Volume 1 1892 > Volume 1, No. 1, 1892 > Genealogies and historical notes from Rarotonga - Part I, Translated by Henry Nicholas, p20-29
GENEALOGIES AND HISTORICAL NOTES FROM RAROTONGA.
PART I.—TRANSLATED BY HENRY NICHOLAS, Esq., OF RAROTONGA.
THE first of the papers contributed by Mr. Nicholas (through the kindness of Mr. F. G. Moss, British Resident, Rarotonga) is the genealogy of one of the Chieftainesses of Rarotonga—Pa, of the Takitumu or Ngatitangiia tribe, who take their name from Tangiia, the leader of the migration (from Tahiti?), and who settled down in Rarotonga, together with Makea-Karika and his people, (from Samoa?) some twenty-five generations ago. This paper was originally written by one of the natives of Rarotonga in the year 1857, and is a valuable contribution to Polynesian history. It apparently supports by direct traditional testimony the theory propounded by Hale, and subsequently advocated by Fornander, of the occupation of the Fiji Group by the Polynesian race, and of their later migration eastward to Samoa and the Society Group.
The Avaiki alluded to in the genealogy is doubtless that particular one traditionally known to various branches of the Polynesian race under the names of Hawaii, Hawaiki, Avaiki, Havaii, &c., and the position of which must be looked for in the Indian Archipelago. It follows from the internal evidence of this history that Pa's ancestors formed a separate migration from that which peopled Samoa, which is also probable from many other things. The tradition states that in Iro's time (read Hiro, of Tahiti; Whiro, of New Zealand; Hilo, of Hawaii) the migration reached Upolu (of Samoa?) and that his mother was a native of that place—apparently one of the Ngana family, known both to New Zealand and Hawaiian traditions, from which, indeed, both peoples trace descent. The four names preceding Iro in the genealogy are equally known to the Maoris and the Tahitians, both peoples tracing descent from them. Iro, in this narrative, has the - 21 same character of a great navigator as is ascribed to him by New Zealand and Tahitian traditions. His final home appears to have been the Society Islands, probably Raiatea.
The subsequent history of the peopling of Rarotonga is interesting in many particulars, and is generally verified by the second paper, which will appear in the next number of the Journal, in which will be related the genealogical history of the Makea-Karika family of Rarotonga, from a date long antecedent to that given in the very interesting account published by the Rev. W. Wyatt Gill, LL.D., in Vol. II. of the “Transactions of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science.”
The genealogy herein given, from Tai-te-ariki down to Upoko-takau, or Pa, shows forty-four generations; whilst that of the Makea family, from the same period, counts only twenty-five; that of the Tamarua family also twenty-five; and that of the Tinomana family, twenty.1 There is something unexplained here. It is considered, however, better to publish the table just as written down by the native author, leaving it to our members in Rarotonga to clear up the discrepancy. It is exceedingly important that this should be done whilst the old people who possess the knowledge are alive, or it will be lost for ever. It is upon these genealogies that all dates in Polynesian history must rest, and hence the interest attaching to them. Information is gradually accumulating which will allow of a comparison and correlation of the genealogies preserved by the New Zealanders, Rarotongans, Tahitians, Hawaiians, Samoans, and Tongans, in nearly all of which the names of common ancestors are preserved. When this has been done, the relative dates of events in the history of Polynesia will be placed on a firm footing. The Council earnestly commends to our members the collection of as many of these genealogies as can be obtained, before it is too late.
The Council has decided to publish the paper in the original Rarotonga dialect, as a fair specimen of that branch of the Polynesian language, written by one of the people themselves, and therefore thoroughly illustrative of its idiom and vocabulary, at a time prior to the introduction of words from other sources. Mr. Nicholas' translation appears to follow the original closely, and hence its abruptness of style. Maori scholars will readily understand the language by remembering that the Rarotongans do not make use of the “h” or the “wh,” and that they substitute “v” for “w.”
E TUATUA TEIA NO TE TUPUANGA MAI O PA. ARIKI O TAKITUMU.
NO ROTO AIA I TE UANGA ARIKI A ATEA MA PAPA MEI AVAIKI.
Ko Te Uira ma Te Aā, nga Ariki mei roto ia Atea ma Papa. Ko Te Aā, ko Pa ia. Tara te au ingoa o te au tupuna mei po mai; ko Mua, ko Eanga, ko Unga, ko Engi, ko Niua, ko Tamore, ko Ruroa, ko Rupoto, ko Rumaeaea, ko Rutapatapaiaa, ko Ueuenuku, ko Ueuerangi, ko Tuei, ko Maruiterangi, ko Noa, ko Tapu, ko Angaiakiterangi, ko Tangaroa-maiturangi, ko Tangaroa-tiputape, ko Tepouoterangi, ko Maro, ko Te tupua, ko Aranui, ko Runa, ko Ru, ko Aio, ko Peketeio, ko Peketoake, ko Peketeatama, ko Iateatama, ko Iatepo, ko Iateao, ko Iamaina, ko Iateata, ko Iatupuranga, ko Iamakaro, ko Iatangata, ko Tangatanui, ko Tangatarai, ko Tangakatoa, ko Itekatoarangi, ko Iateatu, ko Tiki, ko Taitorangingunguru, ko Taitorangingangana, ko Torokimatangi, ko Teirapanga, ko Tutarangi. Kua tae mai ki Iti i reira (ko Fiti te ingoa i teia tuatau). Ko Tutarangi te Ariki i tupu ei te tamaki i te reira pa-enua.
Ta atura ia Itinui, ia Itirai, ia Ititakaikere, ia Itianaunau, ia Tonga, ia Nuku, ia Angaura, ia Kurupongi, ia Aramatietie, ia Matatera, ia Uea, ia Vairota, ia Katuapai, ia Vavau, ia Enuakura, ia Eremanga, e te au enua katoa i reira. Ta atura ia Manuka, kua pou taipae: kia tae ra ki tetai pae, kua mate ki reira te tumu toa o Tutarangi, ko Kurueke te ingoa i tona tumu toa.
Anau akera ta Tutarangi, ko Tangaroa-marouka, ko Tutakapuauta, ko Tutaka-puatai, ko Tearunga, ko Teararo, ko Teatoruaitu, ko Teatoruakena, ko Aitu, ko Aokeu, ko Aorai, ko Aoterupe, ko Aokivananga, ko Aokiaitu, ko Rakitu, ko Rakiroa, ko Tearikitapukura, ko Moeitiiti, ko Moerekareka, ko Moemetua, ko Moeterauri; anau tana ko Iro. Kua tae i reira ki Kupolu. E tamaine na Ngana-itetupua te metua vaiue o Ira: no Kupolu. E ariki tere moana a Iro; tae maira aia ki te pa-enua i runga, e tae mai oki ki Rarotonga nei, oki atura ki Tahiti, e noo iora i reira. Anau akera ta Iro, ko Taiteariki. E roa akera tona nooanga i reira kua inangaro aia i te oki ki te pa-enua i raro. Kua aravei akera raua ma Tangiia i taua rā ra. Kua oki atu a Tangiia mei Mauke, i nga tamaine a Auriki, ia Moetuma, e Puatara. Aravei akera a Iro ma Tangiia, e kua ui atura a Tangiia kia Iro; “te peea nei koe?” Karanga atura a Iro. “Te oki nei au ki Raro.” Kua pati atura a Tangiia kia Iro i te tama ia Taiteariki ei ariki nona, ei upoko i runga i nga paianga tangata, te - 23 Neke, te Kairirā, te Manaune, to Kavakevake. Ko nga paianga tangata ia o Tangiia. Kua mate nga tamariki a Tangiia i reira i te ta a Tutapu. Ko aua nga tamariki oki te Ariki i Tahiti, ko Pouteanuanua, e Pourakarakaia o raua ingoa. Kua akatika atura a Iro i te pati a Tangiia, tuku atura i te tamaiti kia. Tangiia ma aua nga apinga, te pu, ma te pau, ma ona nga atua ko Tangaroa, e Tutavake, ma Taakura. Kia riro taua tamaiti ra kia Tangiia, topa atura tona ingoa ko Tearikiupokotini, aere atura a Iro i tona tere. I tau a tuatau ra, te tupu ra, ki te maataanga, te pekapeka o Tangiia ma. Tutapu, e peke atura a Tangiia ki te moana, ia Tutapu. Aere mai nei a Tangiia na te pa-enua ma tona au tangata e rua rau te katoatoa anga. Aravei ake ra aia ia Karika, ki Maketu; kua rave atura aia i te tamaine a Karika ei vaine nana, ko Mokoroaiaitu te ingoa.
Akatere mai nei o raua vaka ki raro nei, taka ke atura tetai e tetai, topa rava atura a Tangiia ki te pae i apatonga, tei raro aia i te tonga i te kiteanga mai i te enua. Oki maira ki runga nei i te enua, e kake maira ki uta nei i te ava i Vaikokopu, tutau maira ki Te Miromiro. Kake mai ra ki te one, aū iora i te marae ia Te Miromiro, tuku atura i nga atua ki reira, ko Marumamao, e Uenga. E kua pera a Tangiia i te au aerenga i te au Marae. E kua aū atu ra i te koutu. Ariki o Pa, ia Paetaa, Aere atura i te au aerenga i te au Marae, e tae uta ki Tupapa. Kua aravei akera ia Karika ki reira, ko tona taenga mai mei te tere, kapiti atura raua, aere atura ki Avarua, e nonoo iora raua ki Tuituikamoana. E roa akera to raua nooanga i reira, aere atura a Tangiia ki uta i Tauae, noo atu ra i Pitekura, e tangi ta tetai pau, e tangi ta tetai.
I to raua nooanga i reira, kua tae mai a Tutapu ki Rarotonga nei, i te kimi aere ia Tangiia; tupu atura te tamaki ko Tangiia ma Karika tetai pae, ko Tutapu i tona pae. Pou atura to Tutapu pae, oro mai nei a Tutapu ki Ngatangiia nei, aru mai ra a Tangiia ia Tutapu ki Ngatangiia nei, aru mai ra a Tangiia ia Tutapu mate mainei ki te maunga i Avana, i te Vaikura. Noo ua iora a Tangiia ma Karika, e to raua pae tangata, kia tae ake ki tetai ra, kua aere atu ratou e akapini i te enua, i na mua i te aerenga, e na muri mai nei e tae ki Tupapa, noo iora i reira, angaiora i te are, ko Atea te ingoa. E kia oti taua are o Tangiia ra, karanga atura a Tangiia kia Karika; “ka akataka taua i nga Ariki, e nga taunga, e te au mataiapo, ma te au komono. Kua uipa mai ra te ngati-Karika ma te ngati-Tangiia. Kua karanga atu ra a Tangiia kia Karika; “Na uta koe ma toou pae tangata.” Kua na uta atura a ia ma tona pae tangata; karanga atura kia ngati-Tangiia; “Na tai kotou.” Kua na tai atura a ngati-Tangiia. Tuku atura i taua tamaiti rave aua ra ei Ariki ki runga ia ngati-Tangiia, taka atu ra nga Ariki, ko Tearikiupokotini tei runga ia ngati-Tangiia, ko Karika rai tei runga is Teauotonga. Kua akataka atura i te kau Taunga; tuku atura i to Karika ko Te kaia, tuku atu ra i to te - 24 tama ko Potikitaua, ko Tengara, ko More, ko Moate, ko Teramaite-tonga. E oti akera, kua akatau atura a Tangiia; “E kare i tau,” e rima rava tona, okotai ei to Karika. Kua tuku atu ra ia Potikitaua ki uta i to Karika pae, toe atu ra ki tai toko a. Kua iki atura i te au Mataiapo tutara oko ā. Kua iki i te au Komono oko ā. Ko te unu unu kakao ia i Araitetonga. Kua ako atura a Tangiia ia ratou, na ko atura ko ta nga Mataiapo tuatua, tei nga Ariki ia. Ko ta te au Komono tuatua tei nga Mataiapo ia. E oti akera te iki anga, Kua karanga atu ra a Tangiia; “Apopo ka tua to tatou enua.” E ao akera, aere atu ra ratou i te tua aereanga i te enua e piniuake. Noo atu ra te tangata, ki tona kainga, ki tona kainga, kua tangata enua i reira.
Auau akera ta Te Taiteariki, ko Taputapuatea; anau akera tana, ko Tearikiupokotini; anau tana, ko Tearikioterangi; anau tana ko Tuiterangi; anau tana Ko Rongo; anau tana ko Tearikiupokotini; anau tana ko Tearikinoorangi; anau tana ko Rongoiteuira; anau tana ko Teakariki; anau tana ko Rangi; anau tana ko Tetumu; anau tana ko Teaio; anau tana ko Taparangi; anau tana ko Pare; anau tana ko Maurirangi; anau tana ko Tearikivanangarangi; anau tana ko Tearikimoutaua; auau tana ko Maiotaranganuku; anau tana ko Teautanganuku; anau tana ko Takave; anau tana ko Tuikuporu; anau tana ko Tearikieraka; anau tana ko Ngaupokoakaturanga; anau tana ko Tutuaenga; anau tana ko Tevei; anau tana ko Arakivarevare; anau tana ko Tingia; anau tana ko Rangi; anau tana ko Tearikiupokotini; anau tana ko Vaerua; anau tana ko Tautu; anau tana ko Iria; anau tana ko Aitupao; anau tana ko Moeterauri; anau tana ko Ako; anau tana ko Teakariki; anau tana ko Tearikiupokotini; anau tana ko Tamaru; anau tana ko Mata; anau tana ko Teruaroa; anau tana ko Taputapuatea; anau tana ko Patepou; Koia te ariki i te tuatau i tae mai ei te tuatua na te Atua ki Rarotanga nei, e kua anau oki tana, ko Teaarikiupokotini; anau tana ko Taputapuatea, kare ra i tae te taoanga Ariki kia raua, no te mea kua mate vave raua, te ora rai a Pa Tepou. I muri mai i reira kua mate a Pa Tepou, 1855. Okotai ua aua tamaite toe, e tamaine, ko Opokotakau tona ingoa, riro atura iaia te taoanga Ariki i tana mataiti rai, koia te Ariki vaine i teia kopu Ariki.
Ko te tuatua ia o Pa ariki o
Takitumu i tataia i te tuatau
O Pitimani orometua papaa
O Ngati-Tangiia nei mataiti 1851
Kiritia i te mataiti 1891.
July 7th, 1891.- 25
GENEALOGY OF PA, CHIEFTAINESS OF TAKITUMU.
She is descended from the chiefs Atea and Papa; from Avaiki. Te-Uira and Te-Aā, were both chiefs descended from Atea and Papa. From Te-Aā is descended Pa. The following are the ancestors from the remote past (po) to the present time:—
At this period they arrived at Iti—Fiji is the name at the present time.
Tu-tarangi was the chief who originated the war against that country. He conquered Iti-nui, Iti-rai, Iti-takai-kere, Iti-anaunau, Tonga, Nuku, Anga-ura, Kurupongi, Ara-matietie, Matatera, Uea, Vairota, Katua-pai, Vavau, Enua-kura, Ere-Manga, and all the lands about there23, and possibly Eremanga may be Eromanga of the New Hebrides. Manuka is Manuá, of Samoa.. He also took Manuka; he took one part of the island, but when he came to the other part he lost his leading warrior. Kurueke was the name of that chief.
At this period they arrived at Kupolu (Upolu.) A daughter of Ngana-i-te-tupua5 was the mother of Iro; she was from Kupolu. Iro was a great navigator6. He came to the countries to the north, and also to Rarotonga, whence he returned to Tahiti, and remained there. Iro begot Tai-te-ariki. After remaining some time there (Tahiti) he desired to return to the countries of the South (Rarotonga.) At that time he met with Tangiia at Mauke7, with the daughters of Auriki-moe-tuma and Pua-tara. When Iro met Tangiia the latter asked, - 26 “Where are you going?” Iro replied, “I am going to the South.” (Rarotonga.) Then Tangiia prayed of Iro to give him his son, Tai-te-ariki as a chief for him, and a head for the whole of his people (clans or families) Te-Neke, Te-Kairira, Te-Mana-une, Te-Ka-veka-veka, which were the clans of Tangiia. The children of Tangiia had been killed at that time by Tu-tapu. Those children were the Chiefs of Tahiti. Pou-te-anua-nua and Pou-rakarakaia were their names. Iro granted the request of Tangiia, and gave him his son, and also his possessions, viz., flutes, drums, and his gods, named Tangaroa, Tutavake, and Taa-kura. When the child had been received by Tangiia he named him Te-ariki-upoko-tini, and then Iro proceeded on his voyage.
At that time commenced the troubles and quarrels between Tangiia and Tu-tapu, owing to which Tangiia had to take to the sea.8 Tangiia came to this land (Rarotonga) with his people, four hundred in number, and on his way fell in with Karika at Maketu in Mauke Island, where he took Karika's daughter to wife, whose name was Mokoroa-i-aitu.
They then sailed away with their canoes to the south. At sea they parted company, Tangiia drifting to the south, and sighted land to the north, then returned and landed at the harbour at Vaikokopu, at Te-miro-miro in the island of Rarotonga. When he had landed, he made his marae at Te-Miromiro, and there deposited his gods, viz.: Maru-ma-mao and Uenga. Tangiia also placed gods at the other maraes. He also built a refuge for Pa at Paetaa. He then proceeded along, building maraes, as far as Tupapa. At the latter place he met Karika, who had just arrived from a voyage; they then went together to Avarua, and stayed at Tui-tui-ka-moana. After staying there some time, Tangiia went inland to Tauae9 (and Karika), stayed at Pitekura, and the drums of each were heard by the other.
During their stay at those places, Tu-tapu arrived at Rarotonga in search of Tangiia. Then commenced a war with Tangiia and Karika on one side, and Tu-tapu on the other. All Tu-tapu's side were slain, whilst he himself fled to Ngatangiia, whither he was followed by Tangiia, who caught and slew him on the hill at Avana at a place called Vai-kura.10 Tangiia and Karika dwelt quietly together with their people for some time, and then they all made a circuit of the island, going by the west and returning by the east to Tupapa, and stayed there and built a house (for Tangiia) and called it Atea. After the completion of Tangiia's house, he said to Karika, “Let us select from the people, some to be Ariki (chiefs), some to be Taungas (priests), some to be Mataiapos and Komonos (minor chiefs).”
Then the Ngati-Karika and the Ngati-Tangiia gathered together for the selection, and Tangiia said to Karika, “You go with your people by the inland road,” which they did; and then he said to - 27 Ngati-Tangiia, “Let us go by the sea shore,” and Ngati-Tangiia proceeded by the sea shore. Then Tangiia set up his adopted son, Te-ariki-upoko-tini, as ariki or chief over all Ngati-Tangiia, and Karika was ariki over Te-au-o-tonga. They then selected as priests, Takaia for Karika, and for the adopted son Potiki-taua, Te-Ngara, More, Moate, and Te-ra-mai-te-tonga. When this had been finished, Tangiia said, “It is not right,” as he had five priests, whilst Karika had only one. He therefore sent Potiki-taua to the inland or Karika's side, leaving to his own or seaward side four.
They then set up the Mataiapos, 80 in number, and subsequently the Komonos, also 80 in number.11 Then Tangiia explained to them their relative positions, the Mataiapos to rank beneath the Arikis, and the Komonos below the Mataiapos. When these arrangements had been completed, Tangiia announced that: “To-morrow we will divide our lands.” When morning came they proceeded to the division, completing the circuit of the island. Then each man settled down on his own land, and became “tangata enua,” or natives of the land.
This is the genealogy of Pa, ariki of Takitumu, written in the time of the Rev. C. Pitman, of Ngati-Tangiia, in the year 1857.
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[Page of endnotes]
1 See Report “Australasian Association for Advancement of Science, 1890,” p. 633.
2 The names of the various islands conquered by Tutarangi cannot all now be traced; many of them are the ancient names preserved only in the tradition of the emigrants, whilst they are lost to the people of the islands themselves. Probably those with the word Iti in them are some of the Fiji islands, whilst Tonga is Tongatapu; Matatera was well known to the New Zealand Maori by tradition. Uea is Wallis Island; Vairota is also known traditionally to the New Zealand Maori under the variation Waerota; Vavau is no doubt the island of that name in the Tonga group
3 The ancient name of Bolabola (Porapora) is Vavao.—Ed.
4 From Tutarangi to his descendant Iro, there are twenty generations—or about 400 years. It is presumable that this period was that in which the people made their sojourn in Fiji and Samoa, of which so many signs have been left in the former group in the customs, language, and place-names of the people. At about this time also split off from this migration those which settled in Tahiti and other parts, for the Raiatea genealogies contain the names of Moeitiiti, Moerekareka (Moere'are'a), Moeterauri, and Hiro, as also do the genealogies of the Maori of New Zealand.
5 Under the name of Nana, in Hawaii, or Ngana, or Ngangana, in New Zealand, we find this family very commonly referred to, together with a son, or brother, Uru, or Ulu, from both of whom the Hawaiians trace descent, as do the New Zealanders. According to both accounts, there were several of the same name, each with some distinguishing sobriquet.
6 Iro, Hiro, or Whiro, is well known to New Zealand and Tahitian traditions as a great navigator, and many stories have come down to the present time of his doings and voyages, notably his celebrated voyage with Tura to Wawau, and in which will be found the account of the latter's meeting with the strange people called Te Aitanga-a-nuku-mai-tore, who lived in the trees, and who (the Maori story says) did not possess fire. There seems to be some allusion here to the people of New Guinea and New Britain, who live in trees.
7 Mauke is the little island of the Hervey group, near Rarotonga. This meeting with Tangiia has somewhat the same features as that which took place between him and Makea Karika, mentioned in the second paper by Mr Nicholas. The traditions vary as obtained from different sources, and this is only to be expected.
8 The “troubles” here referred to have been related by the Rev. John Williams in his “Missionary Enterprises,” page 165. From this account it appears that Tu-tapu was a brother of Tangiia's, both of whom lived at Faaa in Tahiti, and, owing to a quarrel about some bread-fruit, Tangiia had to leave with all his followers. He first went to Hauhine, then to Bolabola, then to Maupiti, from each of which islands he was chased by Tu-tapu (who, on this account, received the name of Tu-tapu-aru-roa, or the “relentless pursuer”). Finally putting to sea in search of a land on which to settle, he met with Makea Karika, who told him of Rarotonga, whither he directed his course, and finally settled down there, as related in this paper.
9 Mr. Nicholas adds that the stone pavements of Tangiia's house are still to be seen at Tauae.
10 Both Mr. Williams and Mr. Nicholas state that Tu-tapu's body had to be carried round the island, and freshly baked at each resting-place, before it finally became sufficiently soft to eat.
11 The Mataiapo and Komono are minor chiefs ranking beneath the Arikis, and holding their lands independently.