Volume 32 1923 > Volume 32, No. 128 > An historical narrative concerning the conquest of Kaipara and Tamaki by Ngati-whatua, by Paora Tuhaere, p 229-237
AN HISTORICAL NARRATIVE CONCERNING THE CONQUEST OF KAIPARA AND TAMAKI BY NGATI-WHATUA.
THE manuscript from which this translation was made is one of several compiled by the late Paora Tuhaere. This particular one he wrote for me several years prior to his death.
Another much longer and detailed “History of Ngati-Whatu,” by Paora, was deposited in the Auckland Public Library, and has also been translated by me.
The late Mr. Percy Smith apparently had access to still another of Paora's manuscript histories, for he gave abstracts from one (in his history of the “Peopling of the North”) which is neither of the above.
The war mentioned in the Far North which opens the narrative, took place somewhere about the end of the 14th Century, and the termination of the narrative brings it to about the end of the 18th Century. It therefore recites the fortunes of the famous Ngati-Whatua tribe during that part of Maori history when inter-tribal struggles were proceeding, which culminated in the state of affairs the early European visitors found existing in this country in the early years of the 19th Century.
For the fortunes of the Ngati-Whatua people subsequent to that time until A.D. 1840, I would refer the student to Mr. Percy Smith's “Wars of the 19th Century.”
The tribal pedigree given is tabulated from the manuscript version, and I have inserted several further family pedigrees to show the relative connections of the various chiefs mentioned in this history.
The value of these records will increase as years go on, when in future times people will long to know of the doings of Ancient Maori Land, where civilization is now altering the very face of the country side, leaving little else than the old Maori place names as reminders of the past. The events now recorded took place before yet the Pakeha settled on these shores.
A few explanatory notes and also a list of place names is added to assist the student of Maori history to locate the places mentioned.- 230
THE original home of these tribes, the Ngati-Whatua, 1 Te Tao-u, 2 the Uri-o-Hau, 3 otherwise the Nga-Ririki, 4 was Muri-whenua. This indeed was the cause that they came hither—an act of murder by Ngati-Moe-Mate-a-ika, whereby Nga-Ririki suffered. There-upon came hither these tribes to obtain revenge for that murder. Some tribes living at Hokianga were fought against and defeated. Having thus come hither, they settled down at Maunganui, and lived there permanently. They then began to slay the tribes there, who were exterminated. They then lived in separate parties there. Some were at Maunganui, some at Kaihu, and some at the Wairoa.
Maunga-nui was the pa which stood between these tribes the Nga-Ririki, Ngati-Whatua, Te Uri-o-Hau, Te Roroa, 5 Ngati-Pou and Ngati-Rongo. The Roroa and Ngati-Pou spread out as far as Wai-Kara and Wai-mamaku to Hokianga. The Nga-Ririki were at Kaihu, Tutaki 6 at Ripiro. The Ngati-Rongo at Motu-Wheteke and Te Wairoa, Te Uri-o-Hau at Pouto.
The reason these tribes attacked one another, was a quarrel about food. Nga-Ririki were a tribe which cultivated the kumara, the taro and the uwhi (? yam). 7 Now Ngati-Rongo, Tutaki and Te Uri-o-Hau were a fern-root eating people. The Uri-o-Hau were not aware that the Nga-Ririki grew kumaras. Now Papa-pounamu desired to go to Kaihu. Arrived there, he saw the kumara, taro, uwhi,7 the roroi 8 and kao. 9 The man ate thereof, and thought of the goodness of the foods they lived upon. This idea became firmly fixed in his heart. Returned to his home at Pouto, he spoke to his younger brother about the abundance of the food. Hau-moe-wharangi said, “Never mind, oh elder brother, why run after the food of the feet of Tu-kaheke. Just leave things be, gather it up into crates made of kahikatoa.” 10 After that the Uri-o-Hau dug up the crops, and began to kill the people, this was an act of treachery. Te Nganaia of Nga-Ririki was killed. Thereupon followed a great war, Te Uri-o-Hau were defeated. Then it was that Toutara perished, being pierced by a spear which struck (her) on the breast. Hence this name Te Tao-u. Tou-tara belonged to the Uri-o-Hau.
Thereafter Kawharu went to see his sister Kohari, who had married Te Rawhara, one of the chiefs of the pa at Waiherunga, Te Huhunu was another of the chiefs. When near the pa at night-fall he sounded his whistle (calling out), “Who am I?” The pa then knew that it was Kawharu. A reply call was promptly made. “Thou art he who hath been heard of!” Then Kawharu went right into the pa. When these people saw that it was Kawharu who had arrived, they murdered him. They then went forth to fight the followers of Kawharu. Those numbered seventy twice told. The pursuers were four hundred twice told, and they were enticed forward by strategy. When they were at close quarters, it was proposed to - 231 charge back upon them. But another (chief) said, “Wait until I can see the sea at Unu-whao.” 11 When the pursuers were close at hand, Te Huhunu called out, “A combat! a combat at close quarters!” Then replied the seventy, “Death, oh my elder brother!” Thereupon they faced back, two were the mata-ika (first to fall) then another two were the tatao (the second to fall). Thereupon there was a debacle, and some hundreds were slain. Te Huhunu was captured. Te Huhunu asked that he be spared. “Thou wilt not live, even if our parent (uncle, i.e., Kawharu) was alive, I would be departing from fixed custom” (such was the reply). When that woman (Kohari ?) saw that the people were being killed, she assembled the women of the pa in one house. When the pa fell the attackers found that the women had been made tapu so they did not lay their hands (upon them). 12 Thus were exterminated the men of that tribe, which became extinct.
After that Te Uri-o-Hau crossed to this side of Kaipara to plunder the food supplies of Ngitu, and of Te Kawau. Then it was that Haumoewharangi was killed, he was murdered. Haumoewharangi and his daughter Rongo-te-Ipo had been left behind, there being no canoe to transport his food. Going inland, Haumoewharangi was seen by those people. The people came forth from the pa and slew Haumoewharangi. When the Uri-o-Hau found that he had been slain, that people returned and besieged the pa. The Ngitu (pa) fell, three pas were taken in the one day, the people exterminated, being slain.
Then came Ngati-Whatua and Te Tao-u, and the men of Nga-iwi and Te Kawerau were fought against. The tribes of this side of Kaipara were defeated and then abandoned that part. Two canoes were manned, the “Potae-of-Wahieroa” was one and the “Wharau” was another. These were the canoes whereby was captured the Kaipara. Setting forth, they came straight on and landed right at Te Awaroa. Such was the taking of the land. Te Tao-u lived permanently at Te Makiri. Te Wai-o-Hua did not fight against Te Tao-u in those times. Tou-Kararai married Hukatere and begot Tuperiri. Tou-Kararai belonged to the Nga-iwi, Te Wai-o-hua and Nga-Oho, Hukatere belonged to the Tao-u. Tuperiri was well on in years, and his children already born some time, when occurred the murder at Te Wai-tuoro. That people attempted to murder him, but he was not caught, Tuperiri escaped.
Kiwi (of Waiohua) then uttered a proverb to Waha-akiaki, “Let it be thus, thy breast-bone to-morrow shall be hanging on the pohutu-kawa tree at Kai-arero!” Waha-akiaki replied thereto, “Rather thus shall it be, thy breast-bone shall be hanging from the puriri at Maunga-a-Ngu!” Kiwi retorted, “When Rehua-i-te-rangi perhaps - 232 decides that Kiwi shall die, yes, then he shall die!” Kiwi then returned.
Thereafter Te Tao-u took revenge, in broad daylight all (the pas at) Tau-oma fell. The revenge of Te Wai-o-Hua was a battle, when Te Huru and Te Kaura were killed. Te Waha-akiaki then came to take revenge, and came to Awhitu. Then the pa at Tara-taua fell, so he returned again. When Kiwi heard that this was the doings of his enemy Waha-akiaki, he sent his messengers to all the pas. The seas were covered, and the land routes also by the multitude of Nga-Iwi coming to attack Waha-akiaki and Te Wai-taheke. Waha-akiaki and his company numbered sixty, who were picked warriors only. Going along gently they at last were close (to their pursuers). The party desired to charge back, but Waha-akiaki ordered, “Await, till they are actually at hand.” So followed on the many thousands of the Wai-o-Hua. Now, being right close up, then they charged. There were two mata-iki (first slain) then came another couple, making four. So it was, they broke away and fled, being slain as they ran even to the waterside on the sandy beach. 13 Then came forward Kiwi, and also came forward Waha-akiaki. Kiwi made a blow at Waha-akiaki, which was parried and missed its mark. Then Waha-akiaki made a blow, and Kiwi fell and was killed. Thereupon they fled. When Kiwi was dis-membered, there was found resting there his god Rehua, a lizard. That god being swallowed, the man who so swallowed it, died at once. The breast-bone of Kiwi being brought to the puriri at Maunga-a-Ngu in order to fulfil their prediction.
After that they (the Tao-u) came back by Wai-te-Mata. There was one canoe, there being thirty men on the canoe. The men were lying down inside the canoe, two men rowing the canoe. When seen from the pa at Taura-rua, it was thought to be a canoe (bringing) cut flax. When near to Kohimaramara, the people of the pa came out to look. The canoe was then brought to land there. Thereupon the war-party aboard that canoe rose up and attacked them. Kohi-maramara fell, going on to Orakei, all (the pas there) were captured. Next day (fell) Taura-rua and Maunga-hekea. Thus all Ngati-Whatua came to slay the people of Tamaki, who were destroyed. The survivors gathered at Mangere, thereupon Tuperiri and his war party proceeded thither, and all (the pas) at Mangere fell. This was the last pa, and the termination of the warfare. Te Tao-u and Tuperiri then settled down upon his land at Tamaki.- 233
HE TATAU-KORERO MO TE RAUPATUTANGA O KAIPARA ME TAMAKI I A NGATI-WHATUA.
KO te whenua tuturu o enei iwi o Ngati-Whatua, o Te Tao-u, o Te Uri-o-Hau, ara o Nga-Ririki-ko Muri-whenua. Tenei ano te take i haeremai ai, he kohuru na Ngati-Kahu-Moemate-a-Ika. Ka mate ko Nga-Ririki ka whaka-tika mai enei iwi te rapu utu mo taua kohuru. Ko etahi iwi e noho ana ki Hokianga ka whawhaitia-ka mate. Haere tonu mai, noho rawa mai Maunganui, ko noho tuturu ireira. Katahuri ki te patu i nga iwi o reira, kangaro. Ka wahi ta ratou noho i reira-ko etahi ki Maunganui, ko etahi ki Kaihu, ko etahi ki Te Wairoa.
Ko Maunganui te pa i wehewehe ai enei iwi Nga-Ririki, Ngati-Whatua, Te Uri-o-Hau, Te Roroa, Ngati-Pou, Ngati-Rongo. Ko Te Roroa, ko Ngati-Pou i ahu atu ki Waikara, Wai-mamaku ki Hokianga. Ko te Nga-Ririki ki Kai-hu. Ko Tutaki ki Ripiro, ko Ngati-rongo ki Motu-wheteke, Te Wairoa. Ko Te Uri-o-Hau ki Pouto.
Ko te take i tahuri ai enei iwi kia raua ano, he kai te take, ko Nga-Ririki he iwi mahi kumara, taro, uwhi. Me Ngati-Rongo ko Tutaki ko Te Uri-o-Hau he iwi Kai-roi. Kahore Te Uri-o-Hau i mohio kei te mahi kumara a Nga-Ririki. Ka hiahia a Papa-pou-namu ki te haere ki Kaihu. Ka tae, ka kite i te kumara, i te taro, i te uwhi, i te roroi, i te kao. Ka kai te tangata ra, me te whakaaro ki te pai o nga kai e kainga nei e ratou. Mau tonu i roto o tana ngakau. Hoki noa ki tana kainga ki Pouto, ka korero ki tana teina ki te nui o te kai. Ka ki atu a Haumoewharangi, “He aha koa, e tuakana, te kai a te waewae o Tu-kaheke i whai, wai ho ra, me rori ki te rori kahikatoa.” Muri iho kua huaki i te Uri-o-Hau, kua timata te patu tangata, he kohuru. Ka mate ko Te Nganaia no Ngaririki. Muri iho he whawhai nui, ka mate ko Te Uri-o-Hau, ka hinga Toutara i konei-i werohia ki te tao, i tu ki te u. Koia tenei ingoa te Tao-u. Koia tenei ingoa te Tao-u; i roto i Te Uri-o-Hau a Tou-tara.
Muri iho ko Kawharu ka haere atu kia kite i tana tuahine i Kohari, i moe ia Te Rawhara, i tetehi o nga rangatira o te pa ki Wai-he-runga, ko Te Huhunu tetehi rangatira. Ka tata ki te pa i te po, ka tangi tana whio, “Ko wai ra ahau?” Kua mohio te pa ra ko Kawharu. Ka whio ake, “Ko koe ano e rongona-ake nei!” Katahi ka haere iho a Kawharu ki te pa, ka kite te iwi ra, kua tae atu a Kawharu, ka kohurutia, ka mate. Haere tonu atu ki te whai i te nuinga o Kawharu. E whitu-te-kau topu o ratou, ko te kai-aru, - 234 e wha-rau topu. Ka manu-ka-whakitia e ratou. Ka tata, ka mea kia whaka-hokia. Ka ki atu tetehi, “Kia kite au i te tai o Unu-whao.” Kua tata te kai-whai, ka karanga mai a Te Huhunu, “He Kawau! he kawau maro!” Ka ki atu to te hokowhitu, “Mate e taku tuakana!” Katahi ka whakahokia, tokorua nga mata-ika te tahi tokorua nga tatao. Kua whati, ka patua e rau. Ka-mau a Te Huhunu. Ka ki ate a Te Huhunu kia ora ia. “E kore koe e ora, kai te ora ano to tatou matua, ka hapa te mara e ahau.” Ka kite iho te wahine ra e patua atu ana te iwi, ka hui hui i nga wahine o te pa kia kotahi whare. I te horo nga o te pa kua kite te kai-patu kua tapu i nga wahine, kahore i pa te ringa, kua huna nga tangata o tera iwi ka ngaro.
Muri iho ka whaka-whiti mai Te Uri-o-Hau ki tenei taha o Kaipara ki te takahi i nga kai o Ngitu o Te Kawau. Ka mate ko Haumoewharangi—he mea kohuru. Ka mahue a Haumoewharangi raua ko to tama-hine ko Rongo-te-ipo. Kahore he waka hei uta i ana kai. Ka haere i uta ka kite nga iwi ra ko Haumoewharangi. Ka puta te pa kiwaho patua iho a Haumoewharangi. Ka kite a Te Uri-o-Hau kua mate, ka hoki mai te iwi ra ka tauria te pa. Ka horo ko Ngitu. E toru nga pa i te ra kotahi, ka huna tera iwi, ka mate. Ka whaka-tika Ngati-Whatua Te Taou; whawhaitia nga tangata o Ngaiwi me Te Kawerau. Nga iwi o tenei taha o Kaipara ka mate. Katahi ka mahue tera taha—ka utaina mai ki nga waka e rua, ko “Te Potae-o-Wahieroa,” ko “Te Wharau.” Ko nga waka enei i tangohia ai Kaipara. Ka tika tonu mai, u rawa mai ki Awaroa. Ko te rironga tena o te whenua.
Ka noho tuturu Te Taou ki te Makiri. Kahore he whawhai a Te Waiohua ki Te Taou i tera takiwa. Moe noa a Toukararai ia Huka-tere ka puta ki waho ko Tuperiri. No Ngaiwi, no Te Waiohua no Nga-oho, a Toukararai; no Te Tao-u a Hukatere. Kaumatua noa a Tuperiri, whanau noa ana tamariki, ko te kohuru i te Waituoro. Ka tahuri mai ano taua iwi Te Wai-o-Hua ki te kohuru iaia-kahore i mau-i rere a Tuperiri.
Muri iho ka utua mai Te Tao-u, he awatea horo katoa ko Tauoma. Ka utua e Te Wai-o-Hua he parekura-o-ka, mate ko Te Huru ko Te Kaura. Ka whaka-tauki atu a Kiwi kia Waha-akiaki. “Kia penei, to kouma apopo e iri ana i te pohutukawa i Kai-arero.” Ka whaka-hokia e Waha-akiaki. “Kia penei, to kouma e iri ana i te puriri i Maunga-a-Ngu.” Ka ki atu a Kiwi: “Ma Rehua-i-te-Rangi ra pea e mea kia mate a Kiwi-ae, ka mate.” Ka hoki mai a Kiwi ki konei. Ka utua mai e Waha-akiaki, ka ahu ki Awhitu, ko tahi te pa ka horo ko Tarataua, ka hoki mai. Ka rongo a Kiwi ko tona hoa riri tera ko Waha-akiaki, ka tukua nga karere ki nga pa katoa nei. Kapi ana te moana, haere ana i uta, i te tini o Nga-iwi hei aru i a Waha-akiaki raua ko Te Waitaheke Eono-te-kau o Waha-akiaki - 235 ma, he toa anake. Haere marire ana, ka tata, ka mea te nuinga kia whaka-hokia. Ka mea Waha-akiaki. “Tai hoa, kia tata tonu.” E whai ana nga mano-tini-o te Wai-o-Hua. Na, ka tata tonu, katahi ka tahuri. Toko-rua nga mataika, ka puta te tehi tokorua, ka tokowha. Heoi ano, kua whati; ka patua haeretia, taenoa ki tatahi ki te one. Ka puta a Kiwi, ka puta a Waha-akiaki. Te patu a Kiwi kia Waha-akiaki, ka karohia ake, ka hemo. Tahi ano patu a Waha-akiahi, ka hinga ko Kiwi, katahi ka patua, Tukua atu kia whati. Ka kotikotia a Kiwi, e noho ana tana atua a Rehua, he ngarara. Horomia ake taua atua, ko te tangata nana i horo, mate ake. Ko te kouma o Kiwi i mauria ki te puriri i Maunga-a-Ngu hei whaka-rite mo ta raua korero. Muri iho ka hokia mai, ma Waitemata mai ko tahi waka, e toru-te-kau tangata ki runga ki te waka. He mea takoto nga tangata ki roto o te waka, tokorua nga tangata i hoea-mai ai te waka. Ka kite tenei pa a Taura-rua, ka mea he waka tapahi harakeke. Ka tata ki Kohimaramara, ka puta nga tangata o te pa ra ki te matakitaki. Ka whaka-uria ki uta te waka. Te ohonga o te taua i runga i te waka ra, ka patua, ka horo ko Kohimaramara; haere tonu mai Orakei, horo katoa. Ao ake te ra, ko Taurarua, ka Maungahekea—ka haere katoa mai Ngati-Whatua ki te patu i nga tangata o te whenua o Tamaki, ka ngaro. Ko nga oranga ka hui ki Mangere, ka tahi ka whaka-tika mai a Tuperiri me tana taua, horo katoa ko Mangere. Ko te pa whaka-mutunga tenei—ka mutu tonu ake te whawhai. Noho tonu iho Te Tao-u me Tuperiri ki tana whenua ki Tamaki. Ka mutu.- 236
SOME PLACE NAMES AND THEIR LOCALITIES.
Awhitu (Standing embraced). South Manukau Heads.
Kai-arero (Eat the tongue) a locality on Northern slope of One Tree Hill, Epsom, where grew this historic Christmas tree.
Maunga-a-Ngu. Upper Township of Helensville (Ngu's mountain). This Puriri grew near the site of the Anglican Church there.
Maunga-hekea. “Little Rangitoto,” Remuera (=the Hill slope).
Maunganui (Bluff) on West Coast.
Motu-Wheteke. In the Wairoa River, South of Te Kopuru.
Ngitu (Standing firm). Inside South Kaipara Head, North of Wai-herunga.
Pouto. Inside of Kaipara, North Heads.
Ripiro (The deep blue sea). A general name for the beach extending from Mongonui Bluff, to North Kaipara Heads.
Tara-taua. South Manukau Heads.
Tauoma. In the Tamaki West District. Te Tau-o-Ma-tahuri-para (The Spur or ridge of that ancient ancestor—where he was killed by a war-party).
Taura-rua. Parnell Point (Waitemata) means the “two rope bindings.”
Te Awaroa. Helensville River (=Long River).
Te Kawau. Just south of Ngitu.
Te Makiri. Near Helensville South Station.
Te Wai-tuoro. (The creek of the “tuoro,” a fabulous man-eating eel-like creature) situate south of Helensville.
Wai-herunga. “Water of the hair combing.” Inside South Kaipara Head.
Wai-kara. On the West Coast (just north of the Mounganui Bluff).- 237
PEDIGREE AS GIVEN BY TUHAERE.
Family Tree. Papapounamu, Haumoewharangi, Kawharu, Haki-puta-tomari, Rangi-te-Ipu, Matua-ahoaho, Marua=Tauroto (Aupouri), Taumutu=Pokopoko, Tumu-pakihi=Rangihaua, Tarapakihi=Pawhero, Rata=Kapi-o-Rehua, Ruarangi (Killed in battle with Ngapuhi, 1730.), Waha-akiaki, Hukatere=Toukarorai, Tahatahi, Tuperiri, Tangihua, Te Huru, Naue, Tarahawaiki, Riria, Apihai Te Kawau, Aterere, Tuhaere
1 Ngati-Whatua: Whatua is said to have been an immigrant by the Taki-tumu canoe—another account says that he came from Hawaiki by magical powers.
2 Te Tao-u: From the incident as mentioned in the narrative.
3 Uri-o-Hau: The issue of Hau-moe-wharangi.
4 Nga-Ririki: Sometimes called Nga-Riki.
5 Te Roroa: So called from an ancestor of that name.
6 Tutaki: Ngai-Tutaki.
7 Uwhi: A kind of yam (?), now perhaps extinct in New Zealand. Probably identical with the uwhi-kaho, said to have been brought to New Zealand in the Horo-uta canoe (vide Williams' article “Names of Kumara,” Journal, Vol. III., p. 144).
8 Roroi: Kumara root made into a pulp, and preserved for winter use.
9 Kao: Kumaras steamed, then dried for winter food, packed in baskets.
10 Probably proverbs—significance now quite forgotten by Ngati-Whatua.
11 This is similar to many incidents of a like kind in Maori Warfare. (Vide Journal, Vol. VI., Supplement, p. 87, describing the battle at Paruroa.)
12 Vide Journal, Vol. VIII., p. 244, where a like incident took place at the fall of Mokoia pa, Rotorua; the heroine on that occasion being Te Ao-kapu-rangi.
13 This was at Big Muddy Creek (Paru-roa) on the Manukau.