Volume 3 1894 > Volume 3, No.1, March 1894 > Genealogy of Te Mamaru Family of Moeraki, Northern Otago, NZ, by S. Percy Smith, p 9-15
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GENEALOGY OF TE MAMARU FAMILY OF MOERAKI, NORTHERN OTAGO, N.Z.
THE following table and notes have been compiled from information supplied by our corresponding member, Teone Rena Rawiri Te Mamaru, of Moeraki, who states that they have been abstracted from numerous other tables preserved in writing by his father, Te Mamaru. They have a considerable historical interest as tending to show the length of time the South Island tribes of Waitaha, Te Rapuwai, and Ngati-mamoe have been in this country. Those tribes—as tribes—are extinct, though the people shown in the table are descended from, and claim to represent them—as for instance, from Hotu-mamoe, from whom the tribal name Ngati-mamoe is derived. It will be observed that a claim is made that Raikaihaitu and his companions were the first people to colonise these islands, having arrived here in the canoe Uruao—presumably from Hawaiki. There is still a tribe called by his name—the Ngati-Rakai—living at Waitaki and other places in the South Island, and they must certainly be classed as some of the aborigines in contra-distinction to the Maoris, who only arrived some twenty-one or twenty-two generations ago. If the tables are correct we must cease to class Ngati-mamoe as a purely aboriginal tribe, for it is shown that Hotu-mamoe was a son of Uenuku, who, as is well known, lived in Hawaiki, but whose sons migrated to this country, amongst them being the celebrated Paikea, or Kahutia-te-rangi. Through Hotu-mamoe's mother the connection comes in with the original people, descendants of Toi. This latter name—Toi—is well known to the northern Maoris, and also to the Morioris of the Chatham Islands, and the six succeeding generations are generally identical though some genealogies introduce others and leave out some of these here given.
Awa-nui-a-raki, or Awa-nui-a-rangi, is not probably the man of that name who gave his name to the Ngati-awa tribes of the Bay of Plenty and Taranaki, but he possibly may be identical with one of that name who lived in Hawaiki, and whose other name was Kaitangata. According to other tables we possess, Kaitangata lived about thirty-one generations ago, whereas the Awa-nui-a-raki, herein shown, flourished thirty-four generations ago, a difference not too great to destroy the identity.
So far as their utility is concerned, the number of genealogical tables which are published by the Society must be looked on as serving - 10 the purpose of fixing approximate dates of events in the history of the Pacific. It is by their aid we shall presently be able to write a some-what comprehensive history of the Polynesian race, hence the great utility of having them printed for the sake of students. The question of authenticity here enters as a factor in considering these tables. Few people who have heard them recited doubt their general accuracy, but no doubt some times the names of two or more brothers slip in where one only should be shown in order to continue the proper sequence. In the table under consideration, I think this has probably occured, and, moreover, the repetition of the same names on different lines, though not in the same order, is perhaps a sign of some confusion. At the same time, it should be remarked that it is not by any means an uncommon thing for one person to be named after another, more particularly is this the case in the earlier generations.
The information supplied by T. R. R. Te Mamaru contains several other tables connected with these shown, but none go very far back—they will be useful to the future historian, who shall search through the archives of the Polynesian Society when compiling a general history of New Zealand.
Te Mamaru commences his communication with the following ancient chant, which is of interest:—
Note.—The italic k throughout this article is the Ngaitahu equivalent of the northern ng, as will be seen in the translations where the accepted mode of Maori spelling is adopted.- 11 - 12
Family Tree. a Rakaihaitu, Te Rakihouia, Wearaki Te Aweawe, 5 Te Whatu-ariki, Te Whatu-karo-karo, Te Whatu-korongata, Te Whatu-ariki-kuao, Tane-auroa, 10 Titi-tea, Te Waitakaia, Autaia, Takiporutu, b Toi, Rauru, Hatoka, Riteka, Motoro, Tahatiti, Ruatapu, Rakau-manini, Rakau-hape, Parea Rakau-manana Rakau-manana, Rakau-whaka-matuku, c Puhi-a-rauru, Puhirere, Puhikanawanawa, Puhi-kai-ariki, Rakaumanini, Rakaumauawa, Rakauhape Rakauwhakamatuku, Parea, Riua, Waitahanui, Waitaharaki, d Awa-nui-a-raki, Puhirere, Puhimanatu, Puhi-manawanawa, Puhi-kai-ariki, Kahea, Upoko-tipukina-e-te-paretao, Kiorewhakapoka, Matuku-wharekota, i Wii Waa, Tutumaiao, Haehaeone, Te Hautumua, 15 Turaki-potiki, Waitaharaki, Hawea-i-te-raki = ? =, Hewea-i-te-raki, Tapu e, Aupawha, Huripopoiarua, Pekerakitahi, Waikorire, 20 Ruatea, Parakarahu, Waereika, Whatu-ariki, Whatu-korongota, Rakiroa, Whatuteki, Watere = ? =, g Uenuku-horea, Tukaumoana, Rauaruhe-taratara, Pohatuparemoremo, Hinakitanga, Kurupatu-kai-kakahu, Kakakaiamio, Kakikoe, Matakiore, Tumanahune, Tukoro-tuhako, Tapu-te-kaehe, Te Moeanu, Hineroriki, Rongo-te-whatu, f Hotumamoe = Katihaua, Hinerote, Te Rahere, Tuawhitu, 25 Upoko-hapa, Te Kura-whai-ana, Auaitakeke, Matairaki, Houmea, Tahukutira = ? =, Tumai-o-nuku, Tumai-o-raki, Tumakoha, Te Utuporaki, j Tahupotiki, Oira, Taupo-nui, Taupo-roa, Taupo-pihako, Te Harua-nui-a-Taupo, Te Kuharu, Te Taieri, Te Roroa, Te Tuaki, Pokeka-wera, Turi-huka, Paetara, h Hikaororoa = Urupa, k Tumaikuku = Uemate, Rongokote = Tahupitopito, Ranga-te-urumanu, Tahumuri, = Rakaiwhakakura, Matapane, Mahitikoura, Tanereia, Te Whetiko, Te Orooro, Te Karehu, 30 Taaku, Manawatakitu = Rakaiwhakaata, = Maramahuakea, Te Akiwai, Te Wai-matau, Upokoruru i Whatukai f Tuhaitara = Marakore, Tamarareroa, Te Aohikuraki = Rakai-te-kura, Kuri-a-tane-moe-kau, Tauamotu, Tumatanuku, Tumarahi, Toko-o-te-rahi, Whata, Maramarua, Tuahuriri = Hinetawai, Tahututua, Raukawa, Kete, 35 Punahikoia, Hamua = Te Aotaumarewa, Te Rakiwhakaputa Haumia = Hinehou, Ruatuwhenua, Hikitia-te-rangi, Hutika = Tamakotore, Hinekakai, Tamakaitahi = Rahapehupehu, Puake, Taka-o-te-rangi, Reitai = Pokeka, Makuru-te-huanono = Te Raki, Pitorua, Hakina = Te Uawhakataka, Waipunahau = Tupai, Hauraraka = Te Hinutere, 40 Ketewahi Whakatikipaua = Kukure, Te Iri = Tomuri, Makaha = Pukio, Mata-Makaha, Te Korehe = Te Waewae Te Mamura, = Te Waewae Toropiro = Pukatahi, Taipana = Te Wiwini, Hinerakura = Te Raho Ruahuanui = Te Hori, Te-Hana = Te Mateharu, Te Rimurapa = Kawa, Tara Wetere Te Kahu, Koroteke = T. Parata, M.H.R.
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He Whakapapa Tupuna no Takaroa.
Ka moe a Takaroa i a Papa-tu-a-nuku, ka puta ki waho ko,
Riwa, ka moe i a Pupu-mai-ki-waho, tana ko,
Wawau-nui-a-raki, ka moe i a Wawau-nui-a-tahi, tana ko,
Taka-mai-nui-a-raki, nana a,
Ko te Pakeha. Ekari i kiia e te Maori, te Pakeha he “Takata Pora.” I moe a Takaroa i a Papa-tu-a-nuku, tana ko Riwa. Ka haere a Takaroa ki ona tipuna ki te mau i te popoki o tana tamaiti ki ona tipuna. Hoki rawa mai, kua moea e Raki-e-tu-nei te wahine a Takaroa. Ka whawhai raua mo to raua wahine, mo Papa, wahi iti kua mate a Raki i a Takaroa. Kua whanau mai a Tane raua ko Paia.
An Ancestral Genealogy From Tangaroa.
Tangaroa married Papa-tu-a-nuku, and brought forth
Riwa, who married Pupu-mai-ki-waho, who had
Wawau-nui-a-rangi, who married Wawau-nui-a-tahi, who had
Taka-mai-nui-a-rangi, whoss child was
Hence the Pakeha, or white race. But the Maoris call the Pake-has “Tangata Pora,” or “ship-men.” Tangaroa married Papa-tu-a-nuku, who had Riwa. Tangaroa went to his ancestors to take the placenta of his child to them. When he returned he found that his wife had been beguiled by Rangi-nui-e-tu-nei. They fought for the woman, for Papa, and Rangi had a narrow escape of being killed by Tangaroa. Subsequently there were born Tane and Paia.
These few brief sentences are worthy of note, for they embody a belief not shared in generally by the Maoris, and quite possibly point to an older form of the currently accepted account of the origin of all things through Rangi and Papa. Here Tangaroa is the originator of gods and men, as he is in Samoa and Tahiti, whereas the Maori accounts as gathered in the North Island invariably place Rangi and Papa at the beginning of all things, from whom descended Tangaroa and the other greater gods. This may possibly give weight to the statement made further on as to the number of generations this particular tribe has been in the country, and points to the fact that the ancient people of the South Island— Te Rapuwai, Waitahanui, and Ngati-mamoe—were here before the arrival of the well known canoes of the great migration; that they were, in fact, a part of the earlier people who claim Toi as one of their great ancestors. It may well be that these people did not come from the same part of the Pacific as the later migrations of Maoris, and the differences in their dialect points in the same direction. The change of “ng” into “k” and the dropping, or rather indistinct pronounciation, of the “r” amongst the Ngati-Rakaihaitu are peculiarities which distinguish these southern tribes from all others.- 14
The Capital Letters given herein refer to the Genealogical Table.
A. Rakaihaitu. No Rakaihaitu tenei korero, no te mea koia te takata tuatahi mai ki tenei motu, otira ki te Waipounamu me Aotea-roa. Ko te ikoa o tona waka ko Uruao. Tona takata o ruka ko te Rakihouia. Tona iwi ko Kati-waitaha. Nana tenei motu i timata te noho e te takata. Ko te whaka-papa tenei ka timata i te atuataka o te takata. Ko ka takata tenei nana i mau mai te waka o Rakaihaitu. Tona iwi ko Kati-waitaha. Ko te iwi mohio tenei ki te karakia, ki te kukume mai i te whenua—te ikoa o taua karakia ko Aukukume—me era atu mahi. I maurea mai tenei waka i te Tapahaka-a-Taiehu, i te karu moana. Rokohaka mai e kati ana te moana ki te Raki. Ko ka toki nana i tapahi taua tutaki ko Kapa-ki-tua tetahi, ko Tua-uru-te-raki tetahi, ka puta mai ka waka ka nohohia a ruka i enei motu e te takata.
A. Rakaihaitu. This relation is about Rakaihaitu, who was the first man who came to this island, indeed to both the Waipounamu (South Island) and to Aotea-roa (the North Island). The name of his canoe was Uruao, and the man on board of her (besides Rakaihaitu) was Rangihouia. The name of his tribe was Ngati-Waitaha. It was by him that this island first became peopled. This genealogy commences when men were gods. It was these men (Rangihouia and others) who brought the canoe of Rakaihaitu here. They were people who had great knowledge of Karakias (incantations) to draw out lands2—the name of this Karakia was Aukukume—and other great deeds. This canoe was brought hither from the Tapahanga-a-Taiehu, over the waves of the sea. As they approached they found the sea connected with the sky. The axes which were used in severing them were named Kapa-ki-tua and Tua-uru-rangi: by their means the canoes got through, and this land was settled on by man.3
C. Ko tenei whakapapa-tipuna, me timata mai i a Rauru; i a ia ka puhi, e kiia nei ka Kingi o namata, koia a Puhi-a-rauru. Ko ka tangata tapu enei o namata kei roto i ka whare whakairo e noho ana. Ka putake tenei o ka taahu rangatira o te takata. Ko ka iwi ko Kai-tahu, ko Kati-mamoe, ko Kati-waitaha.
C. This genealogy of ancestors commences with Rauru; he possessed the puhi (or plumes?), which are said to be the kings of old, hence Puhi-a-rauru. These were the sacred men of old, who lived in the carved houses. They are the origin of the noble lines (of descent) of man. The tribes are: Ngai-tahu, Ngati-mamoe, and Ngati-waitaha.
D. He timataka korero tenei, me timata mai i te auahataka a Tane, i auahatia ai e ia ki te whenua e takoto nei, ko Tiki. No te tuaruataka o ana auahataka ki te whenua, ko lo. Ka whakamoea e Tane a Tiki hei wahine ma lo. Na konei i ririki te ao ki te takata. Kei te haere mai i konei te huka nunui, me ka riri tipuna me ka toa whawhai.
D. This is another commencement of a history, starting with the creation of Tane,4 when he created Tiki from the earth. His second act of creation from the earth was lo, whom he married to Tiki as a wife for him. Hence were men poured out to the world. From this source are the great peoples, the ancestral wars, and the brave ones in battle.
E. Apparently Tapu was a female, at any rate the two lines given by Te Mamaru from this point downwards are identical, and the assumption is that Hawea-i-te-rangi and Tapu were man and wife—Tapu is a not uncommon name for a woman now. Assuming that this is so the two lines from Rauru are confirmatory of one another, notwithstanding that the author's note C. leaves it somewhat in doubt as to whether Puhi-a-rauru is not a son of Rauru's. The difference of one generation is not more than could be expected.
F. Hotu-mamoe; the author adds opposite his name, “Ko Kati-mamoe tenei.” This is Ngati-mamoe, or from this man the ancient tribe of Ngati-mamoe take their name. He flourished just about the period of the arrival of the migratory canoes in the North Island, or twenty-one generations ago.
G. Opposite the name of Uenuku-horea, the writer adds:—“Tika tonu atu Te Aomataki, kei konei te huarahi o Pakea,” the meaning of which is “that Te Aomataki's line branches off here, as also does that of Pakea.” It is well known from - 15 northern traditions that Uenuku was the father of Paikea or Kahutia-te-rangi, and that both lived in Hawaiki; the latter, however, migrated to New Zealand, and from him are descended several families now living, whose genealogies show him to have lived about twenty-two to twenty-four generations ago, which agree in number with that here given.
H. Though not so stated, the assumption is that Tuhukutira and Te Utupo-raki were man and wife, as both are shown on separate lines to be the parents of Hika-oro-roa. Against the latter's name is the note—Ko te toa patu takata tenei, ko Hika-oro-roa, i mate i tana kotahi ko tahi te kau mano takata: Hika-oro-roa was a great man-slayer; he killed by himself ten thousand men! We may assume that he was a great warrior, without giving credence to the number of his enemies said to have been slain by him. The author also adds:—Ko te whaka-takatataka tenei, penei me koe me au: This was the commencement of humanity like you and me; by which he intends to imply that all of the names preceding him were gods—a very common feature in Maori genealogies.
I. Ko tenei whakapapa kei te timata mai ano i te po, ano, i haka ai ka wai maori me ka moana waitai, me ka one, me te takata. Me timata mai i te po i noho ai te ora ki te takata. Po-tahi, Po-rua, Po-toru, tae noa ki te Po-tuakahuru. Ko Wii, ko Waa. I puta mai i konei te nuika o ka toa whawhai me ka matamuataka o te takata. No naianei, he mana te takata rakatira. Ki te kore he mana, kore rawa atu tona rakatira-taka. Ko Kai-tahu, Ko Kati-mamoe, Ko Kati-waitaha.
I. This genealogy also commences from the po, or “dark ages,” in which were made the fresh waters, the salt waters of the sea, the lands, and men. It begins with the “dark age,” which contained the life of man; first-age, second-age, third-age, up to the tenth-age; then come Wii and Waa. From hence came forth the majority of the brave-in-war, and the beginnings of man. At the present day the chiefs have power; if they have no power, they are not chiefs at all. From hence are Ngai-tahu. Ngati-mamoe, and Ngati-waitaha.
J. From Tahu-potiki to Rakaiwhakaata the names have been taken from Dr. Shortland's “Southern Districts of New Zealand,” for the purpose of showing the connection of the Ngai-tahu people with the purely South Island tribes of Ngati-mamoe, Ngati-waitaha, and others. It is well known that Tahupotiki's ancestors came to New Zealand in the Takitumu canoe about twenty-one generations ago, and first settled on the East coast of the North Island. In the times of Rakau-whaka-kura (fourth in descent from Tahupotiki) the migration to the South Island commenced. From his son Tahu, the Ngai-tahu tribe take their name. For particulars of this migration see Judge A. Mackay's “Native Affairs, South Island, Vol. I.,” and Rev. J. W. Stacks'“Traditionary History of the South Island,”“Transactions New Zealand Institute, Vol. X., p. 57.” It will be seen by reference to Dr. Shortland's work quoted, that the number of generations and names agree exactly with those here given, though derived from different sources. Tahupotiki's father is there stated to have been Paikea; if this is intended for the same Paikea, son of Uenuku (see note G.), there is a difference of four generations as to the period they flourished; Dr. Shortland's table would make him to have lived nineteen generations ago. The Rev. J. W. Stack states the same number, both being derived from the same people, though living in different localities. The North Island genealogies are somewhat longer, say twenty-two generations, and as there are the means of testing these from several different sources, they may be considered the most reliable.
K. Ko Tumaikuku ka moe ia Irakukuru, ka puta ki waho ko Tukake-mauka raua ko te Whatu-kai-papaai, i mate uri kore raua i te parekura i Rauwhata. No muri ka moe a Tumaikuku i a Uemate, ka puta ki waho ko Rokokote, ka moe ia Tahupitopito, tana ko tana kahui Manawa tokotoru—i noho noho anake i a Rakaiwhakaata.
K. Tumaikuku dwelt with Irakukuru, and there were born to them Tukake-maunga and Te Whatu-kai-papaai, who both died at the battle of Rauwhatu without issue. Subsequently Tumaikuku dwelt with Uemate, who had Rongokote, who dwelt with Tahupitopito, who had a family of three, each named Manawa, who all married Rakaiwhakaata.
L. Ko tenei wahine—a Te Whatu-ka-ai—ka whakatakata nui rawa nei, penei me koe me au.
L. With this woman—Te Whatu-ka-ai—people were fully developed as men, like you and me.
1 Or perhaps Guardians.
2 I take Kukume mai te whenua to mean probably a power of drawing out, or producing, or discovering lands: a knowledge of navigation.
3 The sea connected with the sky refers, no doubt, to the appearance when at sea out of sight of land.
4 Auaha I take to be derived from the same source as auahaa of Tahiti, meaning the female genetals. None of our Maori dictionaries contain the word; it evidently means “to create,” “to form.”