Volume 29 1920 > Volume 29, No. 113 > History and traditions of Rarotonga. Part VIII and IX, by Te Ariki-tara-are, p 1-19
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[See illustration at the end of previous article]

[IT is difficult to say what the Sage really understood by the names. Tonga-iti and Ari, whom he claims as the earliest discoverers of Rarotonga, for they were—in recent times at least—gods. Whether deified ancestors or not, is not clear, but probably they were, as they are not known, I think, to any other branch of the race as gods. If Tongaiti was a deified man, and had been an early visitor to Rarotonga, it will account for his direction to Tangiia in reference to Rarotonga, as described in paragraph 296, Part VII. hereof. We may note here the mention of their finding the island “floating about,” and of their fixing it in position. This is the same story as the Morioris have in reference to the adventures of Kāhu, the first visitor to the Chatham Islands according to them, and Kāhu, is supposed to have fixed the islands where they now are. The Maori account of the settlement of the Chathams says that one of the later migrations came from Rarotonga, and hence perhaps the origin of the two stories is the same. And hence also perhaps the knowledge of the Morioris of the great Rarotongan ancestor (and deified man) Tu-te-rangi-marama, shown in paragraph 515, Part V. hereof.

Some of the mountains referred to in the story are shown in the accompanying illustration.

That part of the story about Tonga-iti and Ari, entering the octopus and the lizard, means probably that these two things are the aria or visible representatives of the two gods. See paragraphs 322 and 323. Iva, or Iva-nui, is the usual Rarotongan name for the Marquesas Group, derived no doubt from the existing names Fatu-hiva or Hiva-oa, for two of the principal islands there. But it is a question whether Iva in this particular account does not mean Hiva, the name of a clan that lived in either Ra'iatea or Taha'a Islands.]

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The earliest settlement of Rarotonga.

318. Tonga-iti and his wife Ari, whose country was a land, the name of which is lost. This is the description of this land [i.e. Rarotonga]: It was drifting about on the surface of the ocean. When Tonga-iti and Ari found it, it was floating about. Tonga-iti climbed on to it, and trod on it [to make it firm] while Ari went underneath to fasten the foundations, and thus it became firmly fixed in position. These are the “holders” of the land: Rae-maru, Maunga-roa, Maunga-o-Tonga-iti 1 and Rua-turuturu. This is the meaning of Rua-turuturu, it means the posts of the house of Ari, which were at Tu-papa, four in number. In consequence of the quarrels with Tou-tika subsequently, they were abandoned, that is, Te Maanga, Taukata, Tuoro, Toro-ume, Oroenga, Iku-rangi, Kauaka and Te Ate-a-tukura. But there are many other names of mountains not here written.

Iku-rangi and Te Atu-kura mountains came from Tahiti [i.e., the Rarotongan mountains were named after those at Tahiti]; the place where they were cut out from is still to be seen in Tahiti. These are also names for Rae-maru: Aringa and Kati-enua, where Aringa means “the bleaching of the bones,” and Kati-enua means the akatukiakiaanga, of the gods [meaning unknown, but in another place it is stated that the god Tangaroa visited there, and hence the name; the word has the meaning of strenuousness], whilst the hardness [of the rocks] of those mountains is due to fire.

319. After the land had become fixed, the streams were enclosed, and two kakao (reeds) one at Vai-manga, the other at Taku-vaine, were placed. 2 After they had done this the man went to Vai-manga, the woman to Taku-vaine.


Subsequent to the above, Tou-tika arrived, who landed on the side towards the sun-rise, and this is what he (first) undertook: he broke open the entrance in the reef, leaving two sides of coral. Then, on getting ashore, he planted the miro tree [Thespesia populnea], the matie grass, the koiti, the mati-roa and the tupa. He then ascended the mountains [?Te Ko'u], where were the dogs above the cave, inland of which is the ana tatau [? the tattooed, or carved cave], and below - 3 it the sacred water. In this water he placed some fish. 3 He then climbed to the top of Te Ko'u mountain, and behold! the streams were found to be enclosed and reed-spouts already placed, with two guardians in charge. He asked them, “What are the names of you two?” They replied, “Our names are Nu and Nana.” “Who stationed you here?” “Tonga-iti and Ari,” was the answer. “And where have they gone?” said Tou-tika. “Tonga-iti has gone down there to his own side, whilst the wife has gone down there to her side.” Tou-tika then took out the punga [? a piece of coral used to stop up the water] on the east side and placed a single reed there [to cause the water to flow in that direction] and closed those on the south and north. When he had finished this he instructed the guardians saying, “This is my word to you two. If those two others return presently and call out to you, do not answer them; if the husband says, ‘O roi, come here!’ and his wife does the same, you remain quiet until I call, and then you answer; your names shall be Tinai.”

320. It was not long before Tonga-iti and Ari appeared, when Tou-tiki said to them, “O friends! Welcome! How are you?” To this Tonga-iti and Ari [in astonishment] replied, “O! rather is it our place to welcome you, for this is our land!” Tou-tika replied, “Not so! this is my land.” The others then said, “Not at all! The land verily belongs to us two. We have only just left here and have not been away long.” To this Tou-tika replied, “I have been here all the time at my work, and have not been away for ever so long.” Then said the woman to him, “We have two guardians we left here in charge of our streams.” Tou-tika said, “Well then! [to prove your title] You two call out to your guardians you left here.” So the husband shouted until his mouth was sore [without response] and then he sat down to rest. The wife then tried her voice and called till she was hoarse, and then she retired also. Tou-tika now said to the two, “Behold! You say the land is yours. It is mine as also the streams! Listen while I call the guardians of my streams!” So the two replied, “Well, O thou! call on your guardians, and let us hear the answer.” So Tou-tika called out with a strong voice, “O Tinai! Come up above here.” On this Tinai appeared, and then Tou-tika said to the two, “Did I not tell you the land was mine, and also the streams?”

321. Tou-tika now went and took out the reed, and the waters began to flow to the east, Tonga-iti and Ari followed trying to stop the flow—they were in front, the waters following. When they reached the caves, Tou-tika called out, “Mine is the sacred water, - 4 mine are the birds, all belong to me.” And so on till they got down to the shore, to the miro, and the grass and the bare coral. This was enough for the two; they returned inland, climbing up and then descended to Taku-vaine.

322. There they bedecked themselves with the coloured leaves of the ti, and proceeded to the cave of refuge where resided the friend of Ngana-enua who was called the “spirit of the son and daughter,” and there also was Rauao. When they got to Parai—which is the resting-place, [and burial place of the Makea family] they remained there; and then the woman saw a lizard. The husband asked, “What is that thing?” The woman replied, “A lizard. You enter it!” So Tonga-iti entered the lizard, and the woman looking saw it was disgusting, and hence is the part of a saying, “The highborn woman feels disgust, at the pride of her husband.” After this they all went to bathe at Vai-kapuangi, where they saw an octopus moving about. The husband asked the wife, “What is that moving thing?” The woman replied, “It is an octopus.” Said the husband, “You enter that thing,” which the woman did, and then the husband was disgusted and laughed at her, so she was ashamed, and disappeared down below.

323. After this the husband departed for Tauae where was his friend Ngana-enua. These two were of the same kind (of person), the one entered the lizard, the other the eel.

Such were the original inhabitants of Rarotonga—Tonga-iti and his wife. After them came Tou-tika. Three names were given by Tonga-iti to this land, viz., Nukutere, Tumu-te-varovaro and Rarotonga. 4


324. After that period came Ata-i-te-kura from Iva (? Marquesas), and after him came Apopo from the Atu-Apai [the Haabai Group of Tonga] who was driven away from there by the spears of Vaka tau-ii and Rae-noo-upoko at the time when they avenged the death of Turanga-taua the son of Apa-kura, at Atu-apai, and who was a son of Vaea-a-te-ati-nuku. 5

325. And so Ata-i-te-kura and Apopo settled down in the land; Ata settled at Orotu on the west, while Apopo lived up at Are-rangi. A time came when Apopo desired to kill Ata. When Tara-iti heard of this he went down to Orotu where Ata was living and said to him, - 5 “Thou wilt be killed to-morrow”—Tara-iti was a friend of Ata's. When Ata learnt this from his friend, he sent his sons—Rongo-te-akangi and Tu-pare-kura to fetch some torches. It was in the evening they were sent up to Omama, “When you reach there take four banana stems, pierce them with a stick, and thus form a raft; make another, send one to sea with a smoking stick on it, send the other along the shore when the people will think the smoke arises from a fire-place on a canoe. Don't loiter on the way.” The boys went, and quickly returned. Then Ata said to them, “You must go to Tahiti to my sister Pio-ranga-taua for some warriors on board the ‘Pata’; but if you see that [her forces are few] go on to Iva (? not Marquesas) to Airi. As you go along at sea, look inland, and if you see that Mount Ikurangi [at Tahiti, see par. 318] is enveloped in shadow (or cloud), it will be a sign of my death.”

326. So the sons departed, and while on the ocean, they looked inland [when they reached Tahiti] and saw that Ikurangi was covered in clouds. “O! Ata has fallen!” said they. So they hastened to the land and got ashore; and then the Tahitians gathered, while their aunt approached them. The boys then commenced reciting names [as an introduction] saying, “Our father is Ata-i-te-kura, whose sister is Pio-ranga-taua; we came for help to avenge the death of Ata who has been killed by Apopo.” When the aunt learned this she assembled the Tahitians on the shore; but when the boys looked at them they were not satisfied, and said to their aunt, “Let the Tahitians return inland. We are going on to Iva.”

327. The two now went on to Iva, and on arrival [? in the same canoe called “Pata”—the sense is not at all clear in any of the references to Pata] all the Ivan's assembled, while Airi also came and commenced the same tapatapa ingoa [or naming parents and ancestors—much as the Maoris do under similar circumstances]. He said, “Who are these ariki-like people who ascend Pata? Now, let us recite names, O you youngsters! By whom are you two?” They replied, “Our father is Ata-i-te-kura, and his brother is Airi. We came to fetch the Ivans to avenge the death of Ata who has been killed by Apopo.” And then Airi lamented (his brother.) It was not very long before the Ivans were afloat.

328. They reached Rarotonga and the fighting commenced, Apopo's forces were much greater than the Ivans; and hence they fled, and many were killed. Parau-rikau and his younger brethren ascended (? landed at) Tokaroa, and on reaching the shore (? above inland) where they separated, the elder brother Parau-rikau and his juniors Pu-kuru and Atoto going up by Pu-ara-rua. [Here the MS. is most obscure, but apparently this party disguised themselves by putting certain plants on their heads and crept up behind where Apopo and his party were.] So they climbed up by way of that koka - 6 with the rope in their hands and the plant-plumes on them. When they got up Parau-rikau drew near to Tapiri-atua, and there rested. Apopo's daughter (at this juncture) said to her father, “O Apopo! behind there!” Said Apopo, “Do not look, it is only a coconut [? waving in the wind].” “But Apopo! it means death!” Pu-kuru and Atoto by this time had unwound the rope [? slip noose] and threw it over Apopo's head while Parau-rikau with a blow of his koke, struck him on the shoulder, and then scooped out his eyes, while Apopo fell to the ground.

It was from the circumstance of Pu-kuru and Atoto's scooping out the eyes of Apopo, arose this saying, “Scoop out the eyeballs, offer them to Tangaroa, and Rongo-ma-Tane; an evil sport is war.”

329. A song about Ata [for which see the original].

330. After the death of Apopo the Ivans went to Marae-renga to dig kauariki [a species of tree with fine spreading branches]. They dug, and down the tree fell; then they cut it up in small pieces, and the earth [? round the tree] was taken away to Iva-nui. When that was done they cultivated the soil, and joined the toka-kapitipiti of the Ivans. They also planted the kape-koka, the ti-kura and the banana at Taku-vaine, besides the kape [giant taro], the oronga, and all kinds of taros. Also they planted the kaka to cool the soil of all the valleys and mountains.

331. After the Ivans had left for Iva, there came Te Ika-tau-i-rangi who landed at Mamanaa, and settled at One-marua, and here they beat the drums, and held uras [dances].

After that came three vessels, which were wandering about the ocean in a fleet.… When these arrived at Mamanaa, at sea the crews saw smoke spreading ashore; they landed, and came into conflict with the people; were beaten, and then went on their way.

[Here ends the Sage's account of the original inhabitants of Raratonga prior to the arrival of Tangiia, whose further adventures will be given in the next part. I learnt when in Rarotonga that the arrival of Ata, Ano, Tŏĭ and Taruea took place not so very long before Tangiia's migration, but I am not sure that my authorities for this were first-class historians. There is a spring not far from Arorangi on the west of the island and close to the marae, Kauariki, named Marau-nui-a-Ano, after the above Ano. Of some other original inhabitants we shall hear in the next part of this history.]

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318. Ko Tonga-iti e te vaine—e Ari—te enua, e enua ka ngaro. Teia te tu o taua enua nei, e mea tere aere ua i runga i te kiri-a-tai. Kia rokoia mai e Tonga-iti e Ari, te tere aere ua i runga i te kiri-a-tai. Kua kake iora a Tonga-iti ki runga, kua takai; kua na raro ake te vaine—a Ari—kua akamaro i te papa; kua mou akera te enua. Tera nga akamou i te enua, ko Rae-maru e Maunga-roa, e Maunga-o-Tongaiti, e Rua-turuturu ma. Tera te aiteanga i a Rua-turuturu, ko te turuturu i te are o Ari, koia katoa ei Tupapa, e ā iä; ko nga turuturu ïa i te are o Ari. No te pekapeka i miringao, i te tama, i a Tou-tika, i akaruke ei—koia a Te Maanga, a Tau-kata, a Tu-oro, a Toro-ume, a Oroenga, a Iku-rangi, a Kauaka ia, a Te Ate-a-tukura. Te vai atura te au maunga ravarai, kare i tatauia. Ko Iku-rangi, no Taiti ia maunga, e Te Atu-kura—te vai ra te tipuanga mai i a raua i Taiti. Teia te au ingoa o Rae-maru:—Ko Aringa, ko Kati-enua, ko Aringa, ko te akateaanga, ko Kati-enua, ko te akatukiakiaanga i te au atua. Ko te akapakari i taua au maunga ra, na te āi ïa i akapakari.

319. Kua mou te enua kua oti te vai i te koro, kua akamou nga kakao erua, ki Vai-manga tetai, ki Taku-vaine tetai. E kia oti ïa, kua aere atura te tane ki Vai-manga, kua aere atura te vaine ki Taku-vaine. Kua aere maira a Tou-tika i miri i reira, i kake mai aia i te itinga i te rā. Tera ta Tou-tika angaanga i rave; kua ngaa rai te ava, ko nga tara makatea e rua, kua kake ki uta, kua tanu i te miro e te matie, e te koiti, te mati-roa e te tupa. Kua kake ki te maunga, ko nga kuri ki rungao i te ana, ki uta atu ko nga ana tatau, ko te vai-tapu ki raro. Kua tuku i nga ika ki raro i te vai. Kua kake atura ki a Te Kou, e ina! kua oti te vai i te koro kua aka-mouia nga kakao. Tera nga tiaki i te vai te noo ra. Kua ui atura aia ki a raua, na-ko atura, “Koai to korua ingoa?” Kua akakite maira raua ki aia, “Ko Nu, e Nana, o maua ingoa.” “E, naai korua i akanoo ki kona?” Kua aaki maira raua, “Na Tonga-iti e Ari.” “E kua aere ki ea?” “E kua topa te tane ki tera pae, ko tona ïa pae ko tera pae. Ko to te vaine ïa, kua aere aia ki reira.” Kua kiriti akera aia i te punga i te itinga o te ra, kua akamoe atura i te kakao okotai ki reira. Kua topiri atura i tei apatonga, e tei apa-tokerau. E oti akera te reira kua akoako atura i te tiaki-vai, kua karanga atura, “Teia taku tuatua ki a korua.” E tae mai akonei, e kapiki ki a korua; auraka ua akera korua e iio mai; kia kapiki uaorai e te tane, ‘E roi e! aere ake.’ Kia kapiki uaorai te vaine, ‘E roi e! aere ake.’ Noo e kia kapiki ra au. Ei reira korua ka iio mai ei. Ko Tinai to korua ingoa.”

320. Kare akera i mamia teia maira a Tonga-iti e Ari; kua tae mai, kua kapiki atura a Tou-tika ki a Tonga-iti e Ari, na-ko atura. - 8 “E Pa ma! Oro mai ra! Tena korua!” Kua tuatua maira a Tonga-iti e Ari, ki a Tou-tika, “Aue e! na maua oki koe e kapiki atu. No maua te enua.” Kua, tuatua maira a Tou-tika, “Kare! Noku ei toku enua.” Kua tuatua maira a Tonga-iti ma te vaine ki a Tou-tika, “Kare! No maua tikai te enua. No kona rai maua taa ake nei, kua taa-poto ua akera rai maua, kare i roa.” Kua na-ko maira a Tou-tika ki a raua e, “Otira nei rai au i runga i taku angaanga; kare au i aere ke e teia noa ai. Kare ake ra au e aere ke ana.” Kua tuatua maira te vaine ki aia, “E tiaki rai ta maua i vao ki raro i to maua vai.” Kua tuatua maira a Tou-tika, ki a raua, na-ko maira, “Ina! korua ka kapiki ana ki ta korua tiaki i vao ana.” Kua kapiki iora te tane, e mamae ua ake te vaa, e kua aere aia kua noo. Kua aere mai te vaine, kua kapiki rai e mamae ua ake tona vaa, e aere ake aia e noo. Kua tuatua maira a Tou-tika kia raua, na-ko maira, “Ina! na korua e!; e no korua te enua! Noku te enua e te vai, Ina! au kia kapiki au ki te tiaki i toku vai.” Kua karanga atura raua ki aia, “Ina! koe, ka kapiki i taau tiaki, kia kite maua.” Kua kapiki atura a Tou-tika ki raro i te vai ma te reo maata, na-ko atura, “E Tinai! ka aere mai koe ki runga nei!” Kua aere mai a Tinai, kua na-ko atura a Tou-tika ki a raua, “Ina! i karanga atu na au ki a korua e, noku te vai!”

321. Kua oro atura a Tou-tika kua kiriti i te kakao, kua tae atu te vai ki te itinga o te rā. Kua rere maira a Tonga-iti e Ari i te arai aere i te vai—i mua ratou, i muri te vai. Aere ua atura e raro i nga ana ek, kua akakite a Tou-tika, “E! naku te vai-tapu e, naku!” Ki nga manu, “E naku!” E tae ua atu ki tatai i te miro e te matie ma nga tara makatea e rua, otira ua akera raua, te ooki ua ra ki uta; ka kake atu e tatipoki atura ki Taku-vaine.

322. Kua maro rauti—koia Nga-maro-rauti, e Nga-ana-koanga. Tei reira te oa, a Ngana-enua, ko Te Vaerua-tamaroa, e Vaerua-tamaine, e Te Rauao. E tae ki Parai, ko te paraianga ïa. E kia nonoo raua ki reira, kua akara te vaine ki te moko, kua na-ko atura te tane, “E aa tera apinga?” Kua karanga maira te vaine, “E moko! E tomo koe ki reira.” Kua tomo atura a Tonga-iti ki roto i te moko; kua akara atura te vaine, kua akaviivii iora. No reira te manga tuatua a te vaine, i nako mai ei ra, “Kua viivii oi te vaine rangatira, a kua nengo ua ra, e taku tane.” E oti ake ra te reira, kua aere atura raua ravarai ki te pāi i Vai-kapu-angi; kua kite atura i te eke i te oroanga; kua ui atura te tane ki te vaine, “E aa tera apinga e oro ra?” Kua karanga mai rate vaine, “E eke!” Kua na-ko atura te tane ki te vaine, “Ka tomo koe ki roto i reira.” Kua tomo atura te vaine ki roto i te eke, kua akaviivii iora te tane i te vaine, e kua kata iora; kua akamā iora te vaine kua emi iora ki raro.

323. Kua oro atura te tane ki Tauae; tei reira te oa—a Ngana-enua—no te mea, e okotai o raua tu; ka uru aia ki te moko, ka uru - 9 a Ngana-enua ki te tuna. Ko nga tangata mua teia ki Rarotonga nei; ko Tonga-iti e te vaine. I muri mai i a raua ko Tou-tika. E toru a Tonga-iti ingoa i topa no te enua: Ko Nukutere tetai; ko Tumu-te-varovaro tetai; ko Rarotonga tetai.


324. I muri mai i te reira, ko Ata-i-te-kura; no Iva aia. Kua aru mai i muri i aia ko Apopo; no Te Atu-apai aia, i peke mai i te tokotoko a Vaka-tāu-ii e Rae-noo-upoko, i te ranga i te ua o te tama a Apakura—i a Tu-ranga-taua ki te Atu-apai: e tamaiti aia na Vaea-a-te-atu-nuku.

325. Kua noo a Ata-i-te-kura ma Apopo ki te enua, kua noo a Ata ki Orotu, i raro; kua noo a Apopo ki runga ki Are-rangi. Kua akakoro a Apopo, ka ta i a Ata kia mate. E kite akera a Tara-iti i tei reira, kua eke maira ki raro, i Orotu; tei reira a Ata, kua akakite maira ki aia, “Apopo koe e mate!” E oa oki a Tara-iti no Ata-i-te-kura. E kite akera a Ata i te tuatua a te oa—a Tara-iti-matarau—kua unga atura i nga tamariki—i a Rongo-te-akangi, e Tu-pare-kura, ki tai rama. I tae akera ki te āiāi, kua unga atura i nga tamariki ki runga i Omama; “Kia tae korua ki reira, e patiatia korua i e ā pu-maika, e rua a tetai, e rua a tetai, ka patia ai i nga rama a korua ki runga, ka tuku ei i ta tetai i uta ua i te tapaono ua. Kavea ta tetai ki taitai atu, kia tere mai ki raro, te ooro maira. Aua e tavavare.” Kua aere atura nga tamariki e, kare i roaroa atu, teia mai nga tamariki. Kua tuatua maira a Ata, “Aaere ki Taiti, ki taku tuaine ki a Pio-ranga-taua; ko te toa, ko Pata, ta korua e kake; e akara korua, e iti; akaoki ki a Te Oororoa ra ki Iva, ki a Airi. E aere korua e te moana e, te akara maira ki uta nei, e kapua ana te ata i Ikurangi, kua inga au.”

326. Kua aere atura nga tamariki, e tae atura ki te moana, kua akara maira ki uta, kna kapua te ata i Ikurangi, “O! kua inga a Ata!” Kua kai-moumou atura raua ki te enua, e tae atura, kua kake atura raua ki runga ki te Pata; kua tutu atura i a Taiti; kua aere maira te metua-vaine. Kua tapatapa ingoa iora ratou, na-ko akera, “E metua no maua, ko Ata-ki-te-kura, e tuaine, ko Pio-ranga-taua; i aere mai maua ki tetai e ranga i te ua o Ata, kua mate i a Apopo.” E kite ake ra aia—te metua vaine—i tei reira tuatua, kua tuku atura i to Taiti ki te tai. Kua akarā iora raua, kare i tau i a raua; kua karanga atura ki te metua vaine, “Akaoki a Taiti ki uta; ka aere maua ki Iva.”

327. Kua aere atura raua ki Iva. E tae atura ki Iva, kua kake atura raua ravarai ki runga i a Pata. Kua tutu atura i a Iva; kua aere maira a Airi, kua tapatapa ingoa ki a raua, kua na-ko maira, “Koai eia nga tupu ariki i kake ai a Pata. Inana! tatou ka tapa-tapa ingoa ana: Eia nga tamariki; Naai korua?” Kua tuatua - 10 maira raua, na-ko maira, “E metua no maua, ko Ata-i-te-kura. E teina ko Airi. I aere mai maua e tiki i a Iva ei ranga i te ua o Te Ata-i-te-kura, kua mate i a Apopo.” Kua aue iora a Airi; kare i mamia, kua topa a Iva ki te tai.

328. Kua tae mai ki Rarotonga nei, kua ta te tamaki E nui ua ta Apopo raka i ta te Iva, i aati ua mai, te tarere ra; pou atu to te Iva i te mate. Kua kakea mai e Parau-rikau ma nga teina i te Tokaroa. Kia tae ki uta i te one e vee ei ratou, ko te tuakana, ko Parau-rikau, i tae mai aia; ko nga teina, ko Pu-kuru, ma Atoto, i kake i a Pu-ara-rua ki uta—koia nga pare-nikau e nga pu-nounou, e manava i te koka, e te akarara maira i te koka, ki muri i te muri-ope o Apopo. Kua kake maira raua na runga i taua koka ra, ma te kaa i to raua rima, ma nga pare kikapara ma nga kakaū nounou i runga i a raua. Kua tae atu raua ki runga. Kua akavaitata maira a Parau-rikau ki a Tapiri-atua, kua akatau i reira. Kua kapiki maira te tamaine a Apopo, “E Apopo! e, tei tua!” Kua tuatua maira a Apopo e, “Auraka e akara, e nu tauai nei, e aa ia?” “E Apopo! ko te mate tena!” Kua akapuera akera a Pu-kuru ma Atoto i te kaa, ka titiri ki runga i te kaki o Apopo, kua mou te koke a Parau-rikau ki te paku-ivi, kua piri te kaa ki te kaki, kua nanao i te puku-a-mata kua topa a Apopo ki raro.

329. No te nanaoanga a Pu-kuru mo Atoto i nga puku-a-mata o Apopo, i tupu ai te manga tuatua ra, “Opukia io te puku-a-mata, apaina na Tangaroa ki te rangi, na Rongo ma Tane, e eiva kino te tamaki e—”

Tei Iva-nui tei Arerangi, e tei ipo,
E eiva kino te tamaki e,
Ia ariki au, e kai ma te oa e—
Kai ake te oa i te enua, ko tue
Ta ara ki Iva ake e
Tei Iva-nui ra, tei Are-rangi e
Tei Are-rangi mai ana.
Kua rongo koe i te mūmū ma te rearea,
Ko te tika oki a Tara-iti-matarau e—
Ka tina a Ata akonei
E eiva kino te tamaki e—
Rai ariki i a au e—
E kai mai te oa e—
Kai ake te oa i te enua, ka tue e—
Te ara ki Iva ake e,
A tue te ara ki Iva oki, e rue.

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330. E muri ake i te mateanga o Apopo, kna aere atura te Iva ki Marae-renga, ki te ko i te kauariki: kua ko iora, e topa iora ki raro; kua tipupu iora e ungaunga rava akera, kua tari te one ki Iva-nui. E oti akera te reira kua tanu i te enua, kua kapitipiti te toka kapitipitl a te Iva, e kua tanu i te kape-koka, e te ti-kura, e te uetu, i Taku-vaine, e te kape e te oronga, e te au taro ravarai. E kua tanu i te kaka ei akaanu i te au ō ravarai ma te au maunga katoatoa.

331. E, tei te openga o te Iva i te aerenga ki Iva, kua aru mai i reira ko Te Ika-tau-rangi mai; kua uru mai i Mamanaa; kua kake ki uta, kua noo ki One-marua. Kua rutu te pau, kua tata te kaara, kua ura te ura. I muri mai i reira kua tau mai e toru pāī, e au pāī aere ua i te moana, e tavakavaka nunui aere ua i te moana. E tae maira ratou ki Mamanaa i te moana ua, ka akara maira ratou i te auāi e te maorooro i uta, kua kake maira ratou ki uta, kua akapini, kua ta iora, e mate akera, aere atura ratou.


[The following part of this history of Tangiia, is mainly concerned with his exploits as a marae builder, and he seems to have covered the northern coast of the island with very many of them. The marae, it may be mentioned, of the Rarotongans differed essentially from those of the New Zealand Maoris and the Samoans, in both of which cases it means an open meeting place in the village, where public functions took place, but not otherwise connected with religious ceremonies, which, in New Zealand, were conducted at the Tuāhu, which is the equivalent of the Rarotongan and Tahitian marae. Mr. Savage has promised to describe the ritual at, and meaning of these marae and koutu, in the second part of these Rarotongan traditions which will be written by him. But in the meantime were refer our readers who are interested in the subject, to “Journal Polynesian Society,” Vol. XX., p. 218, where the distinction between the marae and the koutu is described.]

332. Subsequent to the arrival and settlement of the foregoing people (see Part VIII. hereof), Tangiia arrived at Rarotonga. He landed on the east side of the island, and after entering the channel (in the reef) they took the cable named “Te Kaa-ki-avaiki” to fasten the vessel to the kaoa or coral reef, and hence the name of that place at the present day, Te Kaoa. He then named the sandy point Te One-poto, and going inland constructed the marae named Te Miromiro, which - 12 (act) was the tapu (or sanctification of the land), and it was dedicated to (the god) Tonga-iti, while Parau-a-Toi was the purapura, or guardian-priest. He also named the channel in (the reef) Ava-rau or Ava-tapu being “the way to Avaiki” (or Tahiti).

333. The anchor was then pulled up and the vessel hauled on shore. Here another marae was built and named Iti-akaraua which was dedicated to the god Maru-maomao. After securing the vessel they went inland and built the marae named Itianga-te-ra, of which Kainuku was appointed priest. On the completion of this they came down to the shore and built a house which was named Mata-enua, so called because of his “looking for the land,” and Nukua-ki-roto was appointed guardian. This camp was at Tauna-a-rangi before they built houses.

334. They then, after this, went inland and built a marae to which the name of Pae-taa was given, because the sun was declining when he (Tangiia) was there. Just below here he made a rua-atu and named it Kau-tapa-kau, Nukua-ki-roto being appointed guardian. He then came on further and constructed a koutu, 6 and named it Pu-kuru-vaa-nui after the “great dispute between himself and Tu-tapu,” about the pu-kuru (breadfruit tribute) at Tahiti. [See par. 280.] This place was set aside as a depository for fish [ika? a sacrifice] under the charge of Nukua-ki-roto—it was the very place where the vessel “Taki-pu” (or “Taki-tumu”) was left.

335. Tangiia came further along [to the west] and built another marae which was named Te Ngae, to commemorate the “separation of himself and Tu-tapu from being of one family”; and Avaiki was made guardian. Inland of this they built Moemoe-a-tio, at Otu; then they construced the marae for the evas [mourning, etc.], called Te Eva—which name was brought from Avaiki. Then to seaward of the latter they built another marae and called it Tai-aruru, because of the sound of the sea there, and Tu-keu was appointed guardian. Further onward they built the koutu named Anga-takurua, which was the ara onga atua (the way, or road, of the gods), and Anga was made guardian, one of whose names was Te Akaau. Proceeding onward, another koutu named Aū-rangi was built and placed under Urua's care. Then was made the koutu-ariki named Tau-makeva, a depository of ika [fish, but may be it means a human sacrifice. Reference to “Journal Polynesian Society,” Vol. XII., p. 218, will show a sketch of this stone and part of the surrounding koutu]. After that was built Takutea, dedicated to the god Ka'u-kura, the care of which was also delegated to Urua.

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336. Next was set up Muri-vai, Tai-vananga being guardian. Then inland was built the two koutu Arai-te-tonga, which was the tāua [Tahitian tahua, a place of meetings, consultation, etc. See “Journal Polynesian Society,” Vol. XII., p. 218, for plan], whilst Tau-makeva was the? altar (āū). Here a house was built and named Te Are-i-runga-i-Atea, as a dwelling place or place of refuge, and another house named Pure-ora; then an au [? hibiscus tree] was planted, and hence the words of the song:—

Then was planted the au,
From the other land
And named Au-tupu, etc.
After this they went inland and made another marae and called it Paepae-tua-iva; dedicated to the god Tonga-iti, while Tai-vananga was made the guardian.

337. Again they went seaward and built a marae named Marae-koroa, signifying the “generosity of the gods in giving him the property he brought from Avaiki.” 7 Tu-iti was appointed priest. They went on and built a marae named Raro-pua of which Apai was guardian. Next they built a marae at Ava-rua, and two others—Tau-ukea and Are-mūmū-o-nga-atua—making three in this one place. [Ava-rua is the present township and landing place for steamers on the north side of Rarotonga. See sketch.].

338. They now went inland and built a house named Au-ruia, and set up a standing altar (āū-tu) and named it Mata-kura. Thence they went below and built Pi-te-kura, a woman's marae, and a house named Pou-tini. This is the sort of house it was: it had three posts on each side and three down the middle. Thence they went on and built the Vai-pae koutu of which Ati was made guardian. Then Te Ravaki was built and Toi was made guardian. After that the marae Kau-ariki-rangi was built and Tai-vananga made guardian. After that Vai-raro with Pu-uri as guardian; Pu-toa with Au-topa as guardian; then Pa-kana, of which Tai-vananga was guardian; then Marae-ra, Kava-kura guardian; then Kura-akaangi with Te Tua-kake-ariki as guardian.

339. After this the following maraes were built:—

Tai-aruru, Nuku as guardian
Otinga-enua, Ai as guardian

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Before a guardian could be appointed, Naea 8 arrived at Rarotonga in the canoe ‘Atia-roa’—a fresh immigration. They were seven in number. Then the following were built:—

Are-tau Te Ra-tu-nuku guardian
Nuku-maroro Ika guardian
Te Angai-enua Tui guardian
Puepae-tuaiva Taoro guardian
Te Pou-toru Te Teka guardian
Ata Which are Otu

340. At this time, Tane-korea was found inland at Roka, he and his two daughters named Vai-te-nui and Ata-te-poroa. Tane-korea was their father, and Eva-tea their mother. Tangiia asked Tane, “Are those girls your daughters?” Tane replied, “They are both my daughters.” Then Tangiia said to him, “I will take them as wives for myself”; and then he brought all the family away to Tau-vae, and dwelt there.

[Tane-korea and his family were some of the original inhabitants of Rarotonga, descendants of Ata-i-te-kura mentioned in paragraph 324, and consequently descendants of the first human inhabitants of Rarotonga who arrived there under Apopo in about the end of the ninth century, according to the genealogical tables. Tane belonged to the tribe Tini-o-Te-katau-i-rangi. Apparently his descendants took the name of Taurua.

In another narrative I have, the meeting of Tangiia with some of the original inhabitants is thus described. After he had reached Arorangi on the west side of the island during the process of erecting maraes, he there met Tane-kovea. The story says (G.M.I., p. 145), “He (Tangiia) ended his work, and here he heard on the mountain of Rae-maru, the noise of tutunga, or beating of tapa cloth. So he went on to the mountain to ascertain the source of the noise, and there saw some people. He asked, ‘Who art thou?’ ‘It is I, Tane-kovea!’ ‘By what expedition didst thou arrive here?’ ‘I came here in the tere of Toi-katau-rangi.’ ‘And where is he?’ ‘He has been killed by Karika!’ Tangiia then asked, ‘Who are these young women?’ ‘They are my daughters!’ So Tangiia took both those girls for wives.

It would be interesting to know whether the above named Toi, is identical with Toi-te-huatahi, the celebrated ancestor of the Maoris of New Zealand, and the first Eastern Polynesian to settle in New Zealand.

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Another question is, as to whether this Toi-katau-rangi gave his name to the old ara-metua, or main road which encircles Rarotonga, a considerable portion of which is paved with stone. As Tangiia flourished twenty-six generations ago, and Toi-te-huatahi thirty-one, it is just possible the two chiefs may have been contemporaries; and we know from Maori history that Toi visited Rarotonga, though he was not killed there, as the above narrative states.]


341. Some time after Tangiia's arrival [I have heard that it really was some years after that his old enemy came, during which he was engaged in forming the above mentioned marae, etc.] there arrived at Rarotonga [his quondam opponent] the Samoan chief Karika, who made his landing at the reef-opening named E. It was on account of his landing [in mistake] at that place that it got the name of E [which means? mistake]. On landing, he settled there and built a fort of coral in which they lived, and named it Are-āu [which name includes] up to Pa-niko.

342. Now, the food used on board Karika's canoe, was man, which we shall see from this part of a song [see the original, but these are apparently the lines referred to:—

The human-oven of Rua-koroa and Rua-ta
Wherein was cooked the eye-balls,
The dried up eye-balls,
In Karika's oven, rei-iri e!]

343. After these proceedings, Karika arose and proceeded to look for Tangiia and his daughter [the latter's wife]. He followed the coast to Avarua, where he heard the sound of trumpet and drum, so he turned inland to Tau-vae, where he discovered his daughter. He remained there for some time in conversation and then returned sea-ward, and the place which he named Enua-kura, he settled down at. On his return from inland, Tangiia had presented him with a trumpet and a drum—it was the pu-ura [? a trumpet used at the ura dance] that he was given.

[Before relating the further doings of the great Rarotongan chief Tangiia, a few remarks about his relations with Karika may be made here. Karika was a great navigator in his time. He appears to have been born at Manu'a Island, the most easterly of the Samoan Group, where his name is well known under the form 'Ali'a (the Samoans do not pronounce the “k” in the same connection as other Polynesians, but have misused it in modern times to replace the “t” in their beautiful dialect, thereby giving the dialect a much harsher sound). 'Ali'a will be seen to be the same as Karika if the inverted commas - 16 are replaced by “k,” the “l” being of course=“r.” His marae is still known at Manu'a Island, and is named Rarotonga, though it is some 650 years since he used it. Dr. W. Wyatt Gill told me that there was a record of eight different voyages that Karika made between Samoa and Rarotonga and adjacent islands, and as the distance which separates these places is about 850 nautical miles, he must have sailed some 13,400 miles, even by taking merely the air line between the two places.

I am under the impression that some degree of enmity existed between Tangiia and Karika even from Samoa; or otherwise why should they have commenced fighting when they met at sea near Maketu Island, Paumotu Group, as related in paragraph 313? This is also borne out by a traditional fact told me by Mr. Savage, which is to the effect, that when Tangiia asked from Karika the direction to Rarotonga, the latter wilfully misled him, and hence Tangiia's voyage south to the cold water seas, before he found Rarotonga. Some of the traditions, I understand, declare that in the interview between these two chiefs (see paragraph 313) Tangiia did not offer to deliver up the supremacy to Karika, as related therein. From the local point of view no doubt this is an important matter, though of little interest to the world generally. It bears on the question of the rivalry of the two great factions of the island. In Mr. Savage's promised contributions we shall no doubt hear more of this question, but it was thought well to mention the matter here, though in these papers we can only translate what Te Ariki-tara-are (the author of them) has left on record.]


332. I muri ake i tei reira aronga tangata e tei reira au tuatua, kua tae mai a Tangiia ki Rarotonga nei. Kua kake maira aia i te itinga o te rā; e kua uru maira ki raro i te ava, kua rave akera i te tutau, i a Te Kaa-ki-Avaiki, ei tamou i te vaka, e kua ri atura ki te Kaoa, i mou ei te ingoa i taua kava ra, ko Te Kaa. Kua topa i te ingoa i te koutu-one ki tai, ko Te One-poto; kua anga ki uta kua aūia te marae ko Te Miromiro, ko te tapu ïa i te enua. No Tonga-iti ia aū; ko Parau-a-Toi te purapura. Kua topa i te ingoa i te ava ko Ava-rau, ko Te Ava-tapu, ko te ara ki Avaiki.

333. Kua tatara i te tutau i te vaka, kua akauru atura ki uta, kua apai ki runga i te vairanga. Kua aū iora i te marae ki reira, kua topa i te ingoa ko Iti-aka raua—no Maru-maomao ia marae. Kua vao i te vaka ki reira kua kake atu ki uta, kua aū i te marae, i a Itianga-te-rā; ko Kainuku te purapura. Kua oti ïa kua eke mai ki tai, kua akatu i te are. Kua topa i te ingoa ko Mata-enua, ko te - 17 mata ona i te akaraanga ki te enua; kua akatomo i a Te Nukua-ki-roto ei tiaki, ko Tauna-a-rangi, ko to ratou puakato-ua-anga ïa ki reira, kare e are.

334. Kua kake ki uta kua aū i te marae, kua topa i te ingoa i te marae ko Pae-taa; no te mea kua taa te rā i aia ki reira. Kua anga i te rua-atu ki raro mai rai i reira, kua topa i te ingoa ko Kau-tapa-kau; ko Te Nukua-ki-roto te tiaki. Kua aere mai ki mua mai, kua aū i te koutu, kua topa i te ingoa ko Pu-kuru-vaa-nui, ko te vaavaa-nuianga a raua ma Tu-tapu ki te pu-ruku (? pu-kuru) i Taiti; kua akataka i tei reira ei vairanga ika: ko Te Nukua-ki-roto te tiaki—ko te ngai rai i tuku ei te vaka, a “Takipu.”

335. Kua akaruke i tei reira, kua aere ki mua, kua akatu i te marae, kua topa i te ingoa ko Te Ngae—koia te maveteanga i a raua ko Tu-tapu i te kopu okotai: ko Avaiki te tiaki. Kua tapae ki uta, kua aū i a Moemoe-a-tio—koia tei tapaia e, ko Otu; kua akatu i te marae o te eva, ko Te Eva rai te ingoa. No Avaiki anake rai nga marae. Kua eke ki tai kua akatu i te marae kua topa i te ingoa ko Tai-aruru—no te akarongoanga i te aruru o te tai. Ko Tu-keu te tiaki. Kua aere ki mua, kua aū i te koutu, kua topa i te ingo ko Anga-takurua—koia te ara o nga atua; ko Anga te tiaki, ko Te Akaau tetai ona ingoa. Kua neke ki muao, kua aū i te koutu, kua topa i te ingoa ko Aū-rangi; ko Urua te tiaki. Kua aū i te koutu ariki, kua topa i te ingoa ko Tau-makeva, e vairanga ika. Kua aū i a Takutea, no Kau-kura ïa; ko Urua rai te tiaki.

336. Kua aū i a Miri-vai, ko Tai-vananga te tiaki. Kua kake ki uta, kua aū nga koutu e rua, ka topa i nga ingoa, ko Arai-te-tonga tetai—koia te tāua, ko Tau-makeva, ko te aū ïa. Kua akatu i te are, kua topa i te ingoa ko Te Are-i-runga-i-Atea; e are ei akapuanga ïa. Kua akatu i te are, kua topa i te ingoa ko Pure-ora; kua tanu i te au. No reira te pee:—

Tanumia io te au e—
Ko mei te enua,
Ko Au-tupu e.
E oti akera kua kake ki uta, kua aū i te marae, kua topa i te ingoa ko Paepae-tua-iva, no Tonga-iti; ko Tai-vananga te tiaki.

337. Kua eke ki tai, kua aū i te marae, kua topa i te ingoa ko Marae-koroa—koia te koroanga a nga atua i aia ki Avaiki. Kua tuku ki a Tu-iti; koia te purapura. Kua aere atu ki mua kua aū i tei reira marae, kua topa i te ingoa ko Raro-pua; ko Apai te tiaki. Kua aere atura ki mua kua aū i te marae, kua topa i te ingoa ko Ava-rua. Kua aū i a Tau-ukea, ko tetai marae rai i reira, ko Are-mūmū-o-nga-atua ka toru marae ki te ngai okotai.

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338. Kua kake ki uta, kua akatu i te are, i a Au-ruia; kua aū i te aūtu, kua topa i te ingoa ko Mata-kura. Kua aere atura ki raro, kua aū i te marae kua topa i te ingoa ko Pi-te-kura, e marae vaine Kua akatu i te are, kua topa i te ingoa ko Pou-tini. Teia te tu o taua are ra: E toru pou i tai tara, e toru pou i rotopu, e toru pou i tai tara. Kua aere atura, kua aū i te koutu ia Vaipae, ko Ati te tiaki. Kua au i te marae, kua topa i te ingoa ko Te Ravaki, ko Toi te tiaki. Kua aere atura, kua aū i te marae, kua topa i te ingoa ko Kau-ariki-rangi, ko Tai-vananga te tiaki. Kua aū i a Vai-raro, ko Pu-uri te tiaki. Kna aū i a Pu-toa, ko Au-topa te tiaki. Kua aū i a Pa-kana, ko Tai-vananga te tiaki. Kua aū i a Marae-ra, ko Kava-kura te tiaki. Kua aū i a Kura-akaangi, ko Te Tua-kake-ariki te tiaki.

339. Kua aū i a Tai-aruru, ko Nuku te tiaki; kua aū i a Otinga-enua, ko Ai te tiaki; kua aū i a Angiangi. Kare ua i taka te tiaki, ko Naea, ko “Atia-roa” te vaka; e tere ou mai ïa. Tokoitu ratou. Kua aū i a Aretau, ko Te Ra-tu-nuku te tiaki. Kua aū i a Nuku-maroro, ko Ika te tiaki; kua au i a Te Angai-enua, ko Tui te tiaki; kua au i a Paepae-tuaiva, ko Ta-oro te tiaki; kua au i a Te Pou-toru, ko Te Tika te tiaki; kua au i a Ata e Moemoe-a-tio—koia rai Otu.

340. Kua kitea atura a Tane-korea ki roto i a Roka; koia, e nga tamaine tokorua, ko Vai-te-mii e Ati-te-poroa. Ko Tane-korea te metua tane ko Te Eva-tea te metua vaine. Kua ui atura a Tangiia ki a Tane-korea, “Eaa eia tamaine nei naau?” Kua akakite maira aia ki aia, “E puke tamaine naku.” Kua karanga atura a Tangiia ki aia, “Ka rave au, ei vaine naku.” Kua kaako (? kaake) maira aia i a ratou ravarai, kua aere mai, e tae mai ki Tau-vae, kua noo.


341. E miri mai i a Tangiia, kua aere maira a Karika, kua uru mai ki te enua i te ava, i a E; kua kake maira ki uta. No taua e-ua-anga nona ra ki reira i topa ai aia i taua ava ra ki a E. Kua noo iora ki reira, kua au iora i te punga ei koro, kua noo iora ki roto, kua topa i te ingoa ko Are-au e tae ua atu ki Pa-niko.

342. Teia te moemoe e te kai i to Karika vaka, e tangata. Tera to tatou kite, ko te potonga pee:—

Ko te ai mai takuara i te ii,
Na roto e te aaroa tiu e, tiu e rua nei,
E matangi tonga mai nei e,
Ko tai turina i runga pu
Iripoki ra tanga eaea ra,
Ma to ara e, ma to ara mai ana,
Ko Rangi-nui tapatapaia,
Ko te Ra-iti a Rua-kina e te umu—
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Te umu tangata a Rua-koroa, ma Rua-ta,
Te tau io te puku-a-mata,
Kia pakapaka te puku-a-mata,
I te umu na Karika, a rei iri e—
Kia kai ake toku ariki a Karika
Toa ra te akaroa—e—

343. E oti akera tei reira, kua tu akera a Karika ki runga, kua aere atura ki te kimi i a Tangiia ma te tamaine. Kua aere atura na tatai e tae atura ki Avarua. Kua akarongo atura i te pu ma te pau; kua kake atura ki uta i Tau-vae; tei reira te tamaine. Kua noo atura ki reira, kua tuatua iora. E oti akera, kua oki atura a Karika ki tai; kua topa iora i te ingoa o taua kainga ra, ko Enua-kura. Kua noo iora ki reira. I to Karika okianga, kua oatu a Tangiia i te pu e te pau na Karika; ko te pu-ura tana i oronga ïa.

(To be continued.)

1   It is not clear if this is a proper name, or whether it means that the previous two names were Tonga-iti's mountains. The others are place-names in Rarotonga.
2   So that the streams from the mountain should flow to the places named.
3   Tou-tika appears to have been a member of a Polynesian Acclimatization Society!
4   In other places a different origin is given to this last name.
5   The whole of the incidents, in full detail, of this expulsion of Apopo from the Haabai islands, will be related in a further part of these papers. The incident connected with this affair is known in Maori history as “Te Tihi-o-Manono.” It was about the end of the ninth century that Apopo settled in Rarotonga, according to the genealogies.
6   Mr. Savage tells me that a koutu is a place of meeting for all chiefs and priests, where all questions relating to the policy of the governing parties were discussed; and it might contain more than one marae within its bounds. See also “Rarotonga Records,” page 65.
7   See Part VII., paragraph 298.
8   This Naea, cannot possibly be the same man as that mentioned in par. 528, Part V., as the latter lived many generations before the time we are dealing with.