Volume 35 1926 > Volume 35, No. 137 > [Front matter] p i-xx
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Containing the Transactions and Proceedings of the Society.
VOL. 35. 1926.

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    No. 137.—March, 1926.
  • Annual meeting of the Society i
  • Annual Report of the Council ii
  • Balance-sheet iv
  • The Polynesian Society v
  • Members of the Society xi
  • List of Exchanges xix
  • Tapitapi, or The Tattooing of Females on Santa Anna and Santa Catalina (Solomon Group). By Henry Kuper 1
  • Notes on Customs, Ritual, and Beliefs Pertaining to Sickness, Death, Burial, and Exhumation Among the Maori of New Zealand. By Elsdon Best 6
  • The Story of Te Huhuti of Te Roto-a-tara. By the Rev. H. J. Fletcher 31
  • Notes on the Moa. By T. W. Downes 36
  • Some Honorific and Sacerdotal Terms and Personifications met with in Maori Narratives 38
  • Word List 43
  • Boomerang Found at Muriwai Beach, Auckland. By H. Hamilton, Dominion Museum 45
  • The Oracle-house in Polynesia. By E. S. Craighill Handy 47
  • Review 58
  • “Threshold of the Pacific,” by Rev. C. E. Fox.
  • Publications Received 63
  • Science Congress at Dunedin 69
  • Notes and Queries 70
  • Unuhanga arawhata—Another Unknown Artifact from Swamp Land—Rakaihautu—Astronomical Beliefs in Assam—A Strange Tale from the Year 1846.
  • Notice to Members: “The Maori,” by Elsdon Best
    No. 138.—June, 1926.
  • The Legend of Mahu and Taewha. Collected by Elsdon Best 73
  • The Evolution of Maori Clothing. By Te Rangi Hiroa (P. H. Buck), D.S.O., M.D. 111
  • A Recently-Discovered Carved Stone Figure. By Gilbert Archey 150
  • He tangi na Hine-matioro mo tona mokopuna, mo Te Kani-a-Takirau, i tona haerenga ki Te Kahanui-a-Tiki. Collected by Elsdon Best 153
  • Sacerdotal Terms, etc., met with in Maori Narrative 154
  • Word List 156
  • Reviews 159
  • “The Story of Old Wairoa,” by Thomas Lambert; “Mare-hurehu,” by Marc Chadourne et Maurice Guierre; “The History of Tattooing and its Significance,” by W. D. Hambly.
  • Publications Received 170
  • Notes and Queries 173
  • Maori Proverbs connected with the term Ngahuru—Stone Artifacts of Unknown Use—Excavations in French Indo-china—An Unknown Artifact from Swamp Land—Mummification Among the Maori.
  • Proceedings 178
  • Notice to Members: “The Maori,” by Elsdon Best 179
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    No. 139.—September, 1926.
  • The Value of Tradition in Polynesian Research. By Te Rangi Hiroa (P.H. Buck), D.S.O., M.D. 181
  • Ritual Formulæ Pertaining to War and Peace-making. By Elsdon Best 204
  • Ngatoro-i-rangi and Manaia. Collected by Elsdon Best 211
  • The Ohura Fight of 1864. By T. W. Downes 223
  • Maori Rat-trapping Devices. By T. W. Downes 228
  • Dolmens in Espiritu Santo. By H. D. Skinner 235
  • Honorific Terms, Sacerdotal Expressions, Personifications, etc., met with in Maori Narrative 239
  • Word List 242
  • Reviews 248
  • “A Dictionary of the Hawaiian Language,” by Lorrin Andrews, revised by Henry H. Parker; “Maori Agriculture,” by Elsdon Best.
  • Publications Received 258
  • Notes and Queries 260
  • The Megapode Bird, and the Story it Tells—An Unknown Artifact from Swamp Land—A well-carved Pare in the Salem Museum—Maori Economics—Anthropological Work in the Pacific.
  • Proceedings 263
  • Notice to Members: “The Maori,” by Elsdon Best 264
  • Maori Literature 265
    No. 140.—December, 1926.
  • A Tikopian Vocabulary. Edited by Herbert W. Williams, M.A., LITT.D., F.N.Z.INST. 267
  • Language, Mythology and Songs of Bwaidoga, Goodenough Island, S.E. Papua. By D. Jenness and (late) Rev. A. Ballantyne 290
  • White Magic of the Maori. With some additional data collected by the late Col. Gudgeon, E. Best, and others 315
  • Supposed Pit-dwellings in Queen Charlotte Sound. By W. J. Elvy 329
  • Honorific Terms, Sacerdotal Expressions, Personifications, etc., met with in Maori Narrative 333
  • Word List 335
  • Obituary 337
  • Reviews 338
  • “Mythes, Légendes et Traditions des Polynésiens,” by A.-C. Eugene Caillot; “Maori Symbolism,” by Ettie A. Rout and Hohepa Te Rake.
  • Publications Received 348
  • Notes and Queries 351
  • A School of Maori Art—An Unknown Maori Artifact—A Mexican Tiki—Personal Notes.
  • Notice to Members: “The Maori,” by Elsdon Best 353
  • Maori Literature 354
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VOL. 35.—1926.

THE Thirty-third Annual Meeting of the Polynesian Society, being the first held in Wellington after the Society's return, was held in the Library, Woodward Street, at 8 p.m., with a fair attendance of members. Apologies for absence were received from Sir M. Pomare, Drs. Buck, Thomson, Sutherland and Mr. Balneavis. Mr. J. C. Andersen was in the chair.

After confirmation of Minutes the Report and Balance-sheet were laid before the meeting.

Mr. Andersen explained the relationship of the Samoa and Fiji Societies, under arrangements made during the year, mentioning also the B.P. Bishop Museum arrangement. He drew attention to the increased size of recent Journals, a feature which might not be permanent, being dependent upon funds available. Mr. Andersen also referred to the reprinting of the out-of-date volumes of the Journal in which the Board of Maori Ethnological Research had promised assistance; and going on to speak generally on the Society's work Mr. Andersen read extracts from a monograph by Mr. Elsdon Best on that subject.

The secretary made a statement as to the price and sales of The Maori, a memoir of the Society.

Mr. Ilott congratulated the Council and Editors upon the work achieved during the year.

Adoption of the Report and Balance-sheet, moved by Mr. Huggins, was seconded by Mr. Bates, who spoke in appreciation of the labours of the Society's workers, especially referring to Mr. Best, whose book The Maori, Mr. Bates had found was greatly appreciated in England. Hoping that the Library would in time become a resort of students of Polynesian questions and problems, Mr. Bates hoped also that the Council would be able to set up a special fund for the purchase of publications bearing on these subjects.

The Report and Balance-sheet were adopted.

Mr. W. H. Skinner was unanimously re-elected as President.

A ballot being held under the Rules to determine the retiring Councillors, Messrs. Crompton-Smith, Dr. Thomson, and Mr. Best were retired, and were eligible for re-election. Dr. Thomson withdrew on account of ill-health.

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Mr. Elsdon Best (proposed by Mr. Ilott, seconded by Mr. Baillie), Mr. Baillie (proposed by Mr. Bates, seconded by Mr. Hamilton), Mr. Crompton-Smith (Proposed by Mr. Ilott, seconded by Mr. Baillie) were elected, the new Council thus being composed of: Sir Maui Pomare, Mr. Best, Mr. Andersen, Mr. Baillie, Mr. Balneavis, Mr. Huggins, and Mr. Crompton-Smith.

On the proposal of Mr. Crompton-Smith, seconded by Mr. Andersen, Mr. Ilott was elected auditor.

The Secretary then, on behalf of the Council, recommended that Major-General H. Gordon Robley, of London, be elected an honorary member.—Seconded by Mr. Andersen. Major-General Robley was elected.

Mr. Bates moved to place on record the hearty thanks of the Society to the Board of Maori Ethnological Research for the great assistance rendered in the publication of the Society's works. Also that the attention of the Government be called to the importance of the work carried out by the Society.—Carried.

A letter was read from Mr. Norman Potts, a member, to the Editors commenting on various features of the Journal, and Mr. Best and others spoke in explanation and comment upon the work and data becoming available for publication.

This concluded the meeting.


THE year has been a notabel one in the history of the Society in that it has seen the transference of its headquarters from New Plymouth back to Wellington, where it was born in the year 1892, and the consequent setting up of a new Executive Council and officers, and provision for its valuable library.

The new Council elected at the last annual meeting in New Plymouth held its first meeting in Wellington in February, and thereafter at quarterly intervals.

The Society's new quarters are located in the Druids' Building, Woodward Street, which, at the time of removal of the Society, was not out of the contractor's hands. On the first of June, however, the Society was able to enter into occupation and received from New Plymouth the thirty-six cases containing its library there shortly after.

The provision of the necessary shelving in glass-fronted cases has proved a lengthy, as well as expensive, process which delayed the unpacking of books and subsequent furnishing of the rooms. This, however, has now been completed, but only just in time for our annual meeting, and the books, although now in the shelves, are not yet arranged or classified.

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One great inconvenience to members generally has been due to this long delay in getting things into proper order, namely that requests for the publications could not be attended to, and a very considerable list of applications is still awaiting attention.

During the year the Society lost by death or resignation three members, while thirty-four new members and one honorary member were elected. The total membership roll now stands at 291 ordinary members, 9 honorary members, 6 corresponding members, and 53 institutions or others on our exchange lists.

Several proposals have been adopted by the Council and are now being carried out. Firstly, it has been found necessary to have the Society incorporated and registered to enable it to hold the lease of its rooms. This entails also a matter already decided upon, the revision of the Rules in order to include certain conditions essential to corporate existence.

Another matter which it is hoped to have in train during the coming year is that of Royal patronage. It is felt that the Society is so well established that it can fulfil the necessary conditions, while the need for the widest possible extension of its circle of workers and helpers in view of modern world conditions makes it desirable to add such a status to the recognition which its work is already steadily winning among kindred institutions.

The Journal, as members know, under its new editorship, has appeared with regularity and has maintained the high standards bequeathed to us by former holders of the position; it has also been possible, thanks to pecuniary aid afforded by the Board of Maori Ethnological Research, to increase its volume and add to the illustrations. We hope that these conditions may be maintained. The thanks of the Council and of the Society are due in a very special manner to the honorary editors whose unwearying labour enables these statements to be made.

The demand for the sets and early volumes of the Journal, and for the Memoirs, has exhausted the stock of these, including the second edition. A third edition of the first ten volumes is now under consideration, and estimates are being obtained for a photographic reproduction.

In view of the cost of printing it has been necessary to advance the price of the publications. The cost of transferring the library to Wellington has been £32 8s 7d, and of furnishing the rooms with shelving, flooring, etc., £223, which items are non-recurrent. The greater part of the latter item does not appear in this year's Balancesheet. The cost of producing the Journal has been £472 4s 4d, while a new and recurring item of expense is that of rent, £150 per annum.

For the Council,

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AT 8 p.m. on January 8, 1892, a number of persons interested in the Polynesian race met in the Library of the Colonial Museum, at Wellington, for the purpose of forming a society for the study of that race, including the collection and publishing of data pertaining to the history, ethnography and general culture of the Pacific peoples.

The principal mover in this proposal was the late Mr. S. Percy Smith, who, indeed, may be said to have been the rock on which the Society was founded. Not only so, but he it was who kept the Society alive for many years, and who performed most of the duties connected with the publishing of the Society's Journal throughout those years.

On the occasion of the inaugural meeting the chair was taken by the late Colonel W. E. Gudgeon, another enthusiast in the study of the Maori folk of New Zealand and their kinsmen of many far-spread isles. Mr. Smith explained the objects of the proposed Society, and informed the meeting that, in response to a circular sent out by him, 112 persons had sent in their names as desirous of becoming members. It was also explained that a number of persons interested in the native race were desirous of recording data pertaining to it, and that, inasmuch as native remembrance of pre-European conditions, etc., was swiftly fading, no time should be lost in putting on record all available matter. This necessity for a recording medium was recognised by all speakers, among whom, besides those already mentioned, were Messrs. E. Tregear, J. H. Baker, T. Kirk, R. Caldwell, and C. E. Major. It was then decided that a quarterly journal be established, to be called the Journal of the Polynesian Society. A set of rules was then passed, an executive appointed, ordinary, honorary and corresponding members elected, and so, on January 8, 1892, the Polynesian Society was established.

The story of this Society is not marked by anything more extraordinary than economical management, ceaseless interest and industry on the part of one man, the editor - vi of the Journal. An important proportion of the matter published was furnished by him, and it was owing to his efforts that a large amount of data concerning the Polynesian race was handed over to the Society. It was also owing to his remarkable personality that so many men were induced to write special papers for the Journal.

Throughout the long years that lie behind the funds at the disposal of the Council were represented merely by the subscriptions received from members, and certain moneys received on account of sales. The list of members was never at any time a long one, hence the income of the Society may be described as a modes one. Now throughout long years it was ever the aim of the Society to devote almost the whole of its income to the printing of original data, recording matter pertaining to many far-scattered divisions of the Pacific peoples. This was effected only by means of the unselfish activities of the various officers of the Society. It is true that the first 32 of the annual volumes of the Journal are by no means bulky tomes, yet in the aggregate they contain a large amount of matter descriptive of the history, customs, myths, religion, languages, etc., of Pacific folk.

It will be observed that the last two volumes of the Journal have been increased considerably in size, and this is entirely due to the remarkable generosity displayed by the Board of Maori Ethnological Research in placing increased funds at the disposal of the Society. Although but a lately-formed body yet this Board has, during its brief existence, effected so much in the way of publishing collections of manuscript that the output seems bewildering to old members of the Society. Not only has the Board subsidised the Society with regard to the publishing of the Journal, but it has also published four volumes of Maori lore as pertaining to the series of Memoirs of the Society. Yet again it has taken over from the Dominion Museum the MSS. of four volumes of the Museum Bulletin series, MSS. that have hung fire for many years, and is having the same printed at its own expense. It is a highly gratifying thing to note that our Maori friends have at length seen the desirability of putting their racial and tribal lore on permanent record.

Owing to long isolation in far-spread isles, to remarkable achievements in ocean wandering, to the mystery - vii enveloping its origin, and to a very remarkable racial mentality, the Polynesian race forms an extremely interesting subject for study. In this connection few barbaric races can be placed in the same category. If this race had been engaged in developing a form of civilization in its hidden homeland ere it entered the Pacific area in which we found it so few generations ago, then such development became arrested when the people became broken up into many small, and comparatively small, communities dwelling in many far-sundered isles of a great ocean. Hence we found among these folk fossilized arts and modes of thought, crude processes, primitive implements, and religious beliefs and practices in a very interesting stage of development. When we take these facts into consideration can it be wondered at that increasing interest is being displayed in the race? Even old country folk are writing books on our islanders, culling their data from many works differing widely in worth, and so we have learned with some amazement that our friend the Maori was an enthusiastic pearl hunter, that he practised irrigation of crops and became a gold-miner in New Zealand!! Truly we owe much to the modern students of the fascinating study of conjectural anthropology, for they tell us of many things concerning the Polynesians that we could never have discovered.

The work accomplished by the Society in the way of publishing original matter—its principal activity—has, as already explained, been curtailed by lack of sufficient funds. At the same time Vols. 1 to 32 contain a considerable amount of interesting and valuable data, much of which would probably never have been recorded had not the Polynesian Society existed. Many of the papers published were specially written for the Journal, and would never have been compiled had it not been for its existence. Moreover many of the writers have passed out on the broad path of Tane that gives upon the land of spirits.

The 34 volumes of the Journal contain some 912 papers in all, ranging from brief notes to lengthy papers such as those forming the first four volumes of Memoirs. Volumes 5 and 6 of the Memoir series have not been published in the Journal. The above-mentioned papers were contributed by over 200 persons, and as might be expected, deal principally with the Maori or Polynesian race. Many phases of the life story of a barbaric people have been dealt with in - viii these published papers, but, on the other hand, there are many yet to be dealt with. The Society would do good work by noting such subjects as have not been dealt with hitherto, and by endeavouring to supply such omissions. This might be at least partially effected by enlisting the services of members and others in various localities. Some of these subjects that have occurred to me might by some be deemed somewhat trivial, but are assuredly illuminating as tending to illustrate the mental attributes and culture of the peoples we are dealing with. It should be the aim of the Society to make its Journal a treasury of knowledge concerning such peoples; we should not be content with a mere compendium or epitome. One of the weaknesses marking much of the work of the past years has been the lack of precise detail, as in the description of methods and processes. It is scarcely possible to give too much detail in such descriptions, however tedious it may be to some readers.

Albeit this large amount of data has been recorded in the Society's Journal, yet some of the most important phases of native life are not treated of by any comprehensive paper in that organ. For instance, we look in vain for any such account of the important industries of agriculture and fishing, also the games, songs and musical instruments have never been dealt with. There is again much to do yet in the way of describing many forms of implements, and sound workers in the field are much wanted. By attending to these matters the Society may attain the very desirable position of possessing in its own Journal a fairly complete account of the culture of the race as it was in past times, are Europeans intruded upon this oceanic area.

Among the other subjects that need to be dealt with yet in the pages of the Journal, in addition to those above noted, the following may be mentioned:—

Woodcraft Canoes
Colour sense and colour names Magic
Units of measurement Personal adornment
Marriage Tattooing
Death, burial and mourning Division of time
Land tenure Fortified villages
Carving Proverbs, etc.

There is also much work yet to be done in connection with social usages, myths, houses, storehouses and storage pits, etc.

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The weakness of our present position is the lack of field workers, very few men are now active in this line, the number has decreased of late years, albeit what may be termed arm-chair workers are yet in evidence. The local field is by no means worked out, and much might yet be done here; we need new workers in that field, men who will take up certain subjects and study them, collect data wherever available, and ever cultivate the critical faculty. The re-writing of data already on record is a minor matter so long as there is original work to do, original matter to gain and publish.

There is one matter that has affected the interests of our Society and that is the fact that the passing years have deprived us of some very useful correspondents in various Pacific isles. In order to overcome this want we cannot do better than work with such institutions and societies as the Bishop Museum and the Fijian and Samoan Societies. The Tahitian Society publishes its own Journal, but an effort should be made to secure a correspondent in the Society group. The Samoan Society has already sent in one good paper, and has shown its willingness to make further contributions. A considerable quantity of data pertaining to the Society Samoan and Fijian Groups, etc., has been placed on record, but much more might be done. There are many minor subjects that have been neglected, and all these represent weak links in the chain that it is our task to forge.

The recording of data pertaining to the native folk of the Pacific Isles is of much importance to the interesting and highly instructive study of the development of human institutions, owing to the comparative isolation of such peoples for a long period of time. It was also of great advantage to the science of anthropology that Europeans had not, by their presence, banished knowledge of the past from the minds of the natives ere the earlier collectors reached the field. The field is an interesting one because here we found fossilized arts of long-past times still practised, religious beliefs and practices arrested or in course of development, social usages such as we ourselves knew a thousand leagues back on the path of life. How can we fail to be interested in the study of these folk, when we remember that we are looking upon ourselves as we were many centuries ago. This is what makes our task a pleasing one, for we are peering into our own childhood and looking backward down the path we have traversed. Here is the - x human interest, and it calls to mind the words of the man of solar myths fame when speaking of ancient history:— “At first it seems somewhat strange and foreign, but the more intensely we read the more our thoughts are engaged and feelings warmed, and the history of those ancient men becomes, as it were, our own history, their sufferings our sufferings, their joys our joys. Without this sympathy history is a dead letter, and might as well be burnt and forgotten, while, if it is once enlivened by this feeling it appeals, not only to the antiquarian, but also to the heart of every man.”

And so, looking backward down the shadow-laden path, the tales of the Maori at our doors and the weakening wires of memory bring back to us the scenes, the modes of thought and achievements of our long-past youth.

The list of subjects given above includes some that are not represented by any adequate papers in our Journal, and concerning which we will welcome papers from other islands. For the benefit of such over-sea correspondents and contributors the following subjects may be added to the list:—

  • Myths and folk tales
  • Omens, signs, superstitions
  • Religious beliefs and practices, spiritual concepts, etc.
  • Magic
  • Treatment of sick
  • Social usages
  • Land tenure
  • Games, songs, dancing
  • Musical instruments
  • Textile art, clothing, mats, baskets, cordage, etc.
  • Personal adornment
  • Decorative art
  • Food supplies, cooking
  • Agriculture, methods, etc.
  • Fishing methods and gear
  • Habitations, house-building, etc.
  • Implements, tools and weapons
  • Birth, customs, etc., pertaining to
  • War customs
  • Star-lore
  • Pre-European voyages
  • Vocabularies
  • Wind names and compass points
  • Nomenclature — Personal, topographical, tribal, etc. List of names of birds, fish, shellfish, plants, insects, soils, stones, etc.

In such work Detail and Precision is the motto of the day, and, though the day be far spent, much good work can yet be done in the far-spread isles of the Great Ocean of Kiwa.

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VOL. 35.—1926.
As from 1st January, 1926.

The sign * before a name indicates an original member or founder. As this list will be published annually, the Secretaries would be obliged if members will supply any ommission, or notify change of address.

  • The Right Hon. Baron Islington, K.C.M.G., D.S.O., ex-Governor of New Zealand, Government Office, Downing Street, London.
  • The Right Hon. The Earl of Liverpool, M.V.O., G.C.M.G., ex-Governor-General of New Zealand, Downing Street, London.
  • Admiral of the Fleet His Excellency, Lord Jellicoe, G.C.B., O.M., G.C.V.O., late Governor-General of New Zealand.
  • *Elsdon Best, F.N.Z. Inst., Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington.
  • Sir J. G. Frazer, D.C.L., LL.D., Litt. D., Trinity College, Cambridge, England.
  • Dr. A. C. Haddon, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., 3, Cranmer Road, Cambridge, England.
  • S. H. Ray, M.A., F.R.A.I., 218, Balfour Road, Ilford, Essex, England.
  • Major-General H. G. Robley, 6, Norris Street, London, S.W. 1.
  • Rev. Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A., Queen's College, Oxford, England.
  • *H. G. Seth-Smith, M.A., 88, Victoria Avenue, Remuera, Auckland.
  • Prof. Sir W. Baldwin Spencer, M.A., C.M.G., F.R.S., The University, Melbourne.
  • *Edward Tregear, I.S.O., Picton.
  • T. W. Downes, P.O. Box 119, Whanganui.
  • The Rev. C. E. Fox, San Cristoval; via Ugi, Solomon Islands.
  • Rev. T. G. Hammond, Putaruru, Auckland.
  • James Hornell, F.L.S., F.R.A.I., c/o W. J. C. Rain, 34, Loughboro Road, Brixton, London, S.W.
  • S. Savage, Rarotonga Island.
  • Thos. G. Thrum, P.O. Box 205, Honolulu, H.I.
  • Acheson, Judge, F. O. V., Native Land Court, Auckland.
  • Adams, A. M., 29, Waterloo Road, Lower Hutt, Wellington.
  • Adalbert College, Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.
  • Adams, J. C., Taiparoro, Tauranga.
  • Alexander Turnbull Library, Bowen Street, Wellington.
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  • Andersen, Johannes C., F.N.Z.INST., Alexander Turnbull Library, Wgtn.
  • Angus and Robertson, Ltd., Sydney.
  • Auckland Institute, The Museum, Auckland.
  • Auckland Municipal Library, Auckland.
  • Australian Museum, Sydney.
  • Avery, Thomas, New Plymouth.
  • Baillie, Herbert, Wellington City Library, Wellington.
  • Balneavis, H. R. H., Secretary, Hon. Native Minister, Wellington.
  • Bamford, E., Arney Road, Auckland.
  • Barron, Miss Vida M., 44, Queen Street, Dunedin.
  • Barwell, John L., Chatham Islands.
  • Bassett, George, Whanganui.
  • Bates, D. C., Brooklyn, Wellington.
  • Beamish, George E., Whana Station, via Hastings, Hawke's Bay.
  • Beasley, Harry G., Haddon Lodge, Shooters' Hill, London, S.E. 18.
  • Bell, Allen, M.P., Kaitaia, North Auckland.
  • Bell, N. M., M.A., 134, Fitzgerald Street, St. Albans, Christchurch.
  • Bellringer, C. E., New Plymouth.
  • Bennett, H. D., Hawkestone Road, Wellington.
  • Bett, Dr. F. A., Nile Street, Nelson.
  • Binsted, H., Awarua, Rarotonga.
  • Bird, W., Murupara, Opotiki.
  • Bird, W. W., Inspector Native Schools, Wellington.
  • Black, G. J., Gisborne.
  • Blackley, S., c/o Vickers, Ltd., Woodward Street, Wellington.
  • Boston City Library, Boston, Mass., U.S.A.
  • Brinsden, J. B., 348, The Terrace, Wellington.
  • British & Foreign Bible Society, 146, Queen Victoria St., London, E.C.
  • Brown, Mrs. Henry, 4, Ascot Avenue, Remuera.
  • Brown, Prof. J. MacMillan, M.A., LLD., Holmbank, Cashmere Hills, Christchurch.
  • Bruce, Mrs. “Rollesby,” Burke's Pass, South Canterbury.
  • Bruce, Robert, Pukerua, Te Karaka, Gisborne.
  • Buck, Dr. P. H., D.S.O., F.N.Z. INST., District Health Office, Auckland.
  • Buddle, H. D., 6, Wyndham Street, Auckland.
  • Buddle, R., H.M.S. Hawkins, Wei-Hai-Wei, China.
  • Bullard, G. H., c/o Mrs. R. M. Kane, 11, Belvedere Rd., Hataitai, Wellington.
  • Burnet, J. H., Virginian Homestead, St. John's Hill, Whanganui.
  • Butler, F. A., Gill Street, New Plymouth.
  • Cambridge University Library, Cambridge, England.
  • Campbell, Capt. J. D., c/o Resident Commissioner, Rarotonga.
  • Canterbury Philosophical Institute, Museum, Christchurch.
  • Carr, H., Judge, Native Land Court, Gisborne.
  • Carter, H. C., 475, West 143rd Street, New York.
  • Castle, M.A., Rev. J. G. T., Heretaunga School, Havelock North.
  • Chamberlin, T. C., Simla Crescent, Khandallah, Wellington.
  • Chambers, Bernard, Te Mata, Havelock North.
  • Chambers, W. K., Apple Farm, East Tamaki, Auckland.
  • *Chapman, Sir F. R., 123, Sydney Street, Wellington.
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  • Chatterton, Rev. F. W., The Vicarage, Rotorua.
  • Chicago Field Museum of Natural History, U.S.A.
  • Cock, R., New Plymouth.
  • Cole, Ven. Archdeacon R. H., D.C.L., c/o Bank of New Zealand, 1,
  • Collet, Sir Wilfred, 13, South Hill Park Gardens, Hampstead, N.W. 3, London.
  • Collins, R. J. G., 140, Hereford Street, Christchurch.
  • Collocott, M.A., Rev. E. E. V., The Parsonage, Albury, N.S.W. Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C.
  • Commonwealth Parliamentary Library—See Melbourne, Commonwealth Parliamentary Library.
  • Corney, George, Devon Street, New Plymouth.
  • Coughlan, W. N., Omaio, Opotiki.
  • Cowan, James, F.R.G.S., c/o Dept. Internal Affairs, Wellington.
  • Crooke, Alfred, Marton.
  • Crowther, Dr. W. L., 180, Macquarie Street, Hobart.
  • Curtis, G. N., Watson Street, New Plymouth.
  • Dabinett, James L., c/o National Bank of New Zealand, Waihi.
  • Davidson, J. C., “Ratanui,” Carrington Road, New Plymouth.
  • de Beer, Miss Dora, London Street, Dunedin.
  • Devolver, Rev. Father, J., S.S.J., c/o Geo. Graham, Endean's Bldgs. Auckland.
  • Dixon, Roland, B., PH.D., Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A.
  • Dominion Museum, Wellington.
  • Donnelly, A. T., Solicitor, Christchurch.
  • Donnelly, I., c/o Lyttelton Times, Christchurch.
  • Duncan, H. R., Hardy Street, Nelson.
  • Dunedin Municipal Library, Dunedin.
  • Duthie, A. Drummond, 1, Wilkinson Terrace, Oriental Bay, Wellington.
  • Easton, M. G., c/o Public Works Dept., Wairoa, Hawke's Bay.
  • Eastwood, R. J., Gladstone Road, Gisborne.
  • Eccles, Alfred, P.O. Box 223, Dunedin.
  • Edwards, Vivian D., “The Tower,” Matamata.
  • Ehau, Keepa H., Ohinemutu, Rotorua.
  • Ellison, Dr. E. P., G.P.O., Dunedin.
  • Elvey, W. E., Noseworthy Road, Blenheim.
  • Emslie, Mrs. Ann, Hillside, Waverley.
  • Entrican, James C., c/o A. J. Entrican and Co., Customs Street East, Auckland.
  • Ereatara, Wiremu, Box 40, Ngongotaka.
  • Fildes, H., Chief Post Office, Christchurch.
  • Firth, R. W., Wymondsley Road, Otahuhu, Auckland.
  • Fisher, V. F., Kauri Road, Birkdale.
  • Fletcher, Rev. H. J., The Manse, Normanby, Taranaki.
  • Fowlds, Hon. G., Auckland.
  • Fraser, M., New Plymouth.
  • Fraser, W. M., Box 6, Whangarei.
- xiv
  • Gensik, F., 64, Albany Street, Dunedin.
  • Gill, William, 100, Exhibition Street, Melbourne, Victoria.
  • Gill, W. H., Marunouchi, Tokio, Japan.
  • Goding, Fred. W., Box 334, Livermore Falls, Maine, U.S.A.
  • Goller, John, Inglewood.
  • Good, H. M., Stratford.
  • Gould, E. B., Te Awamutu.
  • Grace, L. W. H., c/o Public Trustee, Wellington.
  • Grace, P. Alfred, Tokaanu, Taupo.
  • Graham, Geo., c/o No. 11, Endean's Bldgs., Queen Street, Auckland.
  • Hakopa, K. H., Moawhanga, via Taihape.
  • Halfpenny, C. J., Wharehine, Kaipara.
  • Hallen, Dr. A. H., The Hospital, Mercury Bay, Auckland.
  • Hammond, William, Thames.
  • Hamilton, Harold, Dominion Museum, Wellington.
  • Hamilton Public Library, Hamilton, Waikato.
  • Handy, Dr., Bishop Museum, Honolulu.
  • Hansen, Frederick A., 16, Upper Vincent Street, Auckland.
  • Harber, D. Wesley, Pago Pago, Tutuila.
  • Harris, F., Albion Hotel, Gisborne.
  • Hawken, Hon. O. J., M.P., Eltham.
  • Haydon, E. P., Box 249, New Plymouth.
  • Heenan, J., Law Draughtsman's Office, Wellington.
  • Heihi, Timi, Kahukura, via Tokomaru Bay.
  • Herring, W. F., Totara, Cape Foulwind.
  • Hiersemann, Karl W., Bookseller, 29, Konigstrasse, Leipzig, Germany.
  • Hine, Edgar, Morley Street, New Plymouth.
  • Hocken, Mrs. T. M., Hocken Library, Dunedin.
  • Hodgson, N. V., c/o Norman Potts, Opotiki.
  • Hodgkins, W. J. P., Bank of New South Wales, Auckland.
  • Home, Dr. George, New Plymouth.
  • Hovell, S. M., Kenny Street, Waihi.
  • Hudson, J. H., “The Hallukic,” Whitianga, Mercury Bay, via Ackld.
  • Huggins, H. A., “Taurima,” 55, Hamilton Rd., Kilbirnie, Wellington.
  • Hutchins, Rev. S. J., Airedale Private Hotel, Nelson.
  • Ilott, J. M. A., 246b, Terrace, Wellington.
  • Internal Affairs, Hon. Minister of, Wellington.
  • Invercargill Public Library, Invercargill.
  • Johnson, E. G., Hill Road, Richmond, Nelson.
  • Jones, M. R., P.O. Box 24, Hawera.
  • Jones, Robert Noble, Chief Judge, Native Land Court, Wellington.
  • Kane, E. W., Clerk, House of Representatives, Wellington.
  • Katene, H. W., Native Land Court, Wellington.
  • Kelly, L. G., c/o Mrs. O. Gordon, 53, Aro Street, Wellington.
  • Kenderdine, J., Sale Street, Auckland.
  • Kennedy, D. G., Vaitupu, Funafuti, Ellis Island.
  • Kenyon, A. S., State Rivers and Waters Supply Commissioner, Melbourne.
  • King, Newton, “Brooklands,” New Plymouth.
- xv
  • Kinney, Michael A., Hyde, Central Otago.
  • Kirkcaldie, E. K., Salamanca Road, Wellington.
  • Kohere, Rev. R. T., Horoera, Araroa, via Gisborne.
  • Kohere, Rev. Te Poihipi, Rangitukia, via Gisborne.
  • Knapp, F. V., Alfred Street, Nelson.
  • Labberton, D. van Hinloopen, Dr., Tokyo Foreign Language School, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Lagan, Rev. P. J., Opotiki.
  • Lambert, H. A., Belmont, Tayford, Whanganui.
  • Laughton, Rev. J. G., Ruatahuna, via Rotorua.
  • Leatham, H. B., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., LOND., New Plymouth.
  • Leith, F. E., Rangiputa, via Kaimaumau, Auckland.
  • Leonard, F. H., Mercantile Chambers, Customs Street, Auckland.
  • Leonard, Rev. H. T., Marton.
  • Lintott, F., 28, Customhouse Street, Auckland.
  • List, C. S., Rata Street, Inglewood.
  • List, T. C., New Plymouth.
  • Mahony, D. J., Mines Department, Melbourne.
  • *Major, C. E., 22, Empire Buildings, Swanson Street, Auckland.
  • Mann, S. F., Lawrenny, Caramut, Victoria.
  • Marsden, Dr. E., c/o Education Department, Wellington.
  • Marsden, J. W., Isel, Stoke, Nelson.
  • Marshall, H. H. Motu-kowhai, Marton.
  • Marshall, J. W., Tututotara, Marton.
  • Marshall, P. H., D.S.C., F.N.Z., INST., Bellevue Rd., Lower Hutt, Wgtn.
  • *Marshall, W. S., Maungaraupi, Rata.
  • Matanuku, Henare, Kahukura, via, Tokomaru Bay.
  • Melbourne, Commonwealth Parliamentary Library.
  • Missionary Research Library, 25, Maddison Avenue, New York.
  • Mitchell, Hy., Taiporutu, Surveyor, Rotorua.
  • Mitchell Library, The, Sydney.
  • Monro, Rev. Piri, Ohinemutu, Rotorua.
  • Moore, Dr. T. C., Tennyson Street, Napier.
  • Morgan, P. G., M.A., F.N.Z. INST., 156, The Terrace, Wellington.
  • Morpeth, W. T., Land Office, Hokitika.
  • Morrison, David, c/o U.S.S. Co., Apia, Samoa.
  • Mokonuiarangi, Raureti, Box 11, Matata.
  • McDonald, James, c/o Dominion Museum, Wellington.
  • McEachen, Miss, M.A., 102, Nile Street East, Nelson.
  • McGregor, D. S., Pemberton, Feilding.
  • McIntosh, D. T., G.P.O., Box 1208, Auckland.
  • McIntyre, Hugh, M.A., LL.B., Feilding.
  • McKay, James, P.O. Box 55, Greymouth.
  • McKay, Wm., F.R.C.S., ENG., 45, Guiness Street, Greymouth.
  • McKenzie, Alexander, Hakupu School, Niue Island.
  • McKenzie, S., Bulls, Rangitikei.
  • McLean, R. W., 308, Wellington Terrace, Wellington.
  • McVeagh, James, 85, Queen Street, Auckland.
- xvi
  • Nelson Institute, Nelson.
  • Nelson, O. F., P.O. Box 1387, Auckland.
  • Newman, Mrs. W. L., New Plymouth.
  • New Plymouth Municipal Library, New Plymouth.
  • New South Wales, Public Library of, Bent Street, Sydney.
  • New York Public Library, Astor Buildings, 42nd Street, N.Y.
  • Ngata, Makarini T., Waiomatatini, via Gisborne.
  • Ngata, A. T., M.A., M.P., Parliamentary Buildings, Wellington.
  • O'Dea, P., M.A., LL.B., Hawera.
  • Oliver, W. R. B., Dominion Museum, Wellington.
  • Onehunga Public Library, Onehunga.
  • Ormsby, J., Otorohanga.
  • Otago Institute, The Museum, King Street, Dunedin.
  • Paerata, Rawhiti, Tokomaru Bay.
  • Painter, Robert, c/o C. Samuda, 43, Fendalton Road, Christchurch.
  • Palmerston North Public Library, Palmerston North.
  • Paraire, H., Tomoana, Hastings.
  • Partington, J. Edge, F.R.G.S., Wyngates, Burke's Road, Beaconsfield, England.
  • Paterson, J. Fraser, 88a, Broken Hill, New South Wales.
  • Penn, W. J., Herald Office, New Plymouth.
  • Phipps, W. J., 132, Pinnar Road, Oxley, Watford, England.
  • Platts, F. W., C.M.G., Te Kuiti.
  • Pomare, Hon. Sir M., M.P., Wellington.
  • Postal Department, Secretary, Wellington.
  • Potts, Norman, Opotiki.
  • Pratt, M.A., Rev Rugby, 280, Church Street, Palmerston North.
  • Pulleine, Dr. R., Adelaide, S.A.
  • Pycroft, Arthur Thos., Railway Department, Auckland.
  • Reardon, W. J., 90, Victoria Avenue, Whanganui.
  • Redmond, J. C., Eastbourne, Wellington.
  • Rewharewha, Te Whareparoa, Torere, Opotiki.
  • Rowden, F. J., Railway Engineer's Office, Auckland.
  • Rowe, W., Devon Street East, New Plymouth.
  • Roy, Ian W. B., Vivian Street, New Plymouth.
  • Rutledge, J. H. D., Orete Station, Raukokore, Bay of Plenty.
  • Rylands, John, Library, Deansgate, Manchester University, England.
  • Scott, W., Dairy Inspector, Opotiki.
  • Shaw, Stanley W., New Plymouth.
  • Simpson, George, Jnr., Belgrave Crescent, Roslyn, Dunedin.
  • Sinclair, Thomas B. J., Belt Road, Dartmoor, New Plymouth.
  • Skinner, H. D., B.A., D.C.M., Otago University Museum, Dunedin.
  • *Skinner, W. H., York Terrace, New Plymouth.
  • Smith, Miss E. Percy, New Plymouth.
  • Smith, H. Guthrie, Tutira, via Napier.
  • Smith, J., Tongatabu College, Nukualofa, Tonga.
  • Smith, James D., c/o Geo. Graham, 11, Endean's Bldgs., Auckland.
- xvii
  • *Smith, M. C., Survey Dept., Government Buildings, Wellington.
  • Smith, Hon. W. O., Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands.
  • Sperrin-Johnson, Prof. J. C., University College, Auckland.
  • Staines, J. H., 51, Orbell Street, Dalmore, Dunedin.
  • Standish, A. R., Liardet Street, New Plymouth.
  • Stanko (N.D.), Dr. Markian, Caja 58 Ensenda Baja Cfa, Mexico.
  • Staples-Brown, Mrs. R., Oddington Grange, Islip, Oxon, England.
  • Stevens and Brown, B. F., 4, Trafalgar Square, London.
  • Stimson, J. Frank, Papeete, Tahiti.
  • *Stout, Hon. Sir R., K.C.M.G., The Terrace, Wellington.
  • Stronge, Mrs., Shortland Street, Avenue Road, New Plymouth.
  • Strong, M.A., Rev. E. H., New Plymouth.
  • Sutherland, Dr. I. L. P., Victoria College, Wellington.
  • Tahiwi, Kingi, Native Department, Wellington.
  • Tamahori, Rev. P., Tuparoa, via Gisborne.
  • Taranaki, G., Mataora Bay, Waihi.
  • Tau Henare, M.P., Motatu, Bay of Islands.
  • Te Awarau, H. M., Waipiro Bay, via Tokomaru Bay.
  • Te Kirakau, Morehu, Okere Falls, Rotorua.
  • Teviotdale, David, 33, Princess Street, Musselburgh, Dunedin.
  • Thomas, Charles Lewis, 29, Emerson Street, Napier.
  • Thomson, Dr. Allan, M.A., D.SC., F.G.S., A.O.S.M., F.N.Z. INST., Museum, Wellington.
  • Thompson, Sam., Stratford.
  • Thompson, Dr. W. M., M.A., M.B., B.C.L., Hawera.
  • Tonge, Harold Ernest, Justice Department, Thames.
  • Tribe, F. C., Eliot Street, New Plymouth.
  • Triggs, The Hon. W. H., M.L.C., The Terrace, Wellington.
  • Turnbull Library—See Alexander Turnbull Library.
  • Uru, Henare, W., M.P., Parliamentary Buildings, Wellington.
  • Utsurikawa, Dr. Nenoz, Tokyo University of Commerce, Kanda Tokyo, Japan.
  • Vaile, E. E., 9, Arney Road, Remuera, Auckland.
  • Vaile, Hubert E., Queen Street, Auckland.
  • Van Doesburg, S. C., Breestraat, 14, Leiden, Holland.
  • Victoria, Public Library of, Melbourne.
  • Vogan, Arthur James, F.R.G.S., “Valley Vista,” Bridge Street West, Hornsby, New South Wales.
  • Waite, Major F., Waiwera South, Otago.
  • Waller, Captain W., Moturoa, New Plymouth.
  • Walker, Ernest A., M.D., New Plymouth.
  • Wallace, D. B., Masonic Club, Queen Street, Auckland.
  • Ward, R. H., P.O. Box 10, Tauranga.
  • Waterston, Charles, Union Bank, New Plymouth.
  • Wellington Municipal Library, Mercer Street, Wellington.
  • Western, T. H., Puketapu, Bell Block, New Plymouth.
  • Westervelt, Rev. W. D., Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands.
  • Whanganui Public Museum, Whanganui.
- xviii
  • Whanganui Public Library, Whanganui.
  • Whitcombe, F. N., Pendarves Street, New Plymouth.
  • White, Percy J. H., New Plymouth.
  • Whitney, James L., Public Library, Dartmouth, Boston, U.S.A.
  • Whymant, Dr. A. N. J., PH.D., LITT.D., 90, Thornton Avenue, Bedford Park, London, W. 4, England.
  • Wilcox, Hon. G. A., Kauai, Hawaiian Islands.
  • Wilkinson, C. A., Eltham.
  • Wilkinson, Stanley, 20, Hackthorn Rd., Cashmere Hills, Christchurch.
  • Williams, F. W., Te Rawhiti, Hukarere Road, Napier.
  • Williams, H. B., Turihaua, Gisborne.
  • *Williams, Archdeacon H. W., Naurea, Gisborne.
  • Williams, W. J., Town Hall, Dunedin.
  • Williams, W. S., M.P., Matahiia, Tokomaru Bay, Gisborne.
  • Williamson, R. W., M.SC., The Copse, Brook, Godalming, Surrey, Eng.
  • Wilson, A., Mandeno Jackson's Bldgs., Victoria Street, Hamilton.
  • Wilson, Chas. A., c/o Messrs. Wilson Bros., Publishers, Shortland St., Auckland.
  • Wilson, D. M., Lands and Survey, Auckland.
  • Wilson, Sir J. G., Bulls.
  • Wilson, William F., P.O. Box 3235, Honolulu.
  • Young, Hon. J. A., M.P., Parliamentary Buildings, Wellington.
  • *Young, J. L., “Tarawynia,” Homebush, Sydney, N.S.W.
    PRESIDENTS—Past and Present.
  • 1892-1894—H. G. Seth-Smith, M.A.
  • 1895-1896—Right Rev. W. L. Williams, M.A., D.D.
  • 1896-1898—The Rev. W. T. Habens, B.A.
  • 1899-1900—J. H. Pope.
  • 1901-1903—E. Tregear, I.S.O., etc.
  • 1904-1922—S. Percy Smith, F.R.G.S.
  • 1922-1924—Elsdon Best, F.N.Z.I.
  • 1925-1926—W. H. Skinner.
- xix

THE following is the List of Societies, etc., etc., to which the Journal is sent, and from most of which we receive exchanges:—

  • Anthropologische, Gesellschraft, Wien 1, Burgring 7, (Vienna, Austria.)
  • Anthropologie, Société d', 15 Rue Ecole de Medicin, Paris.
  • Anthropologia, Società, Musee Nazionale di Anthropologia, Italiana d', via del Proconsolo N.12, Firenze (3) Italy.
  • Anthropologie Ecole d', 15 Rue Ecole de Medicin, Paris.
  • Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, 5, Elizabeth Street, Sydney.
  • American Oriental Society, 245, Bishop Street, Newhaven, Conn., U.S.A.
  • American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, U.S.A.
  • Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1, Park Street, Calcutta.
  • Anthropological Department, University of the Philippines, Manilla.
  • American Museum of Natural History, 77th Street and Central Park, W., New York, U.S.A.
  • Bataviaasch Genootschap, Batavia, Java.
  • Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institute, Washington.
  • Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Honolulu, H.I.
  • British Museum, Museum Street, London.
  • Ethnographic Museum, Hamburg, Germany.
  • Fijian Society, c/o G. A. W. Beauclerc, Suva, Fiji Islands.
  • General Assembly Library, Wellington.
  • Géographie, Société de, de Paris, Boulevard St. Germain, 184, Paris.
  • Geographical Society, The American, Broadway, at 156th Street, New York.
  • High Commissioner of New Zealand, 415, Strand, London.
  • Historical Society, Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands.
  • Institute, The New Zealand, The Assistant Secretary's Office, Victoria College, Wellington.
  • Kongl, Vitterhets Historie, och Antiqvitets, Akademen, Stockholm, Sweden.
  • Koninklijk Instituut, 14, Van Galenstratt, The Hague, Holland.
- xx
  • Library, Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Canada.
  • Linguistic Society of America, State University, Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A.
  • Library, Science Museum, South Kensington, London, S.W.1.
  • Museu Paulista, Coina, g., San Pedro, Brazil.
  • Na Mata, Editor, Suva, Fiji.
  • National Museum of Natural History, Washington, U.S., America.
  • Peabody Museum of Archæology, Harvard University, Cambridge, U.S.A.
  • Philippines, Bureau of Science Library, Manilla.
  • Queensland Museum, Brisbane, Queensland.
  • Royal Geographical Society, Kensington Gore, London, S.W.
  • Royal Geographical Society of Australasia, Brisbane.
  • Royal Geographical Society of Australasia, c/o G. Collingridge, Waronga, N.S.W.
  • Royal Geographical Society of Australasia, 70, Queen Street Melbourne.
  • Royal Geographical Society of Australasia, Adelaide.
  • Royal Society, Burlington House, London.
  • Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain, The, 52, Upper Bedford Place, Russell Square, London, W.C. I.
  • Royal Society of New South Wales, 5, Elizabeth Street, Sydney.
  • Royal Colonial Institute, The, Northumberland Avenue, London.
  • Smithsonian Institute, Washington.
  • Sociétét Neuchateloise de Geographie, Switzerland.
  • Société d' Etudes Oceanienne, Tahiti Island.
  • School of Oriental Studies, London University, Finsbury Circus, London, E.C. 2.
  • Samoa Society, Apia, Western Samoa.
  • Tokyo Imperial University, Tokyo, Japan.
  • University of California, Library Exchange Department, Berkley, California.
  • University Museum, 33d and Spence Streets, Philadelphia, Pensylvania, U.S.A.
  • United States National Museum, Washington, U.S.A.
  • University of Chicago Library, Chicago, U.S.A.
  • University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

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FIG 1.
Front of Body and Upper Legs., A—barageimatona, B—susu, C—aobonna, 1—gogoakan, 2—taupito, 3—kaura, 4—afagu, D—funimaro, E—bepe, F—boroniuwa