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  • 165. Fakaofo to Nukunono to Atafu: (a) MacGregor 1937:30. Atafu was uninhabited in 1765, 1791: Hale found natives from Fakaofo at Atafu in 1841. (b) MacGregor 1937:33. 1858: Chief of Fakaofo said that all who wanted to be Christians had to go with “Mafala” to Atafu: party got to Nukunono safely, but on way to Atafu blown by head winds to Samoa: returned same year by mission ship.
  • 166. Fakaofo to Savaii: MacGregor 1937:33. 1863: native of Samoa at Fakaofo so inspired the Fakaofoans with enthusiasm for Christianity that “many of them sailed for Samoa” to find a priest to baptize them: arrived at Savaii: piloted to Upolu: returned in European ship.
  • 167. Fakaofo to Swains: MacGregor 1937:31. 1841: Hudson found no inhabitants on Swains: not long afterwards three Frenchmen settled on Swains and found natives of Fakaofo on the island at time of arrival. (Accidental or deliberate?)
  • 168. Futuna to Rotuma: Mariner 1818a:307-322. See No. 125 Vavau to near Samoa to Futuna.
  • 169. Gilberts in contact: Wilkes 1845c:82. “Grandfather of Tekere, the present king of Kuria, is said to have voyaged to every island in the group on a pleasure trip to see the world, about a hundred years since”: but now estranged. (Traditional?)
  • 170. Gilberts to Samoa: Best 1923:28. Best says that Erskine in the cruise of the “Havannah” found natives who had made the voyage from Gilberts to Samoa. Doubtful incident: unable to establish the incident to which Best refers.
  • 171. Kuria to near Sikaiana: Woodford 1916:44. Thirty years previously: thirty natives of Kuria landed at Sikaiana: picked up by Capt. Davis at sea nearby: driven off Kuria by chief. (Accidental or deliberate?)
  • 172. Manihiki to Samoa: Vayda 1958:324. 1893: ten people in boats: forced to leave because of intercommunity conflict: household property all loaded on canoe. (Accidental or deliberate?)
  • 173. Manihiki to Swain's: (a) Moss 1889:200. (Best 1923:27.) Native of Manihiki, “Toka”, in early days went to Swain's and back with friends. (b) Moss 1889:200. “Toka” went to Swain's a second time: with relations: settled there.
  • 174. Manihiki to Tokelau and Fou (?): Gill 1856b:266. See No. 37 Manihiki to—?.
  • 175. Marquesas in contact: Porter 1822b:136.
  • 176. Mauke to Narurotu (Maria or Hull): Lucatt (Lucett) (Lucatt 1851b:122. Ancestors of islanders of Mauke used “occasionally” resort to Narurotu as it possesses a lagoon for fishing: “only traditionary as no native living on Mauke had seen it”.
  • 177. Mehetia to Tahiti: (a) London Missionary Society Transactions 1795:55. Chief of Mehetia visited Tahiti: invited missionaries to his island. (b) Morrison 1789b:454. A chief of Tahiti kept one of his canoes constantly plying between Tahiti and Mehetia: European goods in exchange for pearls, etc.
  • 178. Moorea to Matahiva: Corney 1918:134-5. 1774: Rodriguez saw Matahivans arrive at Moorea: blown there: given a large canoe by Mooreans to return: waiting for right wind.
  • 179. Niuafoou to Vavau: West 1865:221-3. See No. 181 Niuatoputapu to Niuafoou.
  • 180. Niuatoputapu to Haafulhao: West 1865:221. See No. 181 Niuatoputapu to Niuafoou.
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  • 181. Niuatoputapu to Niuafoou: West 1865:219. People of Niuatoputapu anxious to spread religion to Niuafoou: area between islands noted for storms and heavy seas: “many a canoe had perished while attempting to make for either island”: two canoes, 150 natives, headed by king of Niuatoputapu set out: winds adverse: driven hither and thither for six days: Niuafoou had been sighted for several days, but could not be reached: seas mountainous: one canoe upset: 70 drowned: others rescued in other canoe: finally reached Niuafoou.
  • 182. Niuatoputapu to Tonga: Cook and King 1784a:370. Cook was told that Tongans had received a piece of iron from Niuatoputapu: Cook saw it: had been exchanged for a club.
  • 183. Niuatoputapu to Uvea: (a) West 1865:220-1. King of Niuatoputapu desired to spread Christianity: organised expeditions: arrived safely but massacred. (b) West 1865:221. Another incident of the same sort. (c) West 1865:221. Vavauan canoe which had drifted to Uvea rescued Niuatoputapuan woman and returned her to N.
  • 184. Ontong Java to Sikaiana: Woodford 1916:32. Occasional communication over the 250 miles.
  • 185. Palmerston to Aitutaki: Gill 1885:37. See No. 2 Aitutaki to Palmerston.
  • 186. (?) Pukapuka to Nassau to Niue: Beaglehole 1938:351-2. Traditional account of voyage: giving detail of star sightings and seasons of sailing and proper winds.
  • 187. Pukapuka to Tutuila: (a) Beaglehole 1938:409. Post-missionary tradition: “Yipouli” caught stealing nuts: ashamed of being labelled thief: gathered few friends and refitted double canoe: set out: followed Antares: reached Tutuila and later went to Upolu. (b) Beaglehole 1938:409. Postmissionary tradition: in time of second Rarotongan missionary at Pukapuka (about sixty years ago): a son of “Ohatai” (the missionary) decided he wished to return to Samoa: ten men joined him: borrowed canoe: took course to Samoa: wrecked at Tutuila: nine taken by sharks: tenth stayed, too ashamed to return.
  • 188. Rennell to San Cristoval: Woodford 1916:47. “Some years ago”: canoe from San Cristoval driven by bad weather: well treated: returned to San Cristoval from Rennell when weather better.
  • 189. Rotuma to Fiji: (a) Mariner 1818a:294-5. See No. 125 Vavau to near Samoa to Futuna. (b) Wilkes 1845c:34. Wilkes noted that canoes of Fiji made voyages to Tonga, Samoa and Rotuma.
  • 190. Rotuma to Vaitupu: (a) Dillon 1829a:294-5. See No. 68 Rotuma to Samoa (a). (b) Dillon 1829b:103. Rotumans described island of “Vythuboo”: “frequent” voyages there for white shells. (c) Dillon 1829b: 103. “Vythuboo” and “Newy” islanders were at Rotuma when Dillon was there: “expect to sail homeward in a few weeks”. (d) Lesson 1884:68. See No. 66 Rotuma to Bukatanoa.
  • 191. Rurutu to Tubuai: Williams 1837:39-40. See No. 112. Tubuai to Maurua.
  • 192. Samoan group in contact: Turner 1861:270. Samoans according to Turner rarely ventured outside sight of land, but the group is extensive and gives scope to travel: “within these bounds they have kept up intercourse”. La Perouse 1789c:106 indicates that the Samoans knew of ten islands in the group. Erskine 1853:414-5 gives instances of travel.
  • 193. (?) Samoa to Swains to Pukapuka: Beaglehole 1938:351. Traditional account of Pukapukans of their return voyages from Samoa: navigational detail.
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  • 194. Society group in contact: Obvious from many accounts: e.g. Parkinson 1773:64; Morrison 1789b:45-7.
  • 195. Tahiti to Makatea: Corney 1913:354. Spaniards found that Tahitians were in contact with islands to east, eight to ten days sail away, and named Makatea from which three nails had been brought and news of a large boat.
  • 196. Tahiti to Mopelia and Fenuaura: Robertson 1948:244 saw smoke at Mopelia, which was described with Fenuaura to Forster 1777a:395 as uninhabited. The Spaniards (Corney 1915:193) were told the same and that they were visited for the birds that lived there. They lay two days sail from Maurua. Cook 1777b:2 said Tahitians used Mopelia for turtles.
  • 197. Tahiti to Tuamotu and return: These voyages were too frequent to merit many references. Among the early instances may be noted: London Missionary Society Transactions 1795:175; Morrison 1789b:454; Ellis 1829a:55; Corney 1913:354, 1915:187-9; Beaglehole 1955:55.
  • 198. Takoto to Tureia to Vanavana: Emory 1939:61. See No. 62 Reao to Hao.
  • 199. Takume to Anaa: Lucatt (Lucett) 1851a:256. Lucett says that Takumeans had frequent intercourse with Anaa: there were two double canoes from Anaa at Takume when he visited Takume.
  • 200. Tikopia to Fataka (Mitre Is.): Dillon 1829b:111. “Fatacca” uninhabited: annual visit from Tikopia: when westerlies prevailed: for feathers and fowl.
  • 201. Tikopia to “Manicolo” (Vanikoro): Markham 1904b:494. “Pedro” told Quiros at Taumako that Tikopia was five days sail from “Manicolo”: sun was kept on left as it rises.
  • 202. Tokelau to Uvea: MacGregor 1937:32. 1861: Mgr. Bataillon and Fr. Poupinel took back to Tokelau a party of sixteen men and women who had gone to Uvea in 1852.
  • 203. Tonga to Fiji: Anderson 1776b:89; Labillardière 1800:173; Mariner 1818a:307-322; Wilkes 1845c:34; West 1865:373 among many gave instances of voyages between Fiji and Tonga.
  • 204. Tonga to Futuna: Vason 1810:205. Vason saw at Futuna a native he had known at Tonga who had fled to Futuna.
  • 205. Tonga to Samoa: Cook and King 1784a:373; Martin 1818a:307-322; Dillon 1829a:294-5; Turner 1861:392; Pritchard 1866:405 among many give instances of communication between Tonga and Samoa.
  • 206. Tonga to Tikopia: Dillon 1829b:112. Traditional: “it appears from the accounts of the Tucopians and Anutoans that in the days of their ancestors these islands were invaded by five large canoes from Tongataboo . . .”
  • 207. Tonga to Vaitupu: Pritchard 1866:403. Traditional? The Vaitupuans “tell of various parties of Tongans who have from time to time invaded their islands”.
  • 208. Tongareva to Manihiki: Moss 1889:199-200. (Best 1923:27.) 1883: six natives of Tongareva set out for Manihiki: trip done by others in two days, but missed: eight days at sea before getting to Manihiki.
  • 209. Tuvana-i-colo to Ono to Fiji: Pritchard 1866:405. (Best 1923:27.) See No. 99 Tonga to Tuvana-i-colo.
  • 210. Vahitahi to Nukutavake: Emory 1939:62. 1868: two canoes on trip from Vahitahi to Nukutavake: missed island: separated: one driven to Vanavana, the other to Paraoa.
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  • 211. Vaitupu to Sikaiana: Markham 1904b:494. (Woodford 1916:39.) Native “Olan” told Quiros of “ship with two hulls” which arrived at Sikaiana: 110 people aboard. Accidental or deliberate?
  • 212. Vanavana to Ahuinui: Beechey 1831a:170-1. See No. 9 Anaa to Vanavana.
  • 213. Vanikoro to Tikopia: Firth 1936:34. Frequent visits: not clear whether Firth is giving purely traditional evidence.
  • 214. Vavau to Niuatoputapu: West 1865:221-3. See No. 181 Niuatoputapu to Niuafoou.
  • 215. Uvea to Futuna: Burrows 1937:49. 1932: three young Uveans set out in canoe for Futuna: reached destination after several weeks at sea.
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NOTE
Bibliography is included with Part I
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MAP 2
Illustration

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MAP 3
ACCIDENTAL AND DELIBERATE VOYAGES IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC