Volume 18 1909 > Volume 18, No. 2 > On ariki, and incidentally, tohunga, by Hare Hongi, p 84-89
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AN article which appears in the Journal of September (Vol. XVII., p. 162) last has stimulated editorial invitation for contributions on this hitherto comparatively little discussed subject.

The limitations of the Journal's space demand of its contributors something, at once, fully informing and, as brief as may be.

Assuming, however, that the mission of the Journal is to present facts, so far as such are available, and not merely opinions more or less authoritative, one's only anxiety need be to embody such matter as shall continue to have a permanent interest as a channel of reference and so claim a full place in the Journal.

Not that the position cannot be shortly and clearly put, for it can. For instance: an inferior chief has one cousin-rangatira; his superior chief has fifty cousins-rangatira; his high chief has one hundred cousins-rangatira; his Ariki has two hundred cousins-rangatira. Again, as the chiefs are of various degrees of rank, so are the Ariki: there is the local Ariki of the inferior chiefs of a minor genealogical line; there is the local Ariki of the superior chief of a line of fifty cousins-rangatira: there is the immediate Ariki of the high chief of a line of one hundred cousins-rangatira; there is the Tino Ariki of a main line which embraces many branch lines; and, finally, there is a still more superior Ariki, born of a union of the Ariki families of two or more main genealogical lines. (We are now considering a genuine system of patriarchism; throughout this article the words genealogical line are implied wherever omitted. As to the meaning of Ariki, it is sufficient to state that patriarch—in so far as this genealogically signifies father-in-chief, conveys its true expression.)

In a word, then, an Ariki is one in whom many ancestral lines converge, and from whom many ancestral lines diverge; by the first he becomes the superior descendant-of-many; by the second he becomes the superior ancestor-of-many: ancestor-in-chief; father-in-chief. Such an Ariki was my ancestor Rahiri, representative of the four main tribes whose domains extended originally from the present city of Auckland northwards along both coasts to the North Cape.

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The Maori has a passionate esteem for the law of primogeniture in the male line. To the Maori no Ariki was so sacred in person as he who was the first-born of a first-born through three, four, or five generations. Unfortunately for such an ideal state Nature has her moods, and her behests had to be accepted as the best the gods provided. The ideal saw a first-born son united to a first-born daughter, with a son as the first-fruit of the union, to be in his turn united to a first-born daughter. The practical saw that the first-born son prematurely died or was killed; in addition, the first-born frequently proved to be a daughter. Again, an Ariki proves to be too young to wed the fully-matured eldest daughter of highest rank, and she is mated to one of his more mature cousin-junior; whilst he, when quite matured, is mated to a junior daughter, sometimes the younger sister of the one which his youth lost to him. But, notwithstanding these most truly natural conditions, the Elders ever kept the ideal before themselves, and no union in the highest families took place before the genealogical position of the parties to it was fully thought out and discussed.

(a) The question of domicile was yet another disturbing factor affecting that ideal state for which the Elders strove. Each tribe had its main centre or stronghold, in which was to be found the flower of its nobility, which always included the Ariki. But sons of the aho-ariki occasionally went a-field; elected to settle on the outskirts of the tribal domain, where their sons and grandsons grew up and remained in independence, taking no further part in the transactions of the main centre. Such a section became lost to the main tribe, impliedly ostracised. It is largely so with the descendants of Kaharau, that brilliant son of Rahiri who, in the punishment of insolent chiefs, bore his conquering arms from the waters of Hokianga on the west coast to the tides of Whanga-ruru on the east coast, where his local descendants are still to be found. It sometimes happened that a connection was maintained in such cases by inter-marriage, but, although apparently equal in every other respect, a chief of distant domicile was not conceded the influence, therefore the măna of a home chief. On the other hand, if such a section grew strong and effectively kept in check their aggressively turbulent neighbours, it was regarded as a power for the general good and lost little if any caste by its voluntary separation. All of which observations strictly apply to a discussion of the question under notice, namely, as to the meaning, the power, and the status of an Ariki. It should be here added that a female Ariki was, as already indicated, an inevitability; such were termed ariki-tapairu, which has the meaning of ariki-by-courtesy, a rather unwilling acceptance of what was certainly regarded as being a merely intrusive female. Such was my grandmother Maumau, ariki-tapairu of both the Nga-Puhi and the Rarawa main tribes. Her apparently - 86 unwelcome advent to this world was signalised by her being named the epithet maumau, or waste, a waste of time, blood, and title on a female. In such a case the correct course is very clear, that is to hastily mature in order to contribute to the lordly male line. In this, however, poor Maumau lamentably failed by first becoming the mother of four successive daughters. Still more unfortunate was her only sister Matire-Taku, who, being wedded to their first cousin Titore, gave birth to a son, Poroa, who died in infancy. There were no further children born of this union for many years, and so it is that Titore (he who sent a gift by Captain Sadler, of H.M.S. “The Buffalo,” to his Majesty King William the Fourth, receiving in return a suit of armour and letter, in 1835) has no descendants. He was the son of a younger brother, and his two cousins-female alone stood between him and this superior Ariki-ship, thus:—

Family Tree. m. f., TE WAIHUKA = KAHU-WHAKAREWA., m. (Nga-Puhi) (Te Rarawa), Te Tupua = Paua, f. Matire-Taku, f. Maumau., Te Koukou, Titore-nui = Matire-Taku, Poroa. (Died in infancy.)

(Te Tupua was a first-born and son. For the reasons shown the names of Matire and Titore require no further reference.)

For the proper illustration of this article a fairly extensive series of genealogical lines, hitherto unpublished, are now given. These lines largely include the names of the principal ancestors who have controlled and shaped the destinies of the North Auckland tribes from the earliest traditional times. To students and readers of the Journal they offer entirely new fields of enquiry, by clearing up avenues of past doubt and exposing tricks of the mendacious. It is indeed a remarkable yet none the less indisputable fact that neither the “Arawa” nor the “Tainui” canoes are traditionally known to the North Auckland tribes.

For convenience of reference the genealogical line from “Toi,” facing page forty in Journal, Vol. VII., Table I., is classed as A, while those as B, C, D, etc., are here given. For the same reason the names of those ancestors who are most particularly concerned in the building up and sustaining of the aho-ariki will be shown in heavy type. The paragraph marked (a) ante, will also serve a useful purpose of brevity. So far, the Toi line just referred to as Table I., and with which readers of the Journal have been made so familiar, thanks to the zeal and research of Mr. S. Percy Smith, is at once the most important and the most reliably satisfactory of all lines. Toi becomes the greatest ancestor

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Family Tree. B Tuputupu-whenua = Hinekui, Te Ao = Mataari, Herua = Hine (period of Toi, Table I), Uea-i-te-rangi = Marae, Kura = Mata-riria, Kaweau = Maari, Harua-ki-tai = Rangi, Te Pou = Te Kiri, Ngarue = Te Maunga, Te Toko-o-te-rangi = Paia, (“Te kainga i noho ai enei tupuna, ko Tautoro; ‘Te Pou—waka a Mauwhena.’”), C Tu-houhia = Maru-uia, Te Rangi-heke-tini (Ngati-Rangi) = Te Haunui (“Tukua mai ki a au, ki te tuara wahatini; ki nga vri tau-parekura a Tuhouhia.”), Ue-oneono = Ngaki, Tutakina = Moe-tuturu, Ue-whati = Rangi-ao, Te Aorere = Te Iri, Ue-huha = Te Rea, Hamu = Whitiao, Tara = Tiki-wharawhara (under D), Te Ngere = Hinewai, Tauirangi = Te Rangi-tauwawaro, Rongo-taumua = Te Ruru, Tawake-roa = Hei, Te Ngere = Niu-tawhanga, Te Rangi-heketini—, Tupu = Te Ara, Whakahotu = Te Rae, Kahuru = Te Hou (of Rahiri), Pukekohe = Te Pohue-nui, Wae = Maru, Paua = Te Tupua, Maumau, Huhana, Hare Hongi (Waimate.), Kete-roro, Te Kiripute, Karawai, Kuao, Iraia Kuao, Maera (Tautoro.), Kete, Haua = Te Ngaio, Ruarangi, Hutu, Wai-ehu, Wai-miri, Whiti-ao, Whakatere, Whiti-ao Te Tirarau Taurau Tawera = Parore, Te Ahu, Pouaka (Wairoa- Whangarci.), Tua, or Tuakainga = Tokerau (Eponymous ancestor of Ngati-Whatua.), F Te Puni, Tupango, Tutae-rua, Tu-te-auru, Kuia-wai, Ngao, Uru-ka-hinga, Pane, Te Ahiahi, Tamaha, Tawhai, H. M. Tawhai, H. T. Tawhai (Waima.), Kohuru, Inumanga, Te Whara-nui, Te Aka, Manga, Tiki, Poaka-tahi, Komene, Wi (Punakitere., Hinepapa, Kumi, Tangi-wharau, Te Korae, Te Whare-papa, Kamariera, Maraea (Mangakahia.), Te Take, Te Rae, Kahuru, Te Maoi, Te Wharerahi = Tari, Rewiri, Harata, Mere Tu-haere (Auckland.), Patuone Waaka Nene, Rewa, Mangonui, Ngawati, Pane (Russell.), E Te Whare-umu = Ngakiri, Mihi = Toa, Rehua = Pehirangi, Te Pae = Hihi, Rite = Te Ru, Kara = Koi, Whiti = Ri, Whakahau = Kaimama, Tu = Ra, Hua = Tira, Te Mauri = Wairua-iti, Te Huaki = Te Rua, Taitea-nuku = Puanga, Te Mahau = Te Awhi, Te Ika = Moa, Te Wai-kanae = Hine-pare, Hautai = Te Huru, Te Arahi = Pa-taea, Te Whareumu, Kohu, Hone Paraea, Kiri, (Hokianga.), D Mauwhena = Tapu, Tuaia = Hei, Te Whanga = Te Rehu, Te Rau = Moetonga, Te Hinaki = Hau, Nga-manu = Pai-mihia, Te Ra = Wheoro, Tohe = Heinga, Tikiwhara (Under C), Te Ranini-kura, Moko-horea = Paki, Tira-haere = Pa, Tu-marangai = Whakairi, Te Kura-nui = Te Korohu, Ringaringa = Te Hinaki, Rawhe-ao = Ruke, Take, Maiwhiti, Tara-tikitiki, Rau-wahine, Mata-haia, Hakiro, Whiti-rua, Hopepa, Kahika, Koi, Mitai, Kerei (Ohaeawai), Korohu, Ta Haara, Heta, Rui, Marotiri, Tawhiro, Taui, P. Taui, Te Kura = Tamatea-pokai-whenua (of Takitimu), Hinetapu = Kahuunu (Ngati-Kahu), Tamatea (Ngai-Tamatea), Hine-kura, Tahunga-iti, Te Reinga, Ruawaha, Te Hautapu, Tai-kumukumu, Waipuna, Mokotu, Te Ruakuru, Te Karehu, Kaipara, Puwai, Te Rehu, T. Puhipi, Riopo (Pukepoto, far North.), Kawhi, Nga-kuku, Unaiki (Whangape.)

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Family Tree. (Unites Tuputupu-whenua and Toi main lines.), (Awa-nui-a-rangi main line.), Whakatau, (Tu-moana line), Tama-a-ita, Tama-hanene, Mihitaia, Tapu, Ngoi, Tama-hotu, Tama-moko, Te Toko-o-te-rangi, Te Awha, Rongomai, Te Ika-tau-i-rangi, H Awa-nui = Niua, G Nukutawhiti, I Moe-rewarewa, J Niwa = Ruanui, Te Rohe, Hae, or Hapo, Rakei-tapu, Tama-ki-te-hau, Tama-ki-te-ra, Puhi-moana-ariki, Papa-tahuri, Haupia, Tangaroa (see A), Rawhaki-tua, Whakaoko, Maikuku = Hua Te Uri-o-Hua, Te Ra, Kamama, Maru, Te Tope, Turama, Mai, Kahu-taha, Makoare (Kawerua.), Rahiri = Ahua-iti, Ue-nuku-kuware = Kare-ariki, Ue-whati = Piki, Te Ahitapi—, Te Rarau, Te Hou-Kahuru, Pukekohe, Wae = Maru, Paua = Te Tupua, Maumau, Huhana, Hare Hongi (Waimate.), Maui, Puna-te-ariari (or Hine-ao), Hauhaua = Toro-ngare, Koperu = Hine-amaru (Ngati-Hine), Pera = Hinewai, Waipiha = Wae-ka-mania, Moeahu, Te Tawai, Kawiti-nui, Maihi Kawiti, …………, Mokopuna (Kawakawa), K Papa, Keru, Tai-whakaea, Tu-whare-papa, Tu-whare-kakaho, Te Toko = Mihipo, Taura = Miti, Ponui = Kau-hoea, Te Kura-i-marae-whiti = Taniwha, Roha, Moho, Tuata, Tawatawa, Piko, Pu-ataata, W. Tuwhai (Kaikohe.), Wai-kainga = Te Wairua, Auha = Peehirangi, Haumia-Te Roto, Hine-ira, Te Tupe, Hemi Tupe, …… (Whangaroa.), Tawake-haunga = Kare-ariki (Ngati-Tawake), Te Pou = Ngutu, Tutu, Whakaaria = Te Aniwa, Te Hotete-Waitohi = Tuhi-kura, Kaingaroa = Moewaka, Wairua, Whare-ngaro, Ahenata (Takou), Moka, Te Wheoki, A. K. Pi, …… (Otamatea.) (? Waima), Pahiko = Koha, Peehirangi, Hongi Hika = Tiri-ka-tuku, Hare-Hongi, Kowhai, Te Tuauru (Kerikeri.), Hariata—(No issue), Maru = Wae, Paua-Te Tupua, Maumau, Huhana, Hare Hongi (Waimate.), Waiohua—, Te Koma, Tuhi-rangi-Wai, Hone Ngapua, (Kaikohe.), Hone Heke = Hariata, (No issue)

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Family Tree. (See G) Nukutawhiti., J Niwa = Rua (tapu) Nui, L Te Korako-nui-a-Rua, Matiti, Wawenga, Hakumanu, Hakumanu-i-wawenga, Taiwawe, Tuputa, Papa-uenuku, Ruanui, (1)Tara-uaua, (2) Tu-whenua-roa, (4) Tangaroa Tupou (3) Koro-mai-te-rangi, Pari = Kaharau-koro, Kiri-whakangahu = Karitu, Utuutu = Te Kuri, Te Rua-pounamu = Tarutaru, Kahu-whakarewa = Te Waihuka Maru = Wae, Te Tupua = Paua, Pekepeke—, Whai-Hakuene, Ihaka Te Tai, Mita Te Tai Bay of Islands), Maumau, Huhana, Hare Hongi (Waimate), M Te Maru-a-te-huia, Peehi-riri, Whakatau, Tamarau, Aute, Houkura, Houpure, Patito, Toakai, Taranga-Maro and Te Henga, Whakaeke = Puna-te-ari (Ngati-Whakaeke), Tautahi-Ngahue (Ngati-Tautahi), Te Wairua-Tutu, Whakaaria = Te Aniwa, Tu-moenga = Haere, Tore-tahora = Toa, Te Urukauri = Taka-te-auahi, Tarutaru = Te Rua-pounamu, (See under L) Nga-motu = Te Pa, Te Marino = Wharewhare, Te Koiuru = Papahia, Wi Tana Papahia, Hone Papahia (Hokianga-Whangape), N Ruatapu, Papa-a-rangi, Tuwhare-rangi, Hawe, Whai-putuputu, Tokotu, Waiora-Ngoiro, Whakaruru = Rahiri, Taura-o-te-po = Miti. Kaharau = Kaiawhi and Houtaringa, Tupoto-Tawake-iti, Kairewa-Waimiri, Tamatea-Tiari, Rongomai = Te Kahu-whero, Mata-utu-rangi-Kotete, Te Reinga = Pare, Te Kuri = Utuutu (Under L), Taurapoho-Ruaki-whiria, Mahia = Te Hau, Ngahue = Tautahi, Te Wairua (Under K), (Strong old Ngati-Awa element), Moe-tonga = Tokoroa, Pua-iti = Papango, Kaharau-koro = Pari (See under L), Te Wai-ehu = Tu-te-mahoe, Kuri = Kura-heke (Ngati-Kuri), Awa = Morere, Wheru, Te Awa, Te Karu-whare, Te Hana, Nga-kirikiri, Te Marino (Oruru), Runga-i-te-rangi, Tore-uaina, Te Kautawa, Whango, Kete-kao, Ka, Pauro, Pauro (Oruru), Te Mau, Te Waiata, Paka, Ngakukm Mumu, Unaiki, …… (Whangape-Ahipara)
Rahiri = Whakaruru (Table III.), Taura = Miti, Tupoto = Kauwae, Korokoro (Ngati-Korokoro), Whitiki, Tangaroa, Te Haunui, Te Hunga, Hape, Te Aitu, Rangatira, Hapakuku Moe (Waimamaku.), Kairewa, Tuiti, Rangimitimiti, Hekunga, Torea, Tauranga, Tapuhi, Hukeumu, Whangaroa, Riutaia, Tike, Turua, Te Pari, Aka, Tohukakahi, Kaweora, Rihari Mete (Kohukohu.), Had a brother Maui = Tikata-a-rangi, Te Huhu-rahirahi = Karotaha, Te Huaki = Tu-nui-a-tawheta, Wai-mimirangi = Kairewa, Pare = Te Reinga, Te Kuri = Utuutu, Te Rua-pounamu = Tarutaru, Kahuwhakarewa = Te Waihuka, Te Tupua = Paua Te Aniwa, Maumau, Huhana, Hare Hongi (Waimate.), Tamatea = Tiari, Kiri-ngarahu = Te Aokarere, Maru-whenua = Te Marino, Kukupa = Tataia, Te Maki-Taha, Nau = Te Hikuwai, Manawa, Hotene (Mangamuka.), Te Pa-, Te Marino, Nepia, Tikihirini, Te Wairoro = Ngono, Kaimanu = Kahimanea, Tiari = Ngaue, Ngawaka Iehu, Naru (Whangape.), Te Huhu-Ngauru, Tumaho, …… (Whangape.), Here-paenga = Tara, Nganiho Te Tai, Re Te Tai (L. Waihou.), And a sister Puna-te-ariari, or, Hineao = Te Aweawe (Ngati-Whatua), Hau-moe-wharangi— Modern Uri-o-Hau), Haki-puta-tomuri—, Pokopoko (This branch achieved some fame.) (Kaipara.)

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of his time and place, not alone because his descendants extend throughout the length and breadth of this country, but because from fifty independent lines of descent we are enabled with historical precision to fix his plane at thirty-two generations back from the year 1900. The table of British Royal descent shows that the present Prince of Wales is thirtieth in descent from William the Conqueror. So that from the Toi traditional tables we are taught with tolerable certainty that at a period dating two generations beyond that of William the Conqueror this country was already settled by a capable and intelligent yet warlike Maori people (Journal, Vol. IV., p. 216). But, outside of the Toi tables themselves, the ten succeeding generations remain historically unsatisfactory, and it is regrettable that instead of addressing themselves to the work of removing this hiatus contributors have deluged the Journal and kindred prints with minutely detailed accounts of canoe-voyagers of some twenty generations ago; which accounts are for the most part mere fabrications, built up from slender and inconsequent material. 1

Still keeping strictly in view the main purpose of this article, let us now consider the following genealogical line in its aspect of filling in the hiatus just referred to. Its leading ancestor is Tuputupu-whenua, the Tumutupu-whenua 2 of our kinsmen of the Central Pacific, commonly regarded as being the FIRST MAN. The name literally signifies Earth-grown, and as Maori names are before all things descriptive, the student may correctly infer that the Maori is a prime believer in the doctrine of evolution. Of the scores of generations succeeding that first man, and which are obviously unknown to history we make here no note, their place is shown by the short break in the line. The line is more extensive than here shown, but a lengthy recital of names, about which tradition is silent, cannot materially bridge that unknown past. We are taught to believe that Tuputupu-whenna was born of the soil and that his direct descendants were aboriginals of this country. Those here shown are the immediate progenitors of the Ngati-Rangi branch of the Nga-Puhi tribe and one of its most honoured. This branch regards with the utmost disdain those more southern tribes who attribute their very existence to the arrival of some more or less mythical canoe-voyaging ancestor of modern times. This is well illustrated in the story which runs: Some generations ago a member of a junior branch of Ngati-Rangi referred with some pride to the doings of his - 88 canoe-voyaging ancestor Tamatea-pokai-whenua (of the canoe “Taki-timu,” then regarded as belonging strictly to this country. The surname of this ancestor is certainly derived from his traditional voyages and explorations in and about the North and South Islands.) The member alluded to was promptly rebuked by an old chief of the senior line, in these words: E hara nga tai katoa me nga rangatiratanga, he rangatiratanga a-pori; ka pa ko au, ko te Titi, ko te Aporei, ko Tama purupuru marire, ko Ngati-Rangi; ko te angaanga titi iho i te rangi!” which may be freely rendered: “Boast not before me of the lordliness of other seas and the fairness of their climes as described by unknown castaways of no particular country; unlike myself, a fixture reflecting the beauty of a land wherein my fathers from time immemorial have played in childhood, as I myself have played; who knew not as I myself know not of any other sky, save that now crowning my head!” Fine conservatism this. The Tamatea connection is set out in the accompanying Table. Its historical interest consists in the fact that many well-known chiefs in widely separated parts of this country claim his son, Kahu-unu, or Kahu-ngunu, as being their particular ancestor; he proved to be a wanderer as his father was before him (Journal, Vol. III., p. 213). His northern descendants are the Ngai-Tamatea and the Ngati-Kahu, of Doubtless Bay, who have thus perpetuated the names of these their ancestors as tribal designations.

As already indicated, these genealogies set out the lines of the ruling chiefs and families for the whole country to the north of Auckland during a period extending back with historical exactitude to at least twenty-five generations; their history is largely the true history of the North. Although consideration of space has necessitated compression, the four Tables exhibit two striking facts: The first is that Rahiri, in his ancestors and descendants, presents a most striking figure; and the second is that all of the main lines and the principal branch lines converge upon Maumau. Those two facts testify to and proclaim the Ariki-ship which is the subject of this enquiry. It may be urged, alike by those who do not understand as by those who may be unwilling to believe, that perhaps others can show a similar genealogical connection to that of Maumau. It is therefore necessary to explicitly state that none other can show such a rich genealogical connection as Maumau., to the actual rules of the Maori world of the North.

The somewhat fanciful terms which Mr. Hammond recites in the above paper are sometimes applied to an Ariki, but such a term as “Tumu-whakarae,” which strictly applies to a Kauri forest, can have little force in the South, where Kauri forests do not exist. Mr. Hammond's instructors, however, entirely misinform him in assigning a secondary position to an Ariki. In a genealogy loving people such - 89 as the Maori no higher position than that of Ariki is possible, no matter by what other designation he may be known.

This paper may be ended by a brief reference to Nukutawhiti. When the last word is said it will be found that Nukutawhiti is none other than the Uenuku-ariki of Table I. (Journal, Vol. VII., p. 40), and that our Rua(tapu)nui is his son Ruatapu. Both names have been connected with the mythical Omamari, Omamaru, or Tokomaru canoe, but a quantity of traditional evidence is extant to show that those canoe stories were already myths in their own days. Their history must await future papers.

1   We cannot at all agree with this statement as to the unreliability of the histories of the later migration of about the year 1350. The mere facts that the names of the canoes are known to Eastern Polynesians as well as to Maoris, and the accordance in the number of generations that have lived since the arrival of these enemies is proof of their authenticity.—Editor.
2   ? Tumutumu-whenua.—Editor.