Volume 101 1992 > Volume 101, No. 1 > The gospel of Te Ua Haumene, by L. Head, p 7-44
THE GOSPEL OF TE UA HAUMENE
This study presents a transcription and annotated translation of Ua Rongopai, 1 the gospel of Te Ua Haumene. 2 Te Ua was the founder of the Hauhau faith. 3 He formed his church in late 1862, and led it until his capture by Government forces in February 1865. In those three years, Te Ua made a statement of mana motuhake, independence, which has had a profound influence on the course of Maori Christianity.
RELIGIONS OF THE BOOK
Now that Maori history is being reassessed in less ethnocentric terms, the interpretation of the past through oral tradition is receiving a new emphasis. This should not, however, obscure the fact that 19th century Maori religious movements were religions of the Book. The written teachings of individual leaders make it clear that there is no substantial religious movement arising in the postcontact era which did not identify itself within the spirituality and ethics of the Bible. 4
Maori looked to the Bible to give authority and shape to the values which needed to be re-expressed in order to encompass social change. Foremost among these was autonomy. The value placed on autonomy stemmed from the organisation of traditional society into numerous small units whose independence was expressed in competition, ultimately in warfare. When changes caused by European influences meant that warfare no longer functioned positively in society, the Bible offered a way to redefine the autonomy of the hapū in terms of the will of a god who required peace. Before the wars of the 1860s, Maori named peace as the chief benefit of conversion to Christianity (Ross 1965:45a). After them, in spite of widespread rejection of the Pakeha church, peace remained the chief value of organised Maori protest.
THE INSTITUTIONALISATION OF VALUES
Change in 19th century Maori society has many indicators, but the implications of a changing demography are especially important. In 1840 there were possibly 100,000 Maori and 2,000 Pakeha in the country; by 1858, Pakeha numbers had risen to 59,400, and Maori numbers had fallen to about 56,000 (Poole 1967:235-7). As the exercise of Government by Pakeha began to diminish Maori independence of action, autonomy was defined yet again, this time in racial terms. The term mana motuhake, which was first heard in - 8 the 1850s, recognised the shift from intra-Maori competition to competition between Maori and Pakeha. Mana motuhake was institutionalised in the election of a Maori King in 1858. In the face of Pakeha opposition, his right to exist was argued on biblical grounds:
When thou art come into the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee, and shalt possess it, and shalt dwell therein, and shalt say, I will set a king over me. Thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee, whom the Lord thy God shall choose: one from thy brethren shalt thou set king over thee: thou mayest not set a stranger over thee, which is not thy brother. 5
The word of God as the expression of the values of peace and autonomy was the ethical basis of the King Movement's drive for independence. It was expressed by King Potatau in the proverb: Mau ki te whakapono, mau ki te aroha, mau ki te ture, “Hold fast to the faith, to love and to law”. By “faith”, the king meant Christianity, by “love”, Christian charity, and by “law”, the Ten Commandments.
WAR, THE GENESIS OF PROPHET MOVEMENTS
In the 1860s, the pursuit of justice brought the values of peace and autonomy into sharp conflict. While motives for the decision to fight against the Government were complex, and the decision itself often agonising, their commitment to autonomy meant that many 6 Christian Maori felt they had no choice. As a result, the enduring Maori image of the wars is the good man with a gun. 7 Embroiled in an inherently unequal fight, some turned for comfort, as people always have, to a supernatural message of victory. War was the ultimate progenitor of the prophet movements, 8 of which Hauhauism, led by Te Ua Haumene, was the first.
After the wars, when defeat had denied to Maori any hope of political autonomy, ideology and practical necessity combined to make peace the only viable goal open to religious leaders. Throughout the century and beyond, Pakeha authorities showed a readiness to use armed force against prophet movements. In 1879, the Government sent a party of armed police to evict Hipa Te Maiharoa and his followers from land they were occupying at Omarama; in 1881, John Bryce led 2,500 Armed Constabulary and militia to arrest the prophets Te Whiti-o-Rongomai and Tohu Kakahi at Parihaka; Te Kooti's attempts to visit east coast centres in 1889 caused police and soldiers to be called out; in 1891, a gunboat and soldiers equipped with machine guns were sent to Waima to arrest tax defaulters who had revived the teachings of Papahurihia; in the 1890s the Government sent an armed steamer to the Chatham Islands to arrest dog tax defaulters who were followers of Te Whiti- - 9 o-Rongomai; in 1916 Rua Kenana was arrested after a shootout between his followers and a party of armed police; in 1918, armed police were sent to enforce the conscription of Waikato men, whose resistance had been spiritually underpinned by Te Puea's revival of the Pai Mārire teachings of Te Ua. The Government's assumption of militance among religious movements stemmed from perceptions of the Hauhau faith entrenched in the 1860s. In the face of Pakeha power, peace was the rational boundary of protest.
THE PROPHETIC SUCCESSION
The Bible imposed a formal language on Maori 19th century religion which bound the prophets within a single tradition. But the prophetic tradition was more than a matter of shared heritage and experience: there was a line of succession. In 1864 King Tawhiao 9 was baptised and named by Te Ua, and his writings show that he continued to use concepts that originated with Te Ua until at least the late 1870s. Titokowaru may have been a Hauhau law maker in 1865. 10 In December 1865, Taikomako, a prophet who was to be active in the Waikato, and Te Whiti and Tohu, the future leaders of Parihaka, were consecrated to the work of the Hauhau faith. 11 At the same ceremony, 12 workers were also consecrated; 12 one may have been the man who took the teachings to the South Island in 1866. 13 Te Ua directed his teachings to the East Coast where they influenced Te Kooti, whose chief followers for many years called themselves Hauhau. 14 This means that we can certainly speak of a prophetic succession, and of Te Ua as its founder. In this light, his writings assume a special interest.
THE CONTEXT OF TE UA'S EMERGENCE AS A PROPHET
Te Ua emerged out of the longstanding political ferment in Taranaki. After an early career as a Wesleyan monitor and, subsequently, an independent Christian teacher, 15 he joined the King Movement in response to the destruction of Maori tikangarepresented by the sale of the Waitara block. 16 He fought at Waitara in 1860, and subsequently led a King Movement runanga which policed the aukati, the boundary of land under the mana of the king; his earliest political act of which record survives was an attempt, with others, to refuse Bishop Selwyn passage through the boundary in 1861. 17 Maori successes in the 1860 fighting had led to high hopes in Taranaki for the establishment there of an independent Maori kingdom, 18 and there were reports that supernatural support was expected for this goal. Te Ua himself probably argued for such views, as hostility towards the mission church, maintenance of boundaries and the establishment of a Maori state through supernatural intervention were to emerge as central to his teaching. What he - 10 lacked, however, was the means to make his beliefs a power in the community.
TE UA'S CALLING FROM GOD
On September 1, 1862, 66 Pakeha stepped ashore from their wrecked ship within the aukati at Te Namu, in South Taranaki. 19 Under the King's law, the penalty for enemy trespass was death, but Christians were equally obligated to acts of charity. For Te Ua, the conflict between his faith and his politics precipitated a psychological crisis. 20 He resolved it on September 5, when he had a vision in which the angel Gabriel appeared to him. The angel assured Te Ua he was the annointed prophet of God, and revealed that the last days were at hand, when Israel (Maoridom) would be restored to Canaan (New Zealand), and the yoke of the Pharisees and Sadduccees (Pakeha) cast off. Equally important was Te Ua's mystical experience of the nature of God, Pai Mārire, which fused the issues of peace and autonomy into a harmony of ineffable goodness that entirely transcended the plane of politics.
FORMATION OF THE CHURCH
The vision unleashed an energy which saw Te Ua complete the organisation of a new church in three months. In October 1862 he wrote the prototype of the prayers to the Trinity which were a feature of his service of worship; 21 by Christmas the niu, or prophecy mast, was the locus of worship; 22 and in January 1863 his teaching to the hierarchy and people of the church was recorded as a chapter of Ua Rongopai, “Ua Gospel”. Te Ua's gospel consists of this chapter and one other, dated July 1864, which relates the vision on which his authority was founded. The content of Ua Rongopai predates the public career of the faith, and was not a response to it. This is important for an understanding of events in 1864 and 1865 which made the Hauhau church a byword for anarchic barbarism for a century, and gave Te Ua, who was about 43 when he died in 1866, the fantasy character of a crazy old man.
THE POLITICAL CONSEQUENCES OF A SPIRITUAL VISION
Te Ua's vision destroyed his judgement of the reality beyond his relationship to God, because for him, at times, there was no other reality. This explains the combination of mysticism and activism which characterised his leadership in 1864-5. Te Ua praised peace at the same time as he called the angel Gabriel the sword which slew the Philistines and the Syrians, and who had come now to vanquish the unrighteous. 23 He preached a bitterly antimissionary polemic. He guarded the heads of slain Pakeha enemies, and sent them around the North Island as tokens of spiritual victory. Inevitably, - 11 most people perceived them in the traditional way, as tiwha, an invitation to join the fight, or as symbols of victory, and the message of deliverance could not be contained within the spiritual boundaries of Te Ua's vision. As a result, the Church Missionary Sopciety (CMS) missionary Carl Volkner was ritually killed by a party of Hauhau at Opotiki on March 2, 1865. 24 This was the single event which defined the character of Te Ua and his faith for 100 years. The death outraged the values of Pakeha, to whom the mission culture was a necessary sign of their own meaning in a silent land, and played into the hands of the Government by lending a kind of moral authority to the punitive treatment of “rebellion”. It brought war to the East Coast and its hinterland until 1872, with profound effects on the political identities of the Ngati Porou and Tuhoe people. Most far-reaching of all, the killing of Carl Volkner put all Maori into a situation of moral deficit, because, by 1865, their ideas about what constituted civilised behaviour substantially agreed with those of the Pakeha. The effect of this on Maori self-perception must substantially account for a long-term suppression of memory concerning the Hauhau faith in most Maori circles. There is evidence that this is now breaking down, and it is to be hoped that the publication of Te Ua's Gospel is a step towards the rehabilitation of the Hauhau faith in the history of Maori religious thought. 25
THE THEMES OF UA RONGOPAI
Chapter 1 marries the convenant God made with Abraham, as recorded in Genesis, with the picture of the last days given to St John, recorded in Revelation. Both ideas had an established credibility in Maori minds through the widespread acceptance of mission teaching that the Maori were one of the lost tribes of Israel, and through the millenialism of many of the evangelical missionaries. The importance of the idea of the “lost tribe” to 19th century Maori thought can hardly be overstated: it allowed Maori to belong to the world by genealogy and history. 26 Te Ua's eschatology appears to have been enclosed in the picture drawn in Revelation; because it was available in print, he referred to it in his gospel rather than spelt it out. 27 As well as presenting the motifs of a God-given homeland for a chosen people and of imminent deliverance, chapter 1 was designed to give scriptural authority to Te Ua's experience by pointing to its biblical analogies.
Chapter 2 considers the relationship of the church to this world. It opens with a statement of religious mana motuhake which is, in fact, more revelatory of the boundaries of Te Ua's thought: independence means that the missionaries must go home. The chapter is primarily concerned to present Te Ua's ethical teaching, which has the tone of the teachings of Christ and a similar emphasis on individual responsibility for correct behaviour. While the - 12 chapter continues to identify Maoridom with Israel, it shows a spiritualisation of the temporal nationalism of the Old Testament into the New Testament concept of the kingdom of believers. Being Maori was not sufficient: deliverance was only for the righteous. Te Ua was, ironically, in many ways what the missionaries had longed for — the Christian Maori whose “heart experience” of God, interpreted through the Word of God, bounded his every action. The second emphasis in chapter 2 is on order in the church. It sets out the roles of the hierarchy and lay people and the rules under which spiritual gifts should operate. This attempt to subject spiritual experience to authority follows St Paul's instructions to the early churches, and is an indication of the kind of community Te Ua wished to build.
THE HISTORIOGRAPHY OF THE HAUHAU FAITH
The present translation of the Ua Rongopai challenges conclusions scholars have drawn about the nature of Te Ua's faith, in particular that it was anarchistic, polytheistic, nativistic and pacifist. These matters can only briefly be touched on here. Paul Clark has suggested that Te Ua did not attempt to establish system and orthodoxy in his faith (Clark 1975:76). Ua Rongopai shows that, on the contrary, Te Ua wished to establish an orderly, disciplined Christian community.
Religious syncretism in the Hauhau faith has been said to lie chiefly in polytheism, 28 and has been argued from the existence of the Hauhau figures Rūra and Riki. These were not gods in either a traditional Maori or biblical sense, but angels, whose functions fall within the biblical parameters of the angelic role. Te Anahera Kapareira Rūra, the angel Gabriel Ruler, was the archangel Gabriel, the executive arm of the will of God. 29 Te Anahera A riki Mikaere, the angel Prince Michael was, as in the Bible, the commander of the hosts of heaven. Te Ua's monotheism is illustrated in Ua Rongopai in his belief that Maori were the covenanted people of the Old Testament: in return for guidance and protection, Abraham and his descendants would have no other god but God. It was God, in the form of Jehovah or the Trinity, to whom Te Ua directed the prayer cycle of his service of worship. But the fundamental evidence for Te Ua's monotheism is his clear conviction that what he preached was Christianity. This is illustrated in a King Movement report of Te Ua's baptism of King Tawhiao:
We have come to Te Ua (the Profit) [sic]. Listen! There are three words which Tuta (Matutaera) brought here: “The [Church of] England, the Wesleyan, the Catholic: these three have been abandoned. I now lay hold of the one church, that is, yours!”
Te Ua fell down, and worshipped his word. Then Te Ua said to him, “My son, - 13 my son, you have become a Christian!” 30Hauhauism has been alleged to represent a repudiation of a failed Christianity and the revival of the culture of the Maori past. 31 Apart from the limitation imposed on such a revival by Te Ua's monotheism, the lack of classical references in Ua Rongopai is instructive. 32 Te Ua's teaching on the life of the community shows a practical attitude to the past: he retained what was serviceable, peaceable, and not contrary to the word of God. These boundaries were not exceeded by the religious thinkers who followed him. One of the most striking aspects of the Maori 19th century tradition is the emphasis placed on the suppression, at least at the conscious level, of the spirituality of the Maori past.
The great value Te Ua placed on peace cannot be translated into the case for pacifism made by Paul Clark. As a prophet, Te Ua preached deliverance, whose corollary was the destruction of the unrighteous. In this sphere of the spirit, pacifism is an irrelevant concept. As a politician, Te Ua remained an orthodox King's man. Until early 1865 he upheld the policy of the defence of the aukati, but, by the middle of the year, the futility of further military resistance made him seek to offer his submission to the Government, as did most of the King Movement leadership. 33 As a community leader, however, Te Ua preached peaceable behaviour with singular passion. This reveals the poignancy of his struggle to find meaning in a situation which outraged the values of pre-1860 Maori Christianity.
Clark's claim that Te Ua preached a “simple message of peace and love” 34 was always an unlikely proposition. Peace and love had been Maori Christian values for about 30 years. In the context of a bitter race war, such a familiar message would have been unlikely to galvanise anyone. It is the message of deliverance combined with the transcendent experience of God in worship which explain Te Ua's following.
THE UA RONGOPAI NOTEBOOK
Ua Rongopai, “Ua Gospel”, is contained in a notebook which was, according to an attached note, “found in a native hut during the war on the west coast of the North Island”. It is probably one of a number of documents taken at Putahi in January 1866 during a military campaign to destroy the settlements and cultivations of Taranaki Maori who had fought against the Government. We probably owe the survival of Ua Rongopai to the instructions given the soldiers to search for written documents, so that they could be examined for evidence of hostile intent against the Government. 35
The Ua Rongopai Notebook contains, in addition to the Gospel, a record - 14 of the order of worship for Hauhau services, various prayers, mystic utterances and waiata, and the proceedings of meetings of the Hauhau leadership during September-December 1865. These writings are outside the scope of the present study, but are essential to an understanding of the faith. 36 The Notebook also contains many detailed representations of prophecy masts at particular pā, and symbolic drawings which await interpretation.
The scribe of the Notebook was Karaitiana Te Korou, almost certainly the Ngati Kahungunu figure of that name. 37 Te Korou prefaced his work with the inscription: “I am teaching you in the name of God the Good and Peaceful Father, God the Good and Peaceful Son and God the Good and Peaceful Holy Ghost”, 38 and this is a fair indication of the tone of the whole. There are two further texts of Ua Rongopai. The first, consisting of Chapter 1 only, was recorded by an unnamed scribe in 1864, and has survived in a collection of King Movement documents called He Ohākī No Te Kīngitanga O Pōtatau, O Te Wherowhero, O Tawhiao, 1860-1870. This provides a valuable gloss on the Te Korou text, and has been included here as Appendix 2. The second text is a transcription of most of the Te Korou manuscript made at an unknown date by Sir George Grey, and known by the anonymously bestowed title, “Grey
Ko te tahi o ngā upoko. He kōrero tēnei no te tīmatanga o te manaakitanga a te Atua i a ia i mua ake nei. Koia tēnei ka tīmata nei i te tahi.
Taranaki, wāhi o Kēnana, Hūrae 8, 1864.
Ko te Kapenga a Te Ua, te poropiti tuatahi. No te marama o Hepetema, no te tahi o ngā rā, 1862, ka kawea te aroha o te Atua ki tōnā iwi Wareware, Tū Kiri Kau. Kīhai i mōhiotia te hinengaro o te tangata, koia anō i ki[i]a ai ko Tū Wareware.
I reira anō ngā rā o te totohe me te whakateka i roto i te kōhiwi o te tangata. I mea ahau kia tiakina te kaipuke me ōna utanga, ā, kia kawea terongo ki ngā rūnanga o te Hīngiki Tawhiao. Heoi, kīhai i paingia. Ko wai e āhei te whakarongo ki te iti o te kōhiwi nāna i hamumu?
No te rima o ngā rā o Hepetema ka puta mai ki [a] au te anahera a te Atua. Ka mea ia ki a au kia nohopuku ahau mo ngā hara a tōku iwi.
Ā, kotahi tōku tino rā i whakamamae ai ahau i a au anō. Ka tangohia ahau- 15
Corrections” (GNZ MMSS 1, Grey coll., APL). This is an inferior text, with mistakes both in transcription and in glosses added by Grey. An English version of the “Grey Corrections” appeared as an appendix to Paul Clark's 1975 study, “Hauhau: The Pai Marire Search for Maori Identity, and is the only previously available translation of Ua Rongopai. An intuitive interpretation which evokes the spirituality of Te Ua's thought, critical errors make it unsatisfactory as the basis for historical analysis. While the present translation aims towards providing that basis, it cannot be regarded as definitive.
Te Ua's message was not a new one—it was written in scripture—but he made the promises of the Bible a prospect that would be realised soon, and this was the root of the commitment and excitement generated by the faith. The intensity and certainty of Te Ua's vision reconciled peace and autonomy in a way which denied that, in the context of war whose issue was mana motuhake, they were irreconcilable. Hauhauism was, in Lanternari's apt phrase, a religion of the oppressed.
UA GOSPEL 39
The first of the chapters, which is an account from the beginning of God's blessing upon him before now. Here, then, begins the first.
The Casting Off 43 of Te Ua, the first prophet. 44 In The month of September, on the first of the days, 1862, 45 the love of God was carried to his people, Forgetful, 46 Standing Naked. The mind of man was not informed, and thus he was said to be “Standing Forgetful”. 47
Those indeed were the days of dispute and mistrust within the natural man. 48 I said let the ship and its cargo be guarded, and the news be carried to the councils of King Tawhiao. However, it was not approved. Who could listen to the lowliness of the natural man who spoke?
And I passed one great day, when I subjected myself to suffering. 52 I- 16
i roto i ngā ringaringa o ngā tamariki kē, e kōrero teka nei ō rātou māngai, ā, he ringaringa matau teka ō rātou ringaringa matau.
I tēnei rā, e hoa mā, kua hoki[a] ahau ki tōku mātāmuatanga. Kua pēia ngā tauiwi i runga i tōku tēpu.
Ā, kīhai i tirohia taku pēhe[a]tanga e taku iwi; i mahara hoki he pōrangi ahau. Kāhore! He mea whakamahara e te Atua kia kawea ki te nōta o taku iwi, he mea kia whakatoia ai ahau e aku whanaunga.
Heoi, kīhai aku mātua i mahara ki te pēheatanga o Pita: i uakina nei te tatau o te whare herehere e te anahera a Ihowa, ā, wetekia ana ōna herenga. E toru hoki aku herenga ki te mekameka, e toru hoki ngā wetekanga a te anahera.
Ā, tē mōhio ki tā rātou e mea ai; i reira anō tukituki ana ahau e rātou, whakahekea ana te toto hara kore.
E hoa mā, he mea tono e te Wairua ki tōna anahera, kia whakakitea te oranga ki tēnei whakatupuranga, pērā hoki ki a Hoani; i whakakitea e te Wairua ki a ia i Pātama. Nāna hoki i whakakite tēnei ingoa a te Karaiti, me ngā mea katoa kua kitea e ia. Ko taua Rūra anō hoki kua puta mai nei ki a koutou, ā, e kawe nei anō i ēnei rā ki tōna iwi. Heoi, kia manaakitia te korōria o te Atua i Runga Rawa. Koia te Kaiuhi[i]a i a koe ki te kapua.
Tēnei te mahi kūare a ō koutou tēina, te iwi kīhai nei i wehi ki Te Atua, kīhai i whakaaro ki te tangata, e mea ana i roto i tōna ngākau, E kore ahau e whakakorikoria; kāore he hē mōku, ake, ake. Kī tonu tōna māngai i te kanga, i te hīanga, i te patipati; kei raro iho i tōna arero te nanakia. Ko te āhua hoki o tēnā mahi, e whakamanamana ana ki te nui o ōna taonga. Ka kūpapa iho ia, ka piko iho, kia hinga ai te hunga rawa kore i āna meanga.
E hoa mā, kaua e pēnā. E ngā tauiwi, titiro atu ki [a] Āperahama, ki tō matua tāne, ki a Āpera hoki i whānau ai koutou.
Nāku hoki ia i karanga.
Hānuere 13, 1863.
He kupu tēnei mo ngā minita, mo Te Waitere, mo Te Kooti, mo Paraone, mo ia minita mo ia minita e noho ana ki te motu. Kia hoki Pai Mārire rātou ki tāwāhi, hoki Pai Mārire, no te mea kua tuarua te hamumutanga a Atua Mārire ki a au kia whakahokia tana iwi Wareware, Tū Kiri Kau, Motu Tū Hāwhe, arā, ki tana homaitanga ki a Te Āperahama, no te mea ko te Iharāira tēnei.
Ko te kino whakawaho rāua ko te mangu o tua iho, no te mea nāna mangu, nāna mā. Koia Kōhiwi kotahi ko Atua Mārire. Ko te taunu anake te- 17
was delivered into the hands of strange children, whose mouths speak vanity, and whose right hands are hands of falsehood. 53
And my people did not perceive my circumstances; indeed, they thought I was mad. 56 No! It was a thing willed by God, that I should be carried to the north of my people['s territory], 57 that I might be mocked by my kinsmen.
Only my elders did not remember the example of Peter, for whom the door of the prison house was opened by the angel of the Lord, and his bonds were loosed. 58 Three times, likewise, I was bound in chains, and three times they were loosed by the angel. 59
And they knew not what they did; for there they beat me, and innocent blood was shed. 60
My friends, it was a thing signified by the Spirit to his angel, that salvation be revealed to this generation, as it was, likewise, to John, when it was revealed to him by the Spirit at Patmos. 61 It was he also who revealed this name of the Christ, 62 and all the things which he had seen. It is that same Ruler 63 who has now appeared unto you, and brings these days to his people. Therefore, let the glory of the Most High God be praised. He is the one who covers you with the cloud. 64
This is the foolish work of your younger brothers, the people who feared not God, neither regarded man, 65 each saying within his heart, I will not be moved; for I shall never be in adversity. His mouth is full of curses, deceit, and fraud; under his tongue is mischief. 66 And the way of that work is, boasting in the abundance of his possessions. He crouches and humbles himself, that the poor may fall by his dealings. 67
It was I who called him.
January 13, 1863.
This is a word for the ministers, for Whiteley, 70 Te Kooti 71 and Brown, 72 for every minister living in the island. Let them go back to the other side of the sea in Goodness and Peace, 73 go back in Goodness and Peace, 74 because Peaceable God has told me twice that his people, Forgetful, Standing Naked, in the Island in Two Halves 75 will be restored, even to that which was given unto Abraham, for this is Israel. 76- 18
hē, no te mea kāore te mā e āhei kia taunu ki te mangu me te mangu ki te mā.
Koia ko tēhea ko te āhua i Taranaki maunga? Koia tēhea? Mā, mangu? Ki te mā o te pepa, ina tuhituhia nei e Hēmi Kaka Tohu rāua ko Te Ao Katoa. Koia tēhea ko te āhua i te kōhiwi e moe nei ia? Marino rāua ko Tiaho. Ko Hai Pēti tēnā, ko Wahine Māori. Koia Pōtiwha tēnā.
E mea ana koia koe, kei te haurangi ahau. Ki ahau, ko tā wai kai he waipiro e kai ai? He kai anō te kōhiwi. Ma te tāngata te hē; koia Kōhiwi te āta kai mārire.
E kiia nei e te akoranga whakatewhatewha, i waiho ai ngā kupu whakarite e Atua Mārire hei ārai atu i a Atua ma te akoranga horihori. Koia ko Minita rātou, ko Monita, koia ko au nei anō i ngā tau i mahue atu i tua o te whiu hoari.
I te tau mutunga o taua whiu ka tīmata te whawhai kōrero. Ko te tino whawhai ia e mate ai te motu nei, me i kore te iwi Taranaki rāua ko te iwi Ngāti Ruanui hei hāpai i te mana Kīngi i runga i te mārohirohi o te hamumu. Koia Kōhiwi ko te aukati e huaina nei ko Te Puru o Houtaiki rāua ko Tū Tangata Kino, i te whakatokerau mārire.
Whakaae, e Iwi Pōrewarewa, ki te kimi ritenga o Atua Mārire hei āwhina i tōna iwi Wareware, Tū Kiri Kau, ko Motu Tū Hāwhe. E hoki ki muri, ki te wā o ngā kaumātua, e tupu ai te tangata ra, huri ngā turi ki te kōhamo, kātahi ka mate te tangata.
Ko tā Atua Mārire ia ritenga. Ko Ngangau anake te hē; ko Tahuri Ake ka kai anō i a rāua. Ko tēnā, whakaherea atu. Engari, ngā painga atawhai — te waiata mārire, te haka mārire, te oriori mārire, te tā moko mārire, te tā ngutu mārire, kauae mārire, koia ā hui.
Ka rapua [a] Hai Peeti, ko ngā tāngata Māori rāua ko Wāhine Māori.
Na, tētehi mea hei whakarere makutu. E te tangata e mau ana ki te makutu, whakarerea atu. He rongo Pai Mārire tēnei, he hamumu pai atu, kia mahuetia tērā mea. Kei kī koe no Atua Mārire te hē. Mehemea e kaha ana hoki tō makutu ki te hoariri, Kōhiwi rāua ko te Wairua e pai ana kia mau koe ki te makutu. Tēnā hoki ra, kei whanaunga anō, ka kaha ai. Ehara tēnei whakaaro i a Atua Hanga Pai Mārire. Whakarerea atu, mahue Pai Mārire.
Whakamutua te whakatete whenua a kōrua ko tō tuakana, ko tō matua rānei, no te mea no kōrua tahi. Ka pā he Pākehā — āe!
Mo Tāngata o Rūnanga Kīngi tēnei hamumu, no te mea ko Mana Nui te rūnanga. Ko Mana Nui o ai? Aua. Koia ka kite. Me pēhea ka kite ai? Me- 19
he made both black and white. Thus are they one body in the God of Peace. Taunting is always wrong, for the white is not able to taunt the black, nor the black the white. 79
For which is his 80 aspect on Taranaki mountain? 81 Which is it? White? Black? 82 It is as the whiteness of paper, when it is written on by Hemi Kaka[hi] Tohu 83 and Te Ao Katoa. 84 And, which is his aspect while the natural man is sleeping? Calm 85 and Shining. 86 That is the Ace of Spades, Maori Woman. 87 She is Gleaming Night. 88
We are told by the trial teachings that the parables were left by Peaceable God as a shield from God against false teachers. 91 They were ministers and monitors, 92 and such indeed was I in years gone by before the wielding of the sword. 93
In the last year of that wielding, the war of words began. 94 But it is real fighting that will destroy this island, as if there were no Taranaki tribe and Ngati Ruanui tribe to raise the mana of the king above the bravery of the talk. Hence, Natural Man made the boundary which is called “The Blocking of Houtaiki and Tu Tangata Kino”, 95 in the peaceable northern districts.
Agree, O tribe of Inspired Ones, 96 to seek the ways of Peaceable God to help his people, Forgetful, Standing Naked in the Island in Two Halves. Turn back to the time of the ancients, when a man grew until his knees stuck out at the back of his head, and only then did he die. 97
Every rule is that of God. Quarrelling is the only wrong: once begun, it will consume them. As for that, bind it. But good and gentle things — the peaceable song, the peaceable dance, the peaceable song to children, the peaceable tattoo of lip and chin — these are the things for gatherings. 98
The Ace of Spades will be sought — Maori men and Maori women.
Now, another thing is to cast off witchcraft. 99 O you people who cling to witchcraft — cast it off. This is Good and Peaceful news, an excellent word, that that thing should be left behind. Do not say that Peaceable God is wrong. If the case were that your witchcraft was effective against the enemy, Natural Man and the Spirit would be willing that you cling towitchcraft. But as for that, do not let it be reborn and become strong. This thought is not of God the Good and Peaceful Creator. Cast it off, leave it behind in Goodness and Peace.
Put an end to land disputes between you and your older brother or your father, for it belongs to you both. On the other hand, if it is a Pakeha — yes!- 20
kimi, me rapu ki te aha? Ki te mana o Atua Mārire. Ka kite i a Tāngata Wareware rāua ko Rūnanga Wareware e takahi nei i a Atua Mārire rāua ko tana tangata i whakawahi ai.
E kore e mate te tangata ki ngā taonga nunui; ma te taonga ririki ka hinga ai.
Heoi anō taku kupu, ko te manawa nui. Tuatoru ana hokinga ki taua kupu.
Kia rongo. Kaua rawa te iwi e kai natu mai ki [a] au. Te take ra, he tahuri iho ngā pēhea na ki a rātou. Kāore e kite te tangata i tōku āhua. E kī ana pea, he kōhiwi āhua. He ao nei ahau, he katoa, he mano no te tangata.
Kua motuhia hoki ngā kaipatu tāngata. Ko au ia Kahu-ki-te-Ao.
Kia rongo te iwi me te motu ki ēnei āhua tohutohu e ako ana i a koe. Kei taunu, engari kia tahuri ki te mea mau, arā ki te hī o te motu.
Ko Patu, ko Patu; engari kia whakaiti [i] te whakaaro ki raro o te Atua me ana tauira.
He kupu ma te ngākau mahara: He mea whakaaro nui ki te ngākau mahara te tukunga iho o ngā whakaaturanga o namata. E kore e takoto kau; e hura ana ki ngā kanohi o te ngākau tohe. Tirohia atu te whakataukī nei: Tohea pūtia. Tērā atu tetahi: Ma te inoi anake, ma te nohopuku.
He kupu ako ki te iwi tapu o Atua Hanga: Kaua e tirohia ngā rā o te kūaretanga. Heoi, torona atu ō koutou ringaringa ki te takiwā o te ao. Tērā e anga mai ōna taringa, ā, e tohu i tana iwi. Kei whai ki ngā ngangau a te iwi, ki ngā totohe i roto i te pā. Kei tukua te iwi ki ō rātou tākaro.
Kei puta te kawa i roto i a koe. Heoi anō, ki a koe te inoi atu ki tō Atua kia tohungia tana iwi, kia pēhia te ngākau hae o ngā hoa tautohe.
Ki te tuarua o ngā iwi: Kia pērā anō koe te haere i ngā huarahi o ngā Pou Tē Uea. Kia wahangū ki ngā ngangau. Kia pēhia i te ngākau tohe. Kia inoi tonu ki te Atua. Kia whai i te aroha ki te rapu i te oranga. Tirohia [a]tu ngā pepeha o namata; rapua he oranga mo Iharāira, ā, noho koe i runga i te rangimārie.
Kei huna anō hoki te mea pai i roto i a koe; kia kōrerotia ki tō whakaminenga tāngata. Kei tohe nui ki tō Atua, kei huna te mea tapu ki a koe. Kia rongo ki tāna e mea ai; kia w[h]ai i muri i a ia.
He kupu ki te tuatoru, arā, ki te iwi Pōrewarewa: Kia whakapuaki mārire koe i te kupu oha ki tōu iwi; no te mea kei a koe te māramatanga. E takoto ana tāu whakataukī: He rama tō kupu ki ōku waewae, he māramatanga ki tōku ara.
Kia tino rapua anō hoki te mea tapu e kiia ana ki a koe. Kia ruia ngā hua o te rākau i whakatōkia ki a koe. Kia mā tō whakaminenga. E kohi, e tatau, e rui.- 21
see. How shall we see? For what should we seek and strive? For the power of Peaceable God. We shall see Forgetful Man and Forgetful Council trampling on Peaceable God and his man whom he annointed. 102
Man will not suffer because of great treasures; it is through small treasure that he will fall. 103
My only word is, long-suffering. Three times he repeated that word.
Give heed. Let the people in no wise be angry with me. The reason is that such behaviour will turn on them. Man does not see my form. You may say, it is the form of a man. I am a spirit, everything, a host out of mankind. 104
The slayers of men have been cut off. For I am Cloak-over-the-World. 105
Listen, O people and island, to these signs I am teaching you. Do not mock, but turn to the abiding thing, namely, the raising of the land.
Killing, killing: however, let that desire be subject to God and his disciples.
THE END 106
A word for the thoughtful heart: The handing down of the wisdom of the past is a matter of much importance to the thoughtful heart. It does not lie exposed; but it reveals itself to the eyes of the persistent heart. Ponder this saying: Earnestly contend. 107 Another is: Only by prayer and fasting. 108
A word of teaching to the holy people of God: 109 Do not gaze upon the days of ignorance. Only stretch out your hands to the whole world. He will surely incline his ears to you, and save his people. Do not pursue the quarrels of the people, the disputes within the stronghold. Do not allow me people to engage in mock battles. 110
Do not grow bitter within. For it is given unto you to entreat your God to save His people and subdue me jealous heart of the quarrelsome.
To the second of me tribes: 111 Walk in like manner in the paths of the Unshakeable Pillars. 112 Keep your counsel at quarrels. Subdue the stubborn-hearted. Continually entreat God. Practice love to seek salvation. Ponder me sayings of old. Seek salvation for Israel, and dwell in peace.
Neither hide what is good within you; let it be spoken to your harvest of men. Do not contend against your God, lest that which is holy be hidden from you. Obey his commands; follow after him.
A message to the third, namely to the tribe of Inspired Ones: Peaceably lay open the abundant word to your people, for you have the light. Here lies your proverb: Your word is a lamp unto my feet, a light unto my path. 113
Diligently search out the holy thing which is spoken unto you. May the seeds of the tree planted in you be scattered abroad. May your harvest be white. 114 Gather, bind and sow.- 22
Kia mahia anō hoki ngā mea i akona ki a koe; te pōti me ngā whakaaturanga a te Wairua ki a koe, kia tomo mai ai tō iwi i raro i a koe. Kaua e kopia; me whakatuwhera tonu, ahakoa pai, ahakoa kino.
Taku hiahia, kia mahia ngā mahi o te māramatanga. E haere ake nei te tāima e kore ai e āhei te tāngata te mahi.
He kupu ki te tuawhā, arā ki ngā kaiwhakaako o te ture: Kei waiho tō koutou māiatanga. Kua oti hoki koutou te hoko ki te wairua me te ngākau, e kore e hē. Heoi, kia tohe anō kia waiho te kotahitanga o te Wairua i runga i te rangimārietanga. Tirohia te whakataukī a ō koutou tūpuna, ā, ma koutou hoki āianei.
Ka tohe ahau ki a koutou, e hoa mā, ki ngā mahi tohu a te Atua. Ā, kia māia anō te tomo i raro i tōna ataranga.
Kia whai kupu anoō i roto i ō koutou māngai, anō he tōmairangi e whakamākūkū ana i te tarutaru hou. I reira anō ka māia tana kupu, aā e kore e maroke i te raumati tō kupu.
Ki te matua-[ā]-iwi: Kaua e māngere ki te mahi; kia toa te wairua kia rongo ki te Ariki.
He kupu kotahi ki ngā kaiwhakawā: Ko tēnei kupu, na, kei whakahaere hē koutou, ina whakarite whakawā. Kaua e titiro ki te kanohi o te rawakore, kaua anō hoki e whakahōnoretia te kanohi o te nui.
Te kupu ki a Matua-ā-Iwi: Kia rongo ki ngā kaiārahi i a tātou. Kaua anō hoki e whakatōia te mea i puta mai i ō rātou māngai. He hunga tērā i wehea mo te kī tapu. Kua oti mo rātou te kōrero oha a te Ariki: kei runga i aku pononga taku manaakitanga, ā, ma rātou ka tū ai taku iwi i te iwi.
Kia rongo ki te ture, kia whiwhi ai koutou ki te oranga tonutanga, kia kite ai i ngā rā pai. Kia tū mataku i te aroaro o tō tātou Ariki.
Kia pai anō hoki ki ō tātou rama; kia rongo ki tōna e mea ai. Kei turi ki ngā monita; kia tū tapatahi i ō rātou aroaro.
Kia pēnā tātou me te wāina hua i ngā taha o ngā whare, ki ngā māhuri ōrewa hoki e karapotia nei i te tēpara.
Me āta kōrero mārire, e ai nei ngā ritenga Pai Mārire ngā ritenga kūare o ngā iwi nei.
Te Pou-Tē-Uea me te Tuku, ko te tautohe roa ki te Kaihanga. Kia uia mea iti, mea rahi. Me tango; māu e hanga. Ka kite koe i te hē, i te tika, kawea atu anō ki a ia. Kaua e riri nui ki te whakahē i tāna e mea ai, kei huna ki a koe ngā mea papai no te rangi.
Te iwi Pōrewarewa: Kei takahi i te mātau o mua, kei matapōtia koe. Engari kia rongo ki tāna e mea ai.- 23
My desire is that the works of light be pursued. A time is coming when no man can work. 117
A message to the fourth, namely the teachers of the law: Do not forsake your courage. You have been wholly redeemed in spirit and heart, and you will not err. Whereupon strive to keep the unity of the spirit within peace. 118 Ponder the saying of your fathers; it is now for you.
I commend to you, my friends, the merciful works of God. Therefore, enter in boldly beneath his shadow.
Let the words of your mouths be as the dew which moistens the new growth. 119 Then shall his word be boldly proclaimed, and your message to the body of the people will never wither in the summertime. 120
To the body of the people: Do not be weary of work; let your spirit be strong to hear the Lord.
One word to the judges: This word is: do no unrighteousness in judgment. Neither look upon the face of the poor nor honour the face of the mighty. 121
The message to the body of the people: Obey the workers among us. Do not dispute what issued out of their mouths. They are a people separated unto the holy word. 122 On their account is the abundant word of the Lord fulfilled: my blessing is upon my servants, and through them my people will be established out of the people.
Give heed to the law, that you may inherit eternal life, 123 and that you may see happy days. Stand fearfully before our Lord.
Be good to our torchbearers; give heed to what he [sic] says. Do not be deaf to the monitors; stand singlemindedly before them.
Let us be like the fruitful vine on the sides of the houses, and like the olive saplings round about the table. 124
Speak with all peaceableness, so that the foolish ways of these tribes will become the ways of Goodness and Peace.
The Unshakeable Pillar and the Duke are to wrestle long with the Creator. Let matters great and small be enquired upon. Take them; they are for you to deal with. When you see right or wrong, carry it away to him again. 125 Do not wrathfully condemn what he says, lest the good things of heaven be hidden from you.
The tribe of Inspired Ones: Do not trample the knowledge of old, lest you be blinded; rather, give heed to what he says.- 24
Ki te iwi Mōnita: Kei hapa tā te Ariki i tohutohu ki roto i a koe. Ma tō hinengaro aroha e tū wheta ai ki a koe.
Ki a Matua-ō-Iwi katoa: Ko te whakatete te pūtake o te hapa. Kua whakahāwea katoa ki tō Atua. Kua mea anō he atua teka. Kei mea ra tātou no te Atua te hapa. Kāore; na te whakatoi ki ngā kupu a te Atua. Ā, ka rapu nei tātou i te whakahāwea.
Me utu koia tōna aroha ki te aha kua puta mai nei ia; arā ma te manaaki.
Kaua e hapa tētehi ō āna e mea ai, heoi, meingatia katoatia ki te hiahia.
Kua kitea e ahau i taku moenga tētehi whakakitenga, anō he kapua nui e tū ana, ā, whakapōuritia ana te rā me tōna māramatanga. Ka rongo ahau he reo e karanga ana i te takiwā, Auē, ka rite taku iwi ki ngā whetū e taka iho ana i ngā rangi, ā, e kore e hoki atu ki reira anō. Ko taku i whiriwhiri ai kua whakawāngia.
Heoi, kia mau ki tō kōhatu, kei rite tōna kupu e mea nei. Ma te rongo anake ka mau ai. Ka tohungia ai tēnā anō me tātou ki ā tātou tamariki; ma te rongo i kiia ia he tamaiti nōu. Ā, ki te kāhore, ka whiua, pēnā anō i a ia e whiu nei i a tātou. Heoi, ka waiho tēnā whiunga hei maumahara ma te iwi. Kia mārama ki ōna pānga mai o te whiu e ako ana i a koe; ki te kore e rongo, ka nuku atu i tēnā whiu.
Tirohia atu tō pūtake i whakaorangia i roto i te korenga. Kei whai anō kia tino tae ki ēnārā i a Kerēia, i a Hamahona, ā, ka waiho ēnā rā hei āwangawanga i roto i a koe.
He nui anō taku pōuri nōku. Kīhai i rongo ki te ture, arā, kia tomo kopa ki te ora, turi ngongengonge rānei.
E mea ana te kūaretanga o te tangata, ma te hamumu anake o te māngai, aua te hinengaro o te iwi.
Te iwi, kia kaha ki te whakapono, kia meinga ai koe he kāhui kotahi i raro i a ia. Titiro atu ki tō hoa tohe. Na te aha i tū ai? Na te rongo ki te ture, na te manaaki ki ō rātou kaiwhakahaere. Koia tēnā te ture o tō tātou Atua, ko te manaaki, ko te whakarongo.
Kei rite tātou ki te tarakihi, e ngahau nei i te raumati, ā, i te makariritanga, kua kāhore.
Kei rite anō hoki ki te purapura hua kore, e kore nei e maharatia e ngā kaiwhakatō. Heoi, kia whai hua i ngā tau maha, ā, tērā e titiro mai a te kaiwhakatō ki te hua o ana purapura, ā, ka hari, ka koa anō hoki [i] a ia e noho ana ingā rangi.
Ā, e kore rānei tō āhua e meinga hei whakatoi mo te hunga wairangi. 4. Ā, ka rite rātou ki te tarutaru e ngingio noa iho nei i te raumati.
Kia whakapae tō pai i te hunga e ninihi kē nei i a koe, ā, ka waiho hei wāhi- 25
To the tribe of Monitors: Let not that which the Lord laid up within you be passed over. By your loving heart it shall be opened unto you. 126
To the whole body of the people: Rebelliousness is the cause of your destitution. You have altogether despised your God. You have said he is a false god. Let us not say that destitution comes from God. No, it comes from disobeying the words of God. Thus we courted destitution. 127
For we should repay his love with that which he brings forth, namely with praise.
Do not despise anything he says; then all we desire will be accomplished.
I have seen on my bed a vision, as if a great cloud arose, darkening the sun and its light. I heard a voice crying in space, Alas, my people are like stars falling from the heavens, never to return to their place again. That which I chose has been judged.
Whereupon cling to your rock, 128 lest his word which I speak be fulfilled. It is only through hearing that you will cling. 129 He teaches us as we teach our children: through listening, he is called a child of yours. And if he does not, he is chastised, as He chastises us. 130. Whereupon that chastisement remains as an example for the people. Understand that the striking of the lash is teaching you; if you do not listen, he increases the lash.
Great indeed is my own distress. I did not listen to the law, which says, Enter into life lame, or on crippled knees. 133
The foolishness of man says it is by the words of the mouth alone, not the heart of the people. 134
People, be strong in faith that you might be called one flock under Him. Consider your enemy: through what do they stand? Through obeying the law, through respecting their leaders. For that is the law of our God: respect and obedience.
Let us not be like the locust, which is carefree in the summertime but in the cold he is no more. 135
Neither be like the barren seed, which will not be cherished by the sowers. But let it be fruitful through many years, and then the sower will gaze upon the fruit of his seeds and be joyful, and rejoice in it all his days. 136
Let your goodness accuse the people who steal from you, and let it remain- 26
koa ki roto i a koe. Koia e akona nei kia mau ki tō taonga hou i heke iho nei kia koe.
Na te aha, koia, e waiho ai ō kaiwhakapae hei apa mōu? Ma te kaha ki te patu? Ma te māngere? Ma te whakatoi? Ma te taunu? Ma te whakaaro kore? Kāore. Ma te nui anake o te kaha ki te karanga ki a ia.
Kia anga nui mai ki a mātou, e Ihowa!
Hepetema, 1 o ngā rā, 1862.
Ka kawea te aroha o te Atua ki tōna iwi, Tū Kiri Kau, Motu Tū Hāwhe. Kīhai i mōhiotia e te hinengaro o te tangata, koia anō i kiia ai tōna ingoa ko Tū Wareware.
I reira anō ngā rā o te tautohe me te whakaaro i te hinengaro o te tāngata. I mea ahau kia kawea te rongo o te kaipuke ki te rūnganga [sic] a Īngiki Tawhiao Pōtatau. Heoi, kīhai tēnā kupu i paingia e te hinengaro o te tāngata.
No te iwa o ngā rā o taua marama ka puta mai ki a au te anahera a Ihowa, ka mea, kia nohopuku ahau mo te hara a te iwi. Ā, kotahi rā i nohopuku ai ahau. I taua rā anō ka tangohia ahau e ia i roto i ngā ringaringa o ngā tamariki kē, e kōrero teka nei ō rātou mangai.
Ā, kīhai i tirohia taku pēheatanga e taku iwi; i mahara hoki rātou he pōrangi ahau.
Ā, he mea whakamahara hoki ahau e te Atua kia kawea ki te hauāuru taku iwi, he mea kia whakatoia ahau e aku iwi.
Heoi, kīhai ōku mātua i mahara ki te pēwheatanga o Pita, i uakina ai te tatau o te whare herehere e te anahera a Ihowa, ā, wetekia ana ōna herenga. E toru aku herenga ki ngā mekameka, e toru hoki ngā wetekanga a te anahera.
Ā, tē mahara ki tā rātou i mea ai; tukituki[a] ana ahau e rātou, a, whakahekea ana te toto hara kore.
E hoa mā, he mea tono na te Wairua ki tōna anahera kia whakakitea te oranga ki tēnei whakatupuranga, pērā hoki ki a Hoani, i whakakitea ki a ia e te Wairua ki te motu o Patamo. Nāna hoki i kōrero te ingoa o te Karaiti me ngā mea katoakia kiia i kitea e ia.
Ā, ko taua Rūra anō hoki kua puta mai nei ki a koutou, āe, e kōrero nei anō ki a koutou i te oranga ki tana iwi. Kia manaakitia te ingoa a Ihowa i waenganui o te ao. Koia e ārahi nei i a koe ki ngā kapua.
Kua kite e ahau te kōhiwi anahera tokowhā e tū ana i ngā pito e whā o te whenua, e mea ana, Kia kaua e pupuhi te hau ki te moana, kaua ki te motu, kaua- 27
as a place of rejoicing within you. Thus are you taught to cling to your new treasure which descended upon you. 139
For through what, then, will your accusers become a company of workers for you? Through prowess in battle? Through sloth? Through rebelliousness? Through taunts? Through thoughtlessness? No! Only by the constancy of your strength in calling upon him.
Turn to us, O Jehovah!
[UA RONGOPATI 140
The love of God was carried to his people, Standing Naked, the Island in Two Halves. It was not understood by the mind of man, and thus he was called “Standing forgetful”.
Then indeed were the days of dispute and wondering in the mind of men. I said, let the news of the ship be carried to the council of King Tawhiao Potatau. But this word was not acceptable to the mind of men.
On the ninth of the days of that month the angel of the Lord appeared unto me, and he told me to fast for the sins of my people. And for one day I fasted. And on that day he delivered me into the hands of strange children, whose mouths speak falsehood.
And my people did not understand my situation; indeed, they thought I was mad.
But it was God's will that my people be carried to the west, that I might be mocked by my tribes.
For my elders did not remember the circumstances of Peter, for whom the door of the prison house was opened by the angel of the Lord, and his bonds loosed. Three times was I bound in chains, and three times the angel loosed them.
And they knew not what they did; they beat me, and innocent blood was shed.
Friends, it was signified by the Spirit to his angel, that salvation might be revealed to this generation, as it was to John, when it was revealed to him by the Spirit on the Isle of Patmos. It was he also who uttered the name of Christ, and all the things spoken of which he saw.
And it is that same Ruler who has come forth to you, yea, and speaks to you of the salvation of his people. Let the name of the Lord be praised throughout the world. He it is who guides you with clouds.
And I saw the forms of four angels standing on the four corners of the earth, saying, Let not the wind blow on the sea nor on the land nor on any- 28
ki ngā rākau.
I kitea hoki e ahau i Kōhiwi, ko Tama-Rūra tōna ingoa, ki a ia hoki te hiiri o te Atua ora, ka karanga ia, ka mea, Kaua e whakakinoa te motu, kaua te iwi, ka hiiri hoki ahau i ngā pononga a te Atua ki ō rātou rae.
Ā, kua whakakitea mai anō ki a au he aohau, me tana kupu e mea ana, Ahakoa ra, e kore e whakamutua taku aroha, e kore taku pono e hē. E kore anō hoki e whakaputaina kētia te mea puta atu. He mea hōnore te mea puta atu, he mea hōnore te mea homai noa ki tōna iwi, Tū Kiri Kau, Motu Tū Hāwhe.
Heoi anō, na Te Ua Haumene.
Ko ngā kōrero tēnei o te putanga mai o te Atua ki a Te Ua, arā o te anahera o Ihowa ki a ia i te whare herehere.
Hepetema, 1 o ngā rā, 1863.
Te tahi o ngā upoko, te rā o te Kapenga. Kei hoki ki te Whare o Tāpeta, engari e hoki ki te Whare o Hēma. Kua kapea hoki te iōka taimaha; koia te kupu o te Kapenga. Kua hoki ahau ki taku mātāmuatanga. Kua kapea e au ngā mea whakawai, arā te iōka taimaha a ngā Pārihi a ngā Hāruki.
Kia whakakorōriatia koe e te Atua e tū nei koe i te tuanui o te ao. Nāu te korōria, rirerire hau.- 29
I saw also the form of one whose name is Son-Ruler, having with Him the seal of the living God, and he cried out, saying, Hurt not the land, neither the people, till I seal the servants of our God on their foreheads.
And there was revealed to me a spirit, and his word that he spoke was, Nevertheless, my love will never end, my truth will never fail. Neither shall that which has come forth be put aside; it is an honourable thing, freely given to his people, Standing Naked, in the Island in Two Halves.
That is all; by Te Ua Haumene.
These are the accounts of God's appearances to Te Ua, that is, of the angel of the Lord to him in the prison house.
September, 1st of the days, 1863 [sic].
The first of the chapters, the day of the Casting Off. Do not return to the House of Japheth, but return to the House of Shem. The heavy yoke has been cast off; that is the word of the Casting Off. I have returned to my birthright. I have cast off enticements, namely, the heavy yoke of the Pharisees and Sadducees.
May you be glorified, O God, standing upon the roof of the world. Yours is the glory, rirerire hau.
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1 Ua Rongopai Notebook, Grey N.Z. Maori Manuscripts, GNZ MMSS 1, Grey Collection, Auckland Public Library (hereinafter APL). I am indebted to Ms P. French, Head Librarian, New Zealand and Pacific Department, Auckland Public Library, for permission to publish this manuscript.
2 Before Te Ua became a prophet, he signed letters Horopāpera (Zerubbabel, his baptismal name) Te Ua. Some time between late 1862 and mid-1864, he took the spiritual name Haumene (‘Windman’). Hau is the spirit of God in the image of wind, through whom Te Ua received prophecy. Mene, ‘man’, is an example of Te Ua's use of transliteration, which was belived to demonstrate a super-naturally acquired grasp of English. Te Ua was the founder of the Hauhau faith.
3 The name Hauhau has been rejected in recent work on the grounds that it is a perjorative term coined by Pakeha in the 1860s. This is not the case; the word was used by Te Ua to describe his followers: He Ture Enei mo ngā Mahi a Hauhau, ‘Laws for the work of the Hauhau’, October 29, . Ua Rongopai Notebook. The term signified to believers their communication with God through the gifts of the Spirit.
4 Te Ua, King Tawhiao,Te Kooti and Rua Kenana all left substantial writings. The teachings of Te Whiti and Tohu were widely reported, particularly in the 1870s.
5 Deuteronomy 17, 14:15; quoted by Wiremu Tamihana, October 22, 1863 (He Ohākī No te Kīngitanga a Pōtatau Te Wherowhero, o Tawhiao, 1860-1870, Auckland University Library, p8).
6 That is, within the King movement. Nevertheless, only a minority of Maori fought on either side during the 1960s wars.
7 Wiremu Tamihana, the King Movement leader, is the classic case. See Mikaere 1989:114-6.
8 “Prophet” is used in the sense of a religious leader with a supernaturally sourced message of national salvation; this definition excludes the numerous 19th century tohunga,local religious teachers who claimed the power to cure illness and resolve personal difficulties. King Tawhiao, and perhaps others, banned people from practising as tohunga. The definition also excludes the forerunner, Papahurihia, who began teaching a few concepts derived from the Bible in 1833. It is noted that King Tawhiao, Te Kooti, Te Whiti and Potangaroa rejected the appellation “prophet”, which had been brought into disrepute by the excesses of some Hauhau.
9 Until his baptism by Te Ua, he was known as Matutaera. Tawhiao was a name of his father, King Potatau, and Te Ua may have chosen it to reinforce the principle of hereditary succession, which had been in doubt at the time of Potatau's death in 1860.
10 Identified in the Ua Rongopai Notebook only as “Tito”; the possibility remains that this figure was Te Ua's associate, the chief Tito Te Hanataua.
11 The three, unnamed in the Notebook, were named in Anaru Matete to Paratene Titore, June 7, 1866 (McLean coll., Ms papers 32:699, Alexander Turnbull Library, hereinafter ATL).
12 Meeting at pūtahi, December 24-5, 1865 (Ua Rongopai Notebook). Te Ua was probably the person identified as Te Manaakitanga, ‘The Blessing’.
13 This suggestion is based on the arrival in the South Island of a Taranaki religious teacher called Piripi [?Kiore], preaching Hauhau ideas. Piripi was later associated with Parihaka (Mikaere 1988:39).
14 E.g., Kereopa Te Rau, a former official in the Hauhau faith, possibly a Duke. Although the debt to Te Ua is often denied, the similarities between him and Te Kooti are striking.
15 Evidence of contact between Te Ua and Tamati Te Ito, leader of the Wahi Tapu or Kaingarara movement in midcentury Taranaki, and the enthusiastic character of both Wahi Tapu and the Hauhau faith suggest that Te Ua may have been active in the earlier movement.
16 The political background is explained in Parsonson 1987.
17 Erueti to Rev. Riemenschneider, November 18, 1861 (Taranaki Herald, November 23, 1861:3). Te Ua's position was considerably more antiPakeha than that of the King and established Taranaki leaders. See e.g., Matutaera Potatau to Tamati Kaweora, December 13, 1861 (Taranaki Herald, June 7, 1862).
18 A “relative of Erueti Te Whiti” to Karena [probably Garland Woon R.M.] (Taranaki Herald, October 18, 1862:2).
19 For the events following the stranding of the Lord Worsley, see Clark 1975:6-10. Being the most recent work on Te Ua, Clark's book is cited for references which chart the course of the faith, although his conclusions about its nature require considerable qualification.
20 Independent corroboration comes from Robert Graham MHR, a passenger on the Lord Worsley, who, on September 5, 1862, wrote of a man who must have been Te Ua:
I saw a Porewarewa, a native who appeared to have lost his reason he was very excited he called me to him, shook hands and patted me on the shoulders and told me to stand still, as he turned I walked off, he continued using threatening language endeavouring to excite others but…I do not think he was aware of what he said (“Robert Graham to Supt New Plymouth, September 15, 1862 (GNZ MSS 92(13), Grey Collection, APL).
21 Te Ua MS, October 26, 1862. (Atkinson papers, MS papers 1187:15AE, Polynesian Society Collection, ATL).
22 Parris to Colonial Secretary, December 8, 1864 (AJHR 1865, E4 No 4, p5).
23 Te Ua to Te Waharoa et al, September 1, 1864 (He Ohākī pp.9-10).
24 For the death of Carl Volkner, see Clark, 1975:19-21.
25 The revisionist explanation of Volkner's death as a penalty for spying for the Government which has recently been promoted by both Maori and Pakeha writers is unsatisfactory; however, this question is outside the scope of the present study.
26 One of the implications of this for the evolution of the thought of the mana motuhake movements is the emergence of the concept of the unknown high god in the second half of the century.
27 There is no indication that Te Ua rejected any of the Bible; on the contrary, his kaha, confidence, sprang from his assurance that he served the fulfillment of its word.
28 “…the Pai Marire system of deities goes to the heart of its theology. Eclecticism is epitomized by Te Ua's array of gods” (Clark 1975:79).
29 The name Rūra, ‘Ruler’, was for Te Ua synonymous with supernatural power, and he substituted it for, or added it to, the names of various biblical figures.
30 Kua tae mai mātou ki a Te Ua (the Profit)[sic]. Kia rongo mai koutou, e toru ngā kupu i haria mai e Tuta (Matutaera): ‘Ko te Ingarangi, ko te Wēteriana, ko te Kātorikia: ko ēnei e toru kua whakarerea. Ka hopu tēnā au ki te mea kotahi, arā ki tāu!’ Ka hinga a Te Ua ki raro, kawhakahōnore ki tāna kupu. Kātahi ka kīmai a Te Ua, ‘E tama, e tama, kua Karaitiana koe!’ (Te Ngahuru et al. to Nuimoa, Ngata, Kaiaka et al., August 29, 1864. McLean coll. MS 32:693, ATL).
31 Robin Winks prefaced his study of the Hauhau faith (1953:199) with the quotation: “Today is but yesterday coming in by the backdoor”, and stated in his opening paragraph: “[Hauhauism] was a combination of many renewed Maori customs, with a few Christian practices unobtrusively and unconsciously added.”
32 The only mythological reference is the name of the aukati, which is unlikely to have been bestowed by Te Ua; see note 95. The name of the highest office of the church, the Pou Tē Uea, ‘The Pillar Not to be Shaken’, recalls a classical ritual; see note 109. Kōhiwi, the term Te Ua used for himself when he was speaking in his own strength rather than that of God, expresses a relationship to the supernatural world; see note 48. Te Ua's use of language shows his confidence in his own thought; he divorced existing words from their traditional context if they could express his meaning or purpose; if they could not, he used transliterated English words.
33 Te Ua's attempts to submit in mid-1865 were inconclusive. He finally surrendered in January 1866 and was taken prisoner the following month.
34 Clark 1975:76. Clark was misled by an inaccurate translation of key passages of Te Ua's Gospel, as indicated by the following examples from p.101 of his study: engari tahuri ki te hī o te motu; ‘rather turn to that which concerns you, to the key of the land which is peace.’ This should read, ‘Rather turn to the raising of the land.’ Taku hiahia kia mahia ngā mahi o te māramatanga: ‘My deepest wish is that the way of peace and love be the one to salvation.’ This should read, ‘My desire is that the works of light be pursued.’
35 This supports the evidence of surviving manuscripts that, in the 1860s, Maoridom was perceived by the Government as a literate culture, and opposes the recent view that “The question is…an even more fundamental one than whether or not Maori failed to become fully literate in the 1830s, or why the missionaries failed to teach them full literacy. It is, rather, why has the Maori ‘failed’ to become literate at all?” (McKenzie 1985:15).
36 Also essential to a full understanding of the faith is an understanding of the relationship between the various literate and oral traditions which coexisted within it. Most of this work has yet to be undertaken.
37 Personal communication, Mr R. C. A. Maaka, May 28, 1989.
38 E whakaatu ana ahau i a koe i rungai te ingoa o te A tua Pai Mārire, o A tua Tama Pai Mārire, o A tua Wairua Pai Mārire.
39 Ua Rongopai, Ua Gospel, consists of the two texts at the start of the Ua Rongopai Notebook which are headed UA RONGOPAI. Between the chapters are morning and evening prayers, which have not been included here.
40 Wāhi has been read as ‘land’, following a paraphrase of Genesis 49 in which Te Ua used takiwā o Kenana in a context which requires this reading (R. C. Mainwaring to Native Minister, December 24, 1864. AJHR 1864, e-8 encl. 1 to No. 9, p10). Both wāhi and takiwā suggest an area less than the whole country, and this may reflect Kingite policy, under which only land not sold to the Pakeha was claimed as Maori territory.
41 Canaan was the land God Promised as a perpetual homeland to Abraham and his descendants (Genesis 17:18).
42 This date supports other evidence that chapter 1 was recorded in anticipation of the visit of King Matutaera and the Kingite chiefs. The last digit has a 2 superimposed on the 4, which suggests an attempt to change the date to that of the vision the chapter records. As this would also require a change of month, Te Korou's original intent — that is, to give the date of recording — has been retained.
43 The reading of kapenga as ‘casting off’ is supported by a text in He Ohākī, p.4, which records part of the version of Ua Rongopai Te Ua preached to the King party in August 1864. See Appendix 2, p.x(53).
44 While “first” implies subsequent prophets, it is not clear whether Te Ua so regarded other Hauhau figures to whom the term was commonly applied by non-Hauhau.
45 This was the day the mail steamer Lord Worsley was beached in a storm. Its passengers were held for some days but were eventually ransomed and freed unharmed. Te Ua considered the shipwreck to be ordained by God; among other things, it was the origin of the later belief that Te Ua had the power to draw ships on shore.
46 Wareware means both ‘forgetful’ and ‘forgotten’. Te Ua taught that misfortune was the result of turning away from God, therefore ‘forgetful’ has been preferred.
47 This appears to be a reference to Te Ua's psychological state following his vision. Te Ua also used ‘Standing Forgetful’ and ‘Standing Naked’ as collective personifications for the people. Similarly, Te Whiti in 1870 described the people at Parihaka as Ngatī Tū Paia, ‘The Descendants of Standing Blocked Up’ (MS papers 75 B36/54, ATL).
48 Kōhiwi is ‘the medium of an atua when not possessed by the atua’ (Williams, 1971:25). Te Ua used kōhiwi to contrast the natural human condition with the authority bestowed by God.
49 He Ohākī has te iwa, ‘the ninth’; see page 26.
50 Cf. the experience of Te Kooti at Wharekauri in 1867.
51 Nohopuku means either ‘fast’ or ‘dumb’. As sin is a common reason for fasting in the Bible, the former has been preferred, but Te Ua may be aligning himself with Zacharias, who, visited by the angel Gabriel, was struck dumb for unbelief (Luke 1:11-22).
52 A chronology of these events written by Te Ua on October 26, 1862 gives this day as September 10 (Te Ua MS, Atkinson Papers, MS papers 1187:15C, ATL). Interviewed in 1865, he gave it as the 11th (Taranaki Herald, May 27, 1865:2-3. In 1861 Wiremu Tamihana said that the 10th day of each month should be kept by Kingite Maori as hei rā nohopuku, hei rā inoi, ‘a day of fasting and prayer’ (Te Hokioi E Rere A tu Na, January 1, 1863). Any connection between this and Te Ua's event is a matter of speculation.
53 Tangohia atu ahau, whakaorangia hoki i ngā ringa o ngā tamariki kē e kōrero tekanei ō rātou māngai, ā he matau tekatō rātou ringamatau. ‘Rid me, and deliver me from the hand of strange children, whose mouth speaketh vanity, and their right hand is a right hand of falsehood’ (Psalms 144:11). Quotations from the Psalms are from Ko Ngā Waiata a Rāwiri 1848. Quotations are given in Maori as well as English when Te Ua appears to be quoting the Bible, or very nearly so. Where the linguistic parallel is less close but the content comparable, the Bible is quoted in English only. Te Ua's immersion in the Bible means that this language is suffused with biblical echoes; these are not referenced unless there are indications that he is thinking of a particular passage. Quotations from the Bible in English are given in the Authorised Version.
54 The birthright belonged to the firstborn. The firstborn of the Lord was Israel, with whom Te Ua identified Maoridom (Exodus 4:22).
55 The Israelites were concerned with racial purity in times of reform; therefore possibly an echo of Nehemiah 9 and 13, in which reform in Jerusalem included the eviction of strangers from their apartments in the courts of the house of God. The passage may reflect King Movement policy on the separation of Maori and Pakeha, which was supported subsequently by most independent religious leaders.
56 See note 20 for a Pakeha opinion. It is not clear how long Te Ua was considered mad by his relations, but this was still the case when Robert Parris saw him at Christmas 1862.
57 … ki te nōta o taku iwi. He Ohākī has hauāuru, ‘west’; see page 26. Another report says he was taken into the mountains. The points of the compass and their English names, transliterated into Maori, were a common motif in religious writings of this period.
58 Acts 12: 6-11
59 The comparison with Saint Peter is paralleled by another with Abraham, when Te Ua's faith was tested by a trial involving the sacrifice of his son; see Clark 1975:10-11. This episode was not recorded in the Ua Rongopai Notebook.
60 The echo of Luke 23:24, ‘Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do’, suggests that this passage is drawing a parallel with the shedding of the innocent blood of Christ.
61 The Revelation of St John the Divine, the last book of the New Testament, records an apocalyptic vision in which an angel appeared to the apostle John on the Isle of Patmos and revealed the forthcoming tribulation, the return of Christ, the end of the old earth and heaven, and the establishment of the new Jerusalem.
62 In Revelation, Christ is revealed as the Lamb; the Lamb figured in the early teachings of Te Whiti, Tohu and Titokowaru.
63 It is not certain whether ‘Ruler’ refers to the angel Gabriel or Christ, as Te Ua attached the name to both; both the angel and the Christ rule in Revelation. However as He Ohākī uses the form ‘Tama-Rura’ in an expanded version of this passage, Jesus is probably to be preferred.
64 He Ohākī has ‘He it is who guides you with clouds’ see page 27. Possibly a comparison with the children of Israel, whom God guided by day by a pillar of cloud. Alternatively, the passage may refer to the second coming, of which Te Ua said a particular kind of cloud was a sign. Te Ua's belief accords with biblical information that Jesus Christ will return in a cloud (Mark 13:26, Matthew 24:30, 26:64 Revelation 14:14).
65 He kaiwhakawā anō i tētahi pā, kīhai nei i wehi ki te A tua, kīhai anō hoki i wakaaro ki te tangata; ‘There was in a city a judge, which feared not God, neither regarded man’ (Luke 18:2). Quotations from the New Testament are from Ko te Kāwenata Hou o Tō Tātou A riki Te Kai Whakaora a Ihu Karāiti 1844.
66 E mea ana i roto i tōna, ngākau E kore ahau e whakakorikoria. Kāhore hoki he hē mōku ake ake. Kītonu tōnamāngai i te kanga, i te hīanga, i te patipati: kei raro iho i tōna arero te nanakia me te teka. ‘He hath said in his heart, I shall never be moved: for I shall never be in adversity. His mouth is full of cursing and deceit and fraud: under his tongue is mischeif and vanity’ (Psalms 10: 6-7).
67 Ka Kupapa iho ia, piko iho, kia hinga ai te hunga rawakore i ana mea kaha. ‘He croucheth, and humbleth himself, that the poor may fall by his strong ones’ (Psalms 10:10).
68 Te Ua's address to the ‘strangers’, i.e. the Pakeha, is consistent with an outlook which reserves deliverance not for a race, but for the righteous. A universalist ideology was typical of Maori writing in this period.
69 Abel, the second son of Adam and Eve, was slain by his older brother Cain (Genesis 4:8).
70 John Whiteley was the Wesleyan missionary who baptised Te Ua during his childhood as a slave of the Waikato at Kawhia. Whiteley was appointed to the Native Dept in New Plymouth in 1855 and, in the following year, resumed mission work in Taranaki. His promotion of land purchase at low prices is noted in Sinclair 1961:223.
71 Kooti is a transliteration which represents various English words, but no Pakeha missionary whose name it could represent has been identified. Kooti can be rendered as ‘Scott’. There was a Taranaki settler and mail carrier called Thomas Scott, but there is no record of his church connections; in view of the importance of the issue of the passage of mail through territory under the mana of the king, Scott may well be referred to here. A Ngati Kahungunu Wesleyan missionary who had severed among Taranaki Maori on the Chathams was Te Kooti [Scott] Te Rato; in view of the ill-feeling in Taranaki against Maori serving the Pakeha church, it is possibly he who is being addressed.
72 “Brown” is probably the Rev. H. H. Brown who arrived in Taranaki in 1859.
73 The traditional translation ‘Goodness and Peace’, which emanated from Pakeha sources in the 1860s, treats the phrase as two unrelated words. However, Mārire may be an intensive qualifying Pai, in which case a closer reading is ‘Perfect Goodness’. This reading would encompass peace, but also convey the transcendence of Te Ua's vision, which the translation ‘Goodness and Peace’ lacks. The traditional translation is supported by Te Ua's occasional use of mārire alone as ‘peace’, and is retained pending further research. It must be stressed that the qualities of Pai Mārire were not separate in Te Ua's mind, but an expression of the indivisible and ineffable perfection of the nature of God. Te Ua applied the term to the Trinity and, as here, to works which reflect the nature of God. Mārire/mārie, peaceable, is to be understood in the New Testament sense, as e.g., in Colossions 3:15, te mārietanga o te Atua ‘the peace of God.’.
74 The phrase kia hoki Pai Mārire rātou ki tāwahi was echoed in a song written by Maihi Pohepohe and Tomita Te Mutu of Ngaiterangi after their chief, the Hauhau believer Hori Tupaea, was captured by Te Arawa loyalist soldiers on February 14, 1865: Me whakahoki Pai Mārire a Te A rawaki tōna tupuranga mai, ki Hawaiki. ‘Te Arawa must be sent back in Goodness and Peace to Hawaiki whence they sprung’ (Cowan 1983:2:82-3).
75 Tū is read as a transliteration in the light of: ngatū hāw he o ākoutou kaimahi ‘the two halves of our workers’, He Ture … ‘Laws…’ (October 29, 1865, Ua Rongopai Notebook). Te Ua's interest in the idea of “halves” is further illustrated in a letter in which he called the territory under the mana of the King the ‘half of Canaan which has ascended up out of the darkness and peace’ (Te Ua to Nathan, May 30, 1864, White Letterbook, p.63; translation only has survived).
76 God made a covenant with Abraham, promising his descendants the land of Canaan, and his line great increase. Abraham begat Isaac, who begat Jacob, whose name was changed to Israel, and the twelve tribes of Israel descended from his twelve sons (Genesis 17, 22).
77 Passage read tentatively. “He” may be Esau, whose birthright was taken by Jacob, and whose story is taken up in both Old and New Testaments, but, more likely, this reference is to the sons of Hams. See note 78.
78 The ‘black race of old’ is probably a reference to Genesis 9:18-27, in which Ham, the father of Cannan, was cursed by his father, Noah. The idea that Ham was the father of the black peoples, and that the curse upon them continued through the ages, was conveyed to Maori in 1847 in an aggressively expressed history of the Old Testament:
Otiia e tika ana anō tēnei kōrero mo ngā uri katoa o Hama, mo ngā tāngata o Ā wherika: ko rātou te hunga e whakataurekarekatia nei, e whakatupuria kinotia nei e rātou whakarātou, e ngā iwi kē hoki o Ōropi, o Āwherika. Ko ngā uri o Kanaana[sic] ngā tāngata i rokohanga mai e ngā Hūrai i tō rātou hokinga mai Ihipa ki Kanaana; ā tangohia ana tō rātou whenua; patua ana ētahi, meinga ana ētahi hei hunga homai takoha. Ko Hema te pū o ngā Hūrai, o tā te A tua iwi i whiriwhiri ai, i pai ai; no reira taua kupu nei ‘Te A tua o Hema’. Ko Hema anō hoki te tupuna o ngō iwi o Āhia, arā, o tērā whenua i te taha ki te rāwhiti o Kanaana. Na kua noho a Hapeta, (ngā tāngata o Ōropi,) ki ōna tēneti: ki ōna tēneti, arā, ki tana tāpenakara, ki tana karakia: no ngā Hūrai hoki te tīmatanga mai o te karakia: ki ōna tēneti, arā, ki ōa kāinga, he maha nei hoki ōna kāinga kua nohoia nei e ngā tāngata o Ōropi, kua riro mai hoki i a rātou” (Church Missionary Society 1847).
Moreover, this passage about all the descendants of Ham, the people of Africa, is true: they are the people who are enslaved and degraded by each other and by other nations of Europe and Africa. The descendants of Canaan are the people the Jews came upon when they returned from Egypt to Canaan: and their land was taken; some were killed and some became tribute-paying vassals. Shem was the father of the Jews, of the people God chose and blessed; hence the saying ‘the God of Shem’. Shem was also the ancestor of the nations of Asia, of the land east of Canaan. And Japheth (the people of Europe), dwells in his tents: in his tents — that is, in his tabernacle and in his worship; for worship began with the Jews: in his tents that is, in his villages, and which are taken by them.
In this present study, text is given in Maori and English where no translation is known to exist.
79 Chapter 2 of Ua Rongopai was written against a background of racial tension in Taranaki, expressed almost daily in the Taranaki Herald newspaper. Racial tensions were probably a cause of the emergence of a selfconscious black/white imagery with reference to racial identity in Maori writing in this period. Te Ua's theme is similar to that of a speech which was circulated among King Movement Maori:
You say to us that we are an inferior people, a dark people and that you are a noble people. True, you, the Pakeha, are a noble race, and we, the Maori, are an inferior race; that is quite true. But leave these thoughts about us to the God who made us both. God made you to be a good and handsome race; and God made us to be bad and dark; but it is not right that you should taunt us with that” (Renata Tamakihikurangi to the Superintendent of Napier, November 7, 1860 (Tamakihikurangi 1861:13).
80 This passage is cryptic in theme and construction. Te āhua is assumed to be te āhua o te A tua, hence the reading ‘his’. This reading is in the light of the underlying message of the passage, which appears to be about the unity of creation in God, and his presence in all creation.
81 Mt Taranaki/Egmont in its day and night time aspects extends Te Ua's theme of the unity of black and white. Classically a symbol of power and identity, the mountain was featured on the flag of Taranaki Maori fighting against the Government in 1860.
82 Both Maori culture and the Bible associated images of darkness with negative values. Although Te Ua expressed standard associations for light, he also made darkness positive. On May 1864 he wrote of the unity of “real love and peace which is now shining up out of the great darkness of peace” (Te Ua to John White, May 30, 1864, White Letterbook, p.63 (NA), translation only has survived).
83 Hemi Kāka[hi] Tohu is Tohu Kakahi, who, with Eruera Te Whiti (later Te Whiti-o-Rongomai), became a religious leader at Parihaka.
84 Te Ao Katoa, a chief and tohunga of Ngati Raukawa, lived at Orakau before the war and became the leader of the Ngati Raukawa Hauhau in 1865 (Cowan 1983:1:366, 2:18).
85 In King Tawhiao's revival of the prophetic aspects of Te Ua's teachings in 1875, the women were called ngehe ‘calm’. This supports the image used by Te Ua, but ngehe may, on the other hand, be a transliteration of ‘nurse’. Nevertheless, the concept of “nurse” also supports the softened image of women that the Maori religious leaders promoted; the organisation of women into teams of nurses was a feature of Hauhauism and subsequent movements.
86 Marino rāua ko Tiaho is an example of an idiosyncratic construction used by Te Ua. It appears to signify a personfication, and has been capitalised in the Maori text. Discretion has been exercised over the capitalisation of the construction in the translation.
87 Playing card symbols were popular in Maori folk art, and occur frequently on flags. Spades appear in the drawings of at least three flags in the Ua Rongopai Notebook. A Hauhau flag called Tama Rura was rectangular and carried the devices of a cross and two spades, which may, in the light of the Ua Rongopai, have symbolised “Maori men and Maori women”; see page 19.
88 Pōtiwha, which is read as ‘Gleaming Night’, may, alternatively, consist of the transliterated proper noun pōti/pooti (both spellings were used and have been retained as they occur), ‘post’, plus whā, ‘four’. In this case the line reads ‘That is Post Four.’ Pooti as a noun meant both the prophecy mast, also known as niu and the fenced circle around it within which the priests stood. As a verb it meant to take part in a service of worship. Pooti o Riri ‘Post of War’ and Pooti o Ririkore ‘Post of No War’ were an important concept in the Maori attempt to contain the fighting in 1864-5. While there is, therefore, strong circumstantial evidence for the translation ‘Post Four’, direct evidence is lacking. In view of the preceeding day/night imagery, pōtiwha is tentatively read as an idiosyncratic compound of pō and tiwha.
89 Perhaps an echo of Acts 2:13-15, in which the disciples at Pentecost were accused of being drunk on new wine.
90 Perhaps an echo of Romans 14:21: “It is good neither to eat flesh, nor to drink wine, nor any thing whereby thy brother stumbleth, or is offended, or is made weak.’ The passage He kai anō te kōhiwi ‘natural man is indeed food’ is obscure, and, until further research yields a surer meaning, kai is read as a verb.
91 When Jesus was asked why he spoke in parables, he answered, “Because it is given unto you to know the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it is not given.” Matthew 13:10-11. A koranga ‘teachings’ is read as kaiakoranga ‘teachers’ in the light of the following sentence.
92 Te Ua was a monitor, a Maori helper, in the Wesleyan mission at Waimate South for an unknown period between about 1840 and 1845.
93 Maori and Government troops fought in Taranaki between March 1860 and a ceasefire on March 18, 1861.
94 This may be a reference to the criticism of and subsequent defection from the King Movement by one of its leading men, the chief Wi Tako Ngatata of Otaki.
95 Boundary lines were tapu and violation could destroy people (Smith 1921:174). The power attached to the concept of boundaries is probably the reason the aukati was given a classical Maori name. Houtaiki appears in an ancient story as the husband of Houmea, the evil woman who ate her children. Te puru o Houtaiki refers to the skids on which he pulled up his canoe, and is a barrier which cannot be passed. Houtaiki also refers to boundary markers (Blyth 1886:539). In Taranaki mythology, Tu Tangata Kino was the name of one of the two death-dealing guardian atua ngārara, reptile gods, who came from Te Tatau o te Pō, the house of learning from which all evil originated. (Kararehe 1898:55-63). Here he appears in his role of guardian (Tautahi and Taipuhi 1900:200-33).
96 Pōrewarewa means ‘giddy’ or ‘senseless’. Its translation as ‘Inspired One’ is an attempt to convey the role of the priests as leaders of worship in which prophecy, tongues and their interpretation were essential elements.
97 In the period before 1850 the view that formerly Maori lived longer than in the present time was frequently expressed by Maori. See, e.g., letter of George Clarke, March 6, 1827, in Wright 1959:148: “[Until the Europeans came,] young people did not die, but they say all lived to be so old as to be obliged to creep on their hands and knees.” It is not clear, however, whether the “ancestors” Te Ua referred to Maori or, as was usual with him, biblical.
98 Cultural revivals in the community life of the Hauhau were limited to a partial reaction against specific mission prohibitions on tattooing, haka and poetry (because of sexual or martial connatations) and traditional marriage customs, but allwere subject to the Pai Mārire of God. This is not very different from the stance of the missionaries. Plural marriage for lay people was justified by God's promise to Abraham that his seed would be as numberless as the sands of the sea shore. Te Ua said, Ko te take, kia nui te tāngata mo Kēnana, ‘the reason [for plural marriage] is to increase the people for Canaan.’ ‘Laws for Sexual Misconduct’, October 29, 1865, Ua Rongopai Notebook. Although some Maori religious leaders had a number of wives, plural marriage through the century was increasingly replaced by a pattern of successive marriages, for women as well as for men.
99 Witchcraft or sorcery is banned in both Mosaic law and the New Testament. The ban is repeated in every significant King Movement law code which has been sighted.
100 In 1860 the members of the King's council were identified as Porokoru, Tamihana [Te Waharoa], Te Wetini, Epiha and Rewi [Maniapoto] (Tamakihikurangi 1861).
101 Ko mana nui o ai is tentatively read as Ko mana nui o wai.
102 I.e., Te Ua. The image of God's annointed is biblical.
103 Possibly a reference to the parable of the talents, in which the servant who does not increase his master's treasure is cast out (Matthew 25:14-30).
104 This mystical passage is read, tentatively, in the light of Te Ua's use of the words ao, katoa and mono elsewhere. However, ao could be read as ‘cloud’ because of the importance of clouds in Te Ua's thinking. Katoa could be read as kātoa, a manuka or kanuka tree, both of which have white flowers, in the light of a text in which Te Ua used the image of a ‘white bird tree’([n.d.] Ua Rongopai Notebook). He mano no te tāngata could be read as ‘a heart of man’. The image could be connected to the hearts on Hauhau flags, or, possibly, a reference to Roman Catholic iconography. Roman Catholic influences on Hauhau thought appear to be a regional variation, and have not been clearly detected in Te Ua's writings.
105 This name suggests that Te Ua may have seen himself as the precursor of Christ's return, as in a prophecy by King Tawhiao the millenium is heralded by a cloud depicted as the cloak of the figure Son-Ruler, which is a name coined by Te Ua, probably as a name for Christ:… kua whakahuria [ngā rangi] ki te kāhui mā na Tama-Rūra i tuku mai. Koia tēnā e hoa mā, kia tūpato. Kua tata te rā o te tautokonga o te ao, e kore ai te tāngata e kai e inu; King Tawhiao, August 16, 1876 He Ohākī, p.26: “… the heavens are clothed with the white cloak sent by Son-Ruler. Therefore my friends beware. The day of the division of the world is near, when men shall neither eat nor drink.”
106 These words signify the end of a theme. The next section follows without a break in the Notebook under the heading UA RONGOPAI, but focuses on exhortation to the faithful, who are separated into named sections.
107 Cf. Jude 3: “[I] exhort you to earnestly contend for the faith which was once delivered unto the saints.”
108 Possibly a reference to the casting out of demons: “Howbeit this kind goeth not out but by prayer and fasting” (Matthew 17:21).
109 Both this and the previous section appear to be addressed to the Pillars, the highest office of the church. The Pillars were national officers, supported by tithes, whose responsibilities were preeminently spiritual: ma ngā Pou he ahu ki te rangi o tōna putanga… Katukuna te Pou ki ngāmahi o runga, ko te Tūku o raro. ‘The Pillars will point to the day of His coming…The Pillar is sent to the works above, the Duke to those below’; [Tito's laws], October 1865, Ua Rongopai Notebook. The translation ‘pillar’ is preferred to the alternative, ‘post’, in order to distinguish the office from the pooti, ‘post’, which was the prophecy mast. Pillars appear in the Bible as images of godly strength; in Revelation 3:12, e.g., those who overcome will be made pillars in the temple of God. See also note 112.
110 Mock battles were a pastime designed to develop fighting skills, but which sometimes overbalanced into actual fighting (Best 1976:25).
111 I.e., the Dukes. These were national officers below the Pillar in the church hierachy, also supported by the faithful, and who had political and spiritual responsibilities. They dealt with Matthewters involving the Government and military, and they verified prophecy received by the priests. The transliteration tuku, ‘duke’, may derive from Genesis 36, which recites the generations of Esau. Observers reported that, when Te Ua baptised King Matthewutaera, he “caused the Chiefs of the tribes to be knighted, and others to be made Earls and Dukes to attend to His Majesty” (John White to Colonial Secretary, September 7, 1864. AJHR 1864, E8 No. 15:12-13). This and similar reports were from non-Hauhau sources, and it is likely that what they observed was the establishment of Hauhau church hierachies.
112 The expanded version of Pou, Pou Tē Uea ‘Unshakeable Pillar’, depicts the office in an image of classical Maori society. When a kaihaukai ‘ritual gift exchange’ was held, a house was specially built for the occasion. The tohunga of the visiting party would get up on its roof and recite his karakia, and, at a certain point, all the visiting rangatira would try to shake the posts of the house. If they succeeded, it was an omen of misfortune for the hosts (Best 1898:130).
113 He ramatō kupu ki ōku waewae, he māramatangaki tōku ara. “Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, and a light unto my path” (Psalms 119:105).
114 Cf. John 4:35: “Lift up your eyes, and look on the fields; for they are white already to harvest.”
115 I.e., prophecy mast. These were also called niu, ‘news[pole]’, as the place at which niu (the transliteration of ‘news’ Te Ua used to denote prophecy) was received during worship. It is mistaken to source prophecy masts to the classical concept of niu ‘divination sticks’ which were twigs representing people set upright in the ground, perhaps with small objects placed on top; they augured good or ill according to the way they fell. Doubtless, however, the classical understanding of niu enriched its meaning for the Hauhau.
116 “It” probably refers to the gate of the pooti, or fence around the prophecy mast, which believers stepped inside in order to speak in tongues and prophesy.
117 Me mahi e ahau ngā mahi o te kaitono i ahau, i te mea e ao ana: e haere ake nei te pō, te wāhi e kore ai e ahei te tangata te mahi. “I must work the works of him that sent me, while it is day: the night cometh, when no man can work” (John 9:4).
118 Kiatohe anō kiawaiho te kōtahitangao te Wairua i te ūngao te rangimārietanga. “Endeavouring to keep the unity of the spirit in the bond of peace” (Ephesians 4:3).
119 Cf. Deuteronomy 32:2: “My doctrine shall drop as the rain, my speech shall distill as the dew, as the small rain upon the tender herb, and as the showers upon the grass.”
120 Cf. Matthew 13:38 (e.g.), the parable of the sower.
121 Keiwhakahaere hēkoutou inawhakarite whakawā;kauae whakaaro ki te kanohi o te rawakore, kaua hoki e whakahōnoretia te kanohi o te nui; “Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgement: thou shalt not respect the person of the poor, nor honour the person of the mighty” (Leviticus 19:15; Ko Tētahi Wāhio Te Kāwenata Tawhito 1848).
122 Cf. Romans 1:1: “Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God.”
123 Cf. Luke 10:25-8 and 18:18, in which the lawyer and the ruler, respectively, ask Jesus what they must do to inherit eternal life.
124 Cf. Psalms 128:3: E rite tāu wahine ki te wāina hua i ngā taha o tōu whare: āu tamariki ki ngāmāhuri ōriwa, i a rātou e karapoti nei i tāu tēpara “Thy wife shall be as a fruitful vine by the sides of thine house: thy children like olive plants round about thy table.”
125 Further instructions on the work of the Pillar and Dukes in the Ua Rongopai Notebook make it likely that “him” refers to the Pillar. When the Dukes could not agree, the Pillar's task was to decide whether prophecy was of God. The emphasis on testing prophecy echoes St Paul's instructions to the early church concerning the exercise of spiritual gifts; see Colossians 1:14.
126 Tuwheta is read as tuwhera
127 Maori leaders of the period almost unanimously condemned the appeal to supernatural forces other than the Christian God, which was how “rebelliousness” was defined:
Ko tana hē hoki e kino ana ki tā te A tua titiro; na taua kino whakahouhou te pahanga i ngā tāngata o Kēnana, ā i whakatōkia ko te iwi o Iharāira ki tana whenua. Na taua hē hoki [o] ō tātou mātua i pana haeretia tātou i runga i te tini o ngā motu, ā tae mai ki konei, na reira anō hoki tō tātou rawakore me te tini o ngā mea whakahē i waenga i ō tātou rohe i ngā rā o [ō] tātou tūpuna”
(Erueti [Te Whiti] and Hapimana [Tireo] to [Wiremu] Kingi, Mine[rapa] and Hairini et al., November 5, 1861. McLean coll., MS papers 32:632, ATL).
For that error [bowing down to false gods] is evil in the sight of God. It was that evil violation that caused the exile of the people of Canaan, when the tribe of Israel were established in their land. And because of that error of our fathers we were condemned to wander among the multitudes of the islands, eventually reaching here: and that also is the reason for our poverty, and for the wrongful things in our communities in the days of our ancestors.
128 I.e., God. Kua tū tō koutou A tua ki te papatupu o te Kēnana, te take ra he aroha ki tana iwi he whakahoki i a koe ki runga ki tōu kōhatu; koia ia ko Ihowa o ngā mano (Te Ua Haumene and Wiremu Te Hanataua to Te Waharoa, September 1, 1864, He Ohākī p. 10). ‘Your God has stood on Canaan's ground in his love to his people, and to return you upon your rock, who is Jehovah of Hosts.’ In versions of the Bible available to Te Ua, Ihowa ‘Jehovah’ and A riki ‘Lord’ were used interchangeably for the English ‘Lord’, and, therefore, attempts which have been made to erect Maori use of ‘Jehovah’ into an argument about perceptions of the biblical deity cannot be supported.
129 Cf. Romans 10:17: “So that faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God.”
130 This idea is expressed in both Old and New Testaments, e.g., Hebrews 12:5-11
131 I.e., Lot, who was saved out of the destruction of Sodom and Gommarrah (Genesis 18 and 19). This is probably a warning about the Day of Deliverance, when all unbelievers would meet with destruction. The reference to Lot was repeated by Hauhau urging their relations to seek salvation while there was still time. See, e.g., AJHR 1865, eNo. 4:37, Encl 1 to No 31, Tamai et al. to Wiremu [?Kingi], June 28, 1864.
132 The Israelite judge Samson was betrayed by Delilah into the hands of the Philistines and died bringing the temple down on the Philistines (Judges 16).
133 …erangi ra mōu kia tomo kopa atu ina tomo atu ki te ora, turi ngongengonge rānei i te maka atu ki te ahi ka tonu me ngā ringaringa e rua me ngā waewae e rua. “…it is better for thee to enter into life halt or maimed, rather than having two hands or two feet to be cast into everlasting fire” (Matthew 18:8).
134 Cf. Matthew 15:18.
135 Aesop's fable of the locust and the ant was published in Maori in Davis 1855: 189.
136 Cf John 4:36.
137 Cf Psalms 39:8: Whakaorangia ahau i aku mahi tutu katoa; Kaua ahau e waiho hei tawainga ma te wairangi. “Deliver me from all my transgressions: make me not the reproach of the foolish.”
138 The “4” is probably a reference to Matthew 13:4, which begins the parable to the sower that Te Ua is about to relate.
139 This image is echoed in a letter describing the baptism of King Tawhiao by Te Ua: He kupu anō tēnei mo koutou kia hoki mai koutou ki Kauaeroa; arāe hoamā, tēnei te taonga i taka iho i te rangi. ‘A further message to you is that you come back to Kauaeroa. For, my friends, this is the treasure which fell from heaven’ (Te Ngahuru et al. to Nuimoa, Ngata and Karaka, August 29, 1864. McLean coll., MS papers 32:693, ATL).
140 This is the He Ohaki text of Chapter One of Ua Rongopai recorded by an unknown King movement scribe.