Volume 54 1945 > Volume 54, No. 1 > Te Wi, by Tamehana Te Rauparaha, p 66-78
THE following narrative is abstracted from the MS. of “The Life of Te Rauparaha” (pp. 28 et seq.) as dictated by him to his son Tamehana about the year 1848—a year prior to his death in 1849. Of the plenteous history placed on record as to the doings of Te Rauparaha, the most tragic incident dealing with his turbulent career, is the affair at Te Wi, near lake Papaitonga. On that occasion nearly all his own children and several close relatives met their death at the hands of their hosts, the Muaupoko tribe. Te Rauparaha himself barely escaped with his life from the general massacre which then occurred.
The horrors of the tragedy left an indelible impression on the subsequent history of the people concerned—which for many after years affected the Maori political history of New Zealand; for directly due to this happening at Te Wi, and the incessant hostility of Ngati-toa—that tribe relentlessly sought revenge against both the Muaupoko and their allies the Ngati-apa. Continuous internecine warfare thus prevailed, resulting in the decimation and well nigh extermination of those two tribes by the Ngati-toa.
However, Ngati-toa had many serious reverses in these intertribal struggles, so much so that at one stage Te Rauparaha seriously contemplated departing from the southern districts and returning north—so strong was the combination of the southern enemy tribes against him. To his recently abandoned home at Kawhia he could not return with his people, for that district had become strongly occupied by sundry Waikato tribes, who had by that time become well armed with fire-arms.
Te Rauparaha therefore decided to strengthen his position in his island-stronghold at Kapiti, and nowhere entrusted himself or his people on the mainland. In that decision he evinced his sound judgment as a strategist and leader of his tribe.
However, at the time of the massacre at Te Wi, Te Rauparaha had not yet completed the conquest of Kapiti island from the Ngatiapa, who still occupied part of that island, having a strong pa at Waiorua, and several other minor positions. Te Rauparaha therefore determined to complete his conquest of Kapiti, and there make a secure place as his headquarters for the many projects he had in mind.
The operations necessary to that end he entrusted to his uncle Te Pehi-kupe. Although somewhat diverging from the narrative, the following explanation for that action is given by Maka Purua.
Te Rauparaha had some grave doubts as to the possibility of his accomplishing the capture of Waiorua and complete his conquest of Kapiti: he had many a takiritanga (convulsive tremblings) over night, - 67 and moemoe-kino (bad dreams) in connection therewith. He decided not to risk his person in the operations against the Kapiti strongholds of Ngati-apa, “Kei whara tona peha” (lest his skin be bruised); he preferred to live and fight another day. The position being urgent, he therefore confided the direction of affairs as to Kapiti to his uncle Te Pehi. That man, a seasoned veteran of past tribal wars, had made his name as a toa—a warrior of outstanding ability. Te Pehi duly accomplished his behest, and thus fulfilled Te Rauparaha's heart's desire. Te Rauparaha then entered into the full and unchallenged occupation of Kapiti—which therefore became as it were a Ngati-toa “Gibralter”.
Maka says that if Te Pehi had not been thus successful, Te Rauparaha was actually prepared to depart from that district and migrate again northward, seeking the shelter (noho i te maru) of his Taranaki kinsmen, the Atiawa. However, Kapiti being thus placed at his disposal, Te Rauparaha transferred thence his place of permanent residence and from there as his base began an unremitting warfare against the mainland tribes. These hostilities he specially directed against the Muaupoko in revenge for the affair of Te Wi; also against the Ngati-apa tribe which he considered were the instigators and abettors of that tragedy. The destruction of the Muaupoko and of their pa at Waiwiri (lake Papaitonga) and at Horowhenua was accomplished in two punitive expeditions, and also by various forays in pursuit of the refugees in the interior districts.
The first expedition was in 1823, soon after Te Wi massacre—when the Muaupoko lake pa were one by one captured, and most of the people slain. Later the survivors returned and reoccupied their desolated homes. Hence the second campaign against the Muaupoko of 1827-28. The denouement was the final destruction of the several pa and the decimation of the Muaupoko. Their survivors were thus scattered into the mountains in the interior; a few found refuge among other tribes.
Of the main incident concerning Te Wi, and the aftermath of events there are on record various accounts. One as given by a veteran chief to Sir Walter Buller, appears in Transactions of N.Z. Institute (vol. 26, p. 572). John White in his Ancient History of the Maori (vol. 6, p. 26 et. seq.) also gives an account, apparently based on some other account by Tamehana. So far as I am aware, the version now given has not hitherto been published.
The two waiata, attributed to Te Rangihiwinui of the Muaupoko, as given herein, are based on Tamehana's versions, but as sung to me by Maka Purua Te Tarapiko (above mentioned). He is an aged man of the Ngaitahu and Ngati-toa lineage, and still living at Mangatangi (Waikato). As he sung them in a fuller form, they are thus now more correctly recorded. I am also indebted to Maka for much of the data embodied in my notes. But the set of notes—marked A to E, explanatory of the passages in the waiata, are as recorded by Tamehana himself.
To our fellow member, Mr. G. L. Adkin, I am especially also indebted for the locality map herewith. This will enable the reader to localize the various places mentioned in the narrative. Mr. Adkin has made special research into the topography and nomenclature of the Horowhenua district wherein the doings herein recorded took place.
I also give an abstract genealogical table showing the interrelationships of the various Ngati-toa presonalities mentioned in Tamehana's narrative.- 68
1. No te Rauparaha e noho mai ana i Te Ihupuku 1 (ki Waitotara), ka whakatakotoria atu te kakai a Turoa 2 raua ko Paetahi2 kia patua a Te Rauparaha e nga tini iwi nei, e Whanganui, e Ngatiapa, e Rangitane, e Muaupoko, e Ngatikahuhunu.
2. No te taenga atu o Te Rauparaha o te heke hoki ki Rangitikei, ka puta te whakaaro pai o etahi rangatira 3 o Ngatiapa katahi ka ki mai kia Te Rangihaeata—aua tangata o Ngatiapa ra, kia mohio a Te Rauparaha, kua takoto te kohuru mona—me patipati ki te waka, ka ora atu i enei whaki.
3. Kei Manawatu pea ka mate, ka ora atu i Manawatu, kei Ohau pea ka mate, kei a Muaupoko.
4. Ko te take koa i pai ai te ngakau o aua tangata ki te korero mai kia Te Rangihaeata, ko te ratou tuahine ko Te Pikinga 4 i moea e Te Rangihaeata. No te haerenga mai o te ope a Te Rauparaha raua ko Tamata Waka Nene, ka hopukia e Te Rangihaeata taua wahine, moe tonutanga iho hei wahine mokai mana.
5. I tae ano hoki ki Kawhia taua rangatira 5 o Ngatiapa hei mokai no Te Rangihaeata. He tuahine ki ia taua wahine a Te Rangihaeata.
6. No te rongonga o Te Rangihaeata, katahi ka ki atu kia Te Rauparaha, “Kia mohio koe, kua takoto te whakaaro kohuru a nga iwi nei mou. He waka te take, hei patipati mou”. Kihai hoki a Te Rauparaha i whakarongo atu. I whakaaro pea he tito. . .
7. No te aiotanga o te moana, ka rewa mai te heke o Te Rauparaha. Ka noho ki Ohau. 6 Katahi ka noho tuturu ki reira ki te mahi kai mana—ta te heke hanga.
8. No te nohoanga a ki Ohau nei, ka tae mai nga tangata o Muaupoko. E ki ana he rangatira, 7 ki te tiki mai i a Te Rauparaha, kia haere ki roto o Ohau, ki Papaitonga ki te tiki waka mona. Me te pai a Te Rauparaha. Kihai i mohio, kihai i aha, i te hanga akona haeretia mai ra.
9. Ka pohehe i konei nga whakaaro o Te Rauparaha, kihai i mohio he nukurau na nga tangata o Muaupoko, hei aha mana.
10. Ko te haerenga i haere ai, kaore i karanga nui iho a Te Rauparaha kia Ngatitoa kia haere etahi hei hoa mona, me nga rakau ano. Kaore hoki i puta te waha o Te Rauparaha, kaore i aha. Heoi, haere noa atu ratou ko nga tamariki. Kaore he rakau i maua hei patu ma ratou ko nga tamariki i o ratou ringaringa. Haere whakaparahako noa atu, ko nga ringaringa anake. Toko ono 8 ano ratou ko ana tamariki.
11. No te taenga atu ki te pa o Toheriri 9 ki Papaitonga, ko noho i reira. Tera hoki, Muaupoko i Horowhenua ra ka rewa mai ki te patu ta ratou tangata. No te ahiahi awatea i tae atu ai. No te tatanga ki te hinga akc o te ata, ka mate ratou. Kaore ano kia ata marama iti nei, ko te turi kau o te tangata kua kitea.
12. No te huakanga mai a te taua o Muaupoko, katahi ka rere atu a Toheriri i roto i to maton whare e moe ra, ka puta atu ki waho. Kua ara ake hoki a Te Rauparaha, kua kite tonu atu i te puta nga atu (a Toheriri) i roto i tomatou whare, e oma atu ana ki rotoi te taua a Muaupoko e haere mai ra.- 69
TRANSLATION BY G. GRAHAM.
1. When Te Rauparaha was abiding at Te Ihupuku1 (at Waito-tara) was planned the plot of Turoa and Paetahi2 whereby Te Rauparaha should be slain by these many tribes, the Whanganui, Ngatiapa, Rangitane, Muaupoko, and Ngatikahungunu.
2. On the arrival of Te Rauparaha and his migratory party at Rangitikei, was made known the goodwill of some chiefs3 of Ngatiapa there. Then it was that those men of Ngatiapa informed Te Rangihaeata that Te Rauparaha should know that an act of treachery had been planned against him, by cajoling him (by an offer) of canoes—and that he be saved by these disclosures.
3. At Manawatu perhaps he would be killed. If he escaped at Manawatu, then perhaps at Ohau he would be killed by the Muaupoko.
4. Now the motive that in their kindness of heart those men so informed Te Rangihaeata, was that their sister Te Pikinga4 had become the wife of Te Rangihaeata. At the time when had come hither the war-party of Te Rauparaha and Tamati Waka Nene, Te Rangihaeata had captured that woman, and he thereupon took her to himself as a captive wife.
5. That chief5 of Ngatiapa had also come to Kawhia as a slave of Te Rangihaeata. That wife of Te Rangihaeata was a sister of his.
6. When Te Rangihaeata heard (of this plot) he said to Te Rauparaha: “Know you, there has been planned a treacherous design by the tribes here against you. A canoe is the means whereby to inveigle you”. However, Te Rauparaha did not give heed thereto. He thought perhaps it was a falsehood.
7. When the sea was calm the migration of Te Rauparaha sailed off, and settled down at Ohau.6 They then permanently abided there to cultivate food for themselves—as was the method of the migration.
8. When settled thus at Ohau, there arrived hither the men of Muaupoko. It is said (they were) chiefs7—(They came) to conduct Te Rauparaha inland of Ohau to Papaitonga to get canoes for him. Te Rauparaha was pleased. He was not on his guard, nor was he aware or otherwise suspicious of anything in respect of the rumours going about.
9. Herein the judgment to Te Rauparaha was at fault. He did not suspect that there was deception on the part of those men of Muaupoko.
10. When he went, Te Rauparaha did not publicly call upon Ngati-toa that some of them should go as companions for him, or be armed. There came no announcement from the mouth of Te Rauparaha, nothing whatever. So it was they just went, he and his young people. There was not a weapon carried in their hands as means of defence for them. They went quite unconcernedly, with empty hands. There were six8 of them, he and his young people.
11. On arrival at the pas of Toheriri9at Papaitonga, they rested there. Then also it was that the Muaupoko at Horowhenua set off hither to slay their victims. In the late afternoon they had arrived. At the approach of the turn to dawn—they were overwhelmed in disaster. There was as yet but a little glimpse of dawn—only the knees of men could be seen.
12. On the onset of the hostile party of Muaupoko, Toheriri rushed from within our house wherein (we) slept—and emerged outside. Te Rauparaha also immediately awoke, and actually saw the exit of Toheriri from our house, and his hurrying on to the hostile party of Muaupoko as it was approaching.- 70
13. Katahi a Te Rauparaha ka rere tonu atu i muri i a Toheriri kihai i hamumu te waha o Te Rauparaha ki te whakaara i nga tama-riki. E ki ana pea a Toheriri kei roto ano o Te Rauparaha i te whare. Kaore, kua puta tonu atu i muri i a ia, kuhu haere tonu i te taha o te hukihuki o te whare. Kuhu tonu atu ki te whaka-apiapi tonu i te otaota, haere atu ana, ka riro a Te Rauparaha.
14. E ki ana a Te Rauparaha he moemoea nana te take i ora ai ia. Moe iho ia, e patua ana ia e tana hoa. E moe tahi ta raua e Toheriri. Na konei ia i maranga ake ai. Ko Toheriri tonu e oma atu ana ki waho i te raua whare. Huaki rawa mai te tana kohuru a Muaupoko ra, kua ora a Te Rauparaha. 10
15. Katahi ka tahuri ki te patu i nga tamariki, ka mate etahi. Ka rere ko tana tamaiti kaumatua, ko Te Rangihoungariri. Ka rongo atu ki te reo o te tuahine a Te Uira 11 e karanga mai ana ki te tungane, “E Hou e! Ka mate au nei!” Katahi ano ka hoki atu te tungane ra, ka aroha atu ki te waha o te tuahine e karanga mai ra, katahi ano ka hoki atu. He kakau hoe nei te rakau, kua whati te rapa.
16. Rokohanga atu, e patu ana nga tangata i te tuahine. Katahi ka rere tonu atu te tangata ra, ki nga tangata, e rua te kau e patu mai fa i tana tuahine. Kaore hoki i whakaaro ake he ora mana. Ka tahi ka rere tonu mai te rua tekau ra, te toru tekau ranei. Katahi ka kapitia tonutia e te toru tekau ra, te tangata kotahi ra, a Te Rangi-houngariri.
17. Katahi ka whiu te kakau hoe ra ki tetehi o te toru tekau ra, kua hinga, mate rawa, katahi ka rere ano te tangata ra ki te whiu i te tuarua o aua tangata, kua hinga ano. Ka tokoma nga tangata o Muaupoko ka mate i a Te Rangihoungariri. Katahi ano ka whiua mai te patu i tua i te tuara, no te rerenga ano ki whiu i te toko toru, ka pa te patu, kihai i kite ake ia. Katahi ka mate, ka hinga ki raro.
18. E ki ana mehemea he patiti te rakau a Te Rangihoungariri, kua mate katoa a Muaupoko. Koia ano e whakamoemiti ana ano a Muaupoko ki te toa o te tama a Te Rauparaha. Mehemea i tokoma he hoa mo Te Rangihoungariri, kua whati te rau kotahi o Muaupoko nei.
19. Kua mate katoa nga tamariki a Te Rauparaha, a Te Rengi-houngariri a Poaka, kaore ano tera i kaumatua noa. Katahi te wahine, ko Te Uira i moe i a Taiko, mate tonu atu hoki te tane. Kei te haere mai a Te Rauparaha, ko ia anake hoki te putanga mai. 12 Heoi, ko te rarunga tenei o Te Rauparaha, i ora iti ai i te mate me he uru mohio.
20. I taua po i huakina ai a Te Rauparaha ratou ko ana tamariki, kua tupato noa a Te Rangihaeata. Kua maranga i te po ki te karanga i a Ngati-toa, i te hoko-whitu ra “Kua mate pea a Te Rauparaha; maranga ki te tahu kai, kia rewa taua, kua hinga a Te Rauparaha!” Kua oho katoa a Ngati-toa ki te tahu kai.
21. Maoa rawa ake te kai, ko te Rauparaha tonu kua puta tonu mai i te ata—ka marama iti ake nei. Kua karangatia mai a Te Rauparaha, “Kua mate matau!” Heoi ano, tangi kau; me pewhea?- 71
13. Thereupon Te Rauparaha ran immediately after Toheriri. Te Rauparaha's voice was not raised to arouse the young people. Probably Toheriri thought that Te Rauparaha was still in the house. But no, he had come out immediately behind him, crouching as he went close alongside the overhanging thatching of the house. Creeping along, and keeping close within the scrub-growth as he went along, thus departed Te Rauparaha.
14. Te Rauparaha says that it was a dream of his as he slept whereby he escaped; he was being assailed by his companion. He and Toheriri were sleeping together. Hence he at once arose—Toheriri was then running out of their house. Thereupon came the onset of that murderous party of Muaupoko—and the escape of Te Rauparaha.10
15. Then they set to assaulting the young people, and some were killed. His eldest son, Te Rangihoungariri was running off. He heard the voice of his sister, Te Uira, 11 calling upon (him) her brother “Oh 'Hou, oh! I will be killed!” Then the brother came back—moved to pity at the voice of the sister calling thus. Therefore he came back again. His weapon was a paddle handle—the blade of which was broken off.
16. When he came up the men were attacking the sister. At once he rushed upon those men; there were twenty of them attacking his sister. He did not indeed think of his own safety. Thereupon those twenty men, or there may have been thirty, rushed upon him. He was then completely surrounded by the thirty—he, that one man, Te Rangihoungariri.
17. Then he wielded that paddle handle against those thirty men. One of them fell, killed outright. Then the man hastened to wield it against the second of those men; he also fell. There were many of the men of the Muaupoko slain by Te Rangihoungariri. Then he was stricken by a weapon behind his back as he was rushing to wield (his weapon) against the thirty (men). The weapon struck him. He did not see it—then he was overpowered and fell.
18. It is said that if it had been a patiti (hatchet), the weapon handled by Te Rangihoungariri, all Muaupoko would have been killed. Hence it is that is praised by Muaupoko—the bravery of the son of Te Rauparaha. If there had been a number of companions for Te Rangihoungariri—the hundreds of Muaupoko would have been driven away in defeat.
19. All the young people of Te Rauparaha were killed; (among them) Te Rangihoungariri and Poaka, who was not yet an adult. One of them was the woman Te Uira, married to Taiko, the husband also being killed. Thus returned Te Rauparaha, he being thus the only survivor.12 Such was this the disaster which befell Te Rauparaha—when he narrowly himself escaped death.
20. That night when Te Rauparaha and his children were attacked, Te Rangihaeata was nervously vigilant. He arose in the night to summon the war-party of Ngati-toa, calling “Te Rauparaha has perhaps been slain; arise to cook food, so that we may start off—Te Rauparaha has been overcome!” All Nati-toa thereupon arose to cook food.
21. When the food was cooked, Te Rauparaha himself appeared, it being then day dawn, there being yet but little daylight. Te Rauparaha called “We have met a calamity!” Thereupon they wept—for what else could they do?- 72
22. Te take i tupato ai, i mohio ai a Te Rangihaeata, kua mate Te Rauparaha, he takiri tauaro. 13 He maui te takiri. He tauaro te ingoa o taua takiri. He tangata tohunga rawa a Te Rangihaeata ki era mahi. E kore e ngaro i a ia nga mate o nga whanaunga.
23. Heoi, roa kau iho te nohoanga iho o Te Rauparaha, kua kara-ngatia rawatia, kia whitikia te taua. Koia ano, ka mutu te whitiki, katahi ra rewa te kau ma whitu ra. Ka tae atu ki te wahi i patua ai nga tupapaku, ko etahi anake o nga tupapaku e takoto ana. Kua riro etahi taha, ko nga hope me etahi o nga peke e takoto ana.
24. Kua haere atu ki Horowhenua a Muapoko, kei te huihui ki reira ki roto i nga pa i waho i te moana o te Roto o Horowhenua.
25. Hoki tonu mai te taua ki Ohau nei. No te taenga mai ki Ohau, ka totoia atu nga waka i te one. Ka tae atu ki te puau o Horowhenua, ka takina i roto i te awa o Horowhenua i te po. Tae tonu atu ki te putanga atu ki te Roto i te ata, ka marama iti nei.
26. Kua oho rawa nga parera. Kua mohio mai nga Muaupoko ra, ko te whakaariki. Katahi ka huri ki runga ki nga waka, kauhoe atu ki tetehi taha o te roto, me te kau—hoe etahi; kua hua noa pea, kaore he waka o te taua.
27. No te kitenga atu o te taua e oma ana, e hoe ana i runga i nga waka—katahi ka whaia, ka patua haeretia i roto i te wai i te roto o Horowhenua, 14 i uta hoki.
28. Ko te pa o Muaupoko i horo ai, ko Waikiekie. He motu taua pa, no nga tupuna iho. Ka timata i konei te patu; tenei iwi i a Muaupoko. Takoto rawa iho nga mea i mate, ko tahi rauma whitu te kau i tenei parekura. Ko te nuinga i oma atu ki roto i te ngaherehere mo etahi rangi. Heoi, ka hoki mai te taua ki Ohau nei.
29. Heoi, ka whakaaro mai a Ngatitoa, a Te Rauparaha, ka tae ki te takiwa e noho huihui ai a Muaupoko ki Horowhenua, ki Ohau, i Papaitonga. Ka rewa mai ano nga waka i Waikanae i Kapiti—ka tae mai ki Papaitonga ki Horowhenua. 15 Ka patu, ka mate, tetehi hoko-rima ki te matenga. Ka uta i runga i te waka ki Kapiti rano pihi ai.
30. Ka mahia penatia tonutia a Muaupoko i nga tau katoa, a ka ngaro haere te patu e Te Rauparaha. Ko nga toenga ka marara haere noa atu ki runga ki nga maunga—ki Wairarapa etahi, ki Wanga-nui etahi. Ki etahi kaianga atu etahi.
31. Na konei ka tito a Te Rangihiwinui i tana tangi whakakore i a ia, e hara i a ia nga tikanga i kohurutia ai a Te Rauparaha e Muaupoko. 16
Na koia tenei taua waiata tangi:—- 73
22. The reason of his suspicions was that he, Te Rangihaeata was sure that Te Rauparaha had met disaster, for he had an involuntary twitching13 of his limbs. A violent trembling was that twitching. A tohunga indeed was Te Rangihaeata versed in those matters. For the deaths or disasters which befel his family connections were not left undisclosed to him.
23. Now—after remaining inactive a length of time, Te Rauparaha summoned and ordered the war-party should be-gird themselves. Therefore, when that was completed that party set forth—one hundred and seven of them. They arrived at the place where the dead had been slain. Some only of the dead bodies were lying about. Some parts (of the bodies) had been taken away; the waists and some of the limbs were lying about.
24. Muaupoko had gone to Horowhenua, and were gathered together there within the several pa out on the waters of the lake Horowhenua.
25. The war-party then at once returned here to Ohau. On arriving at Ohau they dragged off the canoes from the fore-shore, and arriving at the outlet of Horowhenua river, they towed (the canoes) along the channel of the river during the night. They arrived at the entrance to the lake at dawn—when there was yet but little light.
26. The wild ducks were startled then. The Muaupoko were made aware that there was a war-party (coming). Thereupon they betook themselves aboard their canoes and rowed away to the other side of the lake; some others of them swam away. They perhaps thought that the war-party had no canoes.
27. When the war-party saw they were escaping, they rowed off in the canoes and pursued them, slaying them as they went in the waters of Horowhenua, 14 as also on shore.
28. The pa of the Muaupoko which fell was Waikiekie. That pa was (on) an island, and was one from their ancestral times. Here it was that began the killing of this people the Muaupoko. There fell in death some one hundred and seventy in this battle. The greater number had fled into the forest, (there remaining) for some time. Then the war-party returned here to Ohau.
29. Then when Ngatitoa and Te Rauparaha considered that the time had come when the Muaupoko would be settled down again at Horowhenua, at Ohau, and at Papaitonga, the canoes then set out again from Waikanae and from Kapiti, and arrived at Papaitonga and Horowhenua.15 They then slew another fifty people in that encounter, and put (the dead) aboard the canoes taking them to Kapiti, there to be cut up.
30. Thus every year were the Muaupoko dealt with, until they were gradually exterminated. The survivors went scattered on the mountain ranges. Some (went) to Wairarapa, and some to Wanganui, and others to various other places.
31. Hence it was that Te Rangihiwinui composed his lament, to exculpate himself—that it was not his doing whereby Te Rauparaha met treachery from Muaupoko.16
This is that song of lament:—
It was not by me, oh Raha ! 19
By whom you were injured
But by Ngarangi, and by Hinohi.17
Kati nei ki a au
Te kete korero a Turoa
Ko te onetu a Paetahi
Ki roto te kapakapa
Pukei atu ai.
E whakakaitoa mai ra 20
E nga whenua kia tatou
Kei tawhiti rawa e 21
Nga tohu maipi
Kei te ngaherehere rawa
Nga toa patu e!
He whaka-maramatanga tenei o taua waiata:—
Na koia tenei tetahi parepare ano o te waiata-tangi na Te Rangihiwinui mo tana wahine me ana tamariki kua mate katoa nei. Mo tona iwi hoki, ma Muaupoko ka ngaro nei i te patu e Te Kauparaha:—
Only by me (was heard)
The basket full of talk of Turoa
And the oratorial doing of Paetahi
As within the close drawn ranks
We in close assemblage sat.
Now in taunting malice turn 25
These tribes against us.
For distant now are gone 26
The armed Maipi bands
There in the forest deepest depths
Their armed warriors are.
But yet await awhile 27
Their hitherward return
With tongues lolled forth
And in defiance protruded.18
This is an explanation of that song:—
Now then, this is another divergent part of the lament of Te Rangihiwinui for his wife and his children who were all killed then. For his tribe also, like Muaupoko, was exterminated in the slaughter by Te Iiauparaha:—
- 76 - 77
Depart oh dame!
You and sister-in-law.
Like to a flood I weep
In grief for thy father.
Briefly will I 28
In grief greet thee!—i.
Thy hands ever-ready were
To bind (upon me)
The encircling girdle—e !
As together we returned
By way of my cultivation plot
At Te Wi, at Ohau—e!
From the garden plot
We wended hither on—e!
Now at last, oh dame,
Thou art lost to me—e!
(Compiled with assistance of Maka Purua Tarapiko.)
[See endnotes]- 78
ABSTRACT GENEALOGICAL TABLES
Family Tree. Showing inter-relationships of some of the persons mentioned in narrative., A., Hoturoa (of Tainui canoe), 17 generations to, Waitohi I = Kimihia, Werawera = Parekowhatu, Te Rangikatukua, Te Rangipikinga=Te Rangihaeata, Waitohi II = Te Rakaherea, Marore = Te Rauparaha, Taiko=Te Uira, Rangihoungariri, Tutari=Te Kanae, Te Uira II, Pouaka, 22 generations to, Koruaputa = Kai-tawhara, Parewahaika, Whatanui, Te Kahuirangi (2nd wife), Te Horonga, B., Te Kanawa = Kahukoka, Te Rangitiari = Te Poa, Waitohi II = Rakaherea, Te Rangihaeata, Rangi Topeora II, Te Rangikapiki = Rangitopeora, Matene Te Whiwhi, Te Kahuirangi = Te Rauparaha = Teakau, Te Horonga (as above), Taiko = Te Uira I, Tamahana Te Rauparaha (Katu)
1 Te Ihupuku: a pa near Waitotara: it was in the autumn of the year 1821 that his migration party arrived there.
2 Turoa and Paetahi: two chiefs of Ngati-apa, Whanganui.
3 Te Wharakiki and Te Hakeke: both chiefs also of Ngati-apa.
4 Te Pikinga (Te Rangipikinga) a sister of Te Wharakiki. She had been captured in a previous war-expedition in 1819, and taken by Te Rangihaeata as a secondary wife.
5 Te Wharakiki had visited Kawhia to see his sister Te Pikinga.
6 Te Kotahi, an old kainga on Waikawa river, south of Te Wi (see map).
7 Te Wharakiki was one of these emissaries from the Muaupoko people.
8 The toko ono (six) who made up Te Rauparaha's party were actually accompanied by others. The tamariki (children) were Te Rauparaha's son, Te Rangihoungariri, and the daughters were Te Uira, Te Poaka and Tutari by his first wife Marore; also Te Horonga by Te Kahuirangi another wife. She was spared and taken away as a captive, and became the wife of a Wairarapa chief. A nephew Taiko, (the husband of Te Uira was also among those slain. (Vide pedigree A.)
9 Te Wi was the name of the pa of Toheriri near Papaitonga (vide map).
10 Another account of the affray says that Te Rauparaha actually participated in the conflict, and that he did not fly away until he saw the position hopeless.
11 Te Uira kas attacked by Te Wharakiki and slain by him. Other accounts state that Te Uira was spared—being taken a captive, she became the wife of a Wairarapa chief. This woman was, however, (Maka says) a niece of Te Uira, the victim of Te Wi being a daughter of Tutari, a younger sister. (Vide pedigree A.)
12 It is stated that Te Rauparaha in his flight overtook his brother-in-law, Te Rakaherea, who was encumbered by a tao-roa (long spear) transfixed in his back. Te Rauparaha withdrew the weapon from the wound. They both thus escaped in company, arriving at Ohau in the early dawn. (Vide pedigree B.)
13 He takere tauaro. This form of omen is said to have been often experienced by Te Rangihaeata. On the night prior to the conflict at Tuamarina (Wairau) also the night when Te Rauparaha (in 1846) was kidnapped on Sir George Grey's orders from his village at Otaki.
14 Horowhenua lake pas: Vide map herewith; also vide J.P.S., vol. 51, p. 182, and Best, J.P.S., vol. 37, p. 459.
15 This expedition took place probably in the autumn of the following year, 1824.
16 Te Rangihiwinui and his brother Te Tanguru were two of the few surviving refugees after the capture of Waikiekie pa—but all their family connection there had perished.
17 A. Te tikanga o enei kupu na: “Ehara i au. . .pukei atu ai”. Heoi ano taku mau mai ai, ko nga korero anake a Turoa raua ko Paetahi. Ehara i te mea he kororo atu kia patua—engari e korero noa iho—ka waiho i te taha o te whare pukei ai—taupu ai.
18 Ngarangi and Hinohi: Ngati-apa chiefs who had urged Muaupoko to acquiesce and aid in the massacre at Te Wi.
19 A. “It was not I. . .in assemblage sat”. All that I remember was the speeches of Turoa and of Paetahi. It was not that they were speeches inciting to kill—they were rather only idle unconsidered talk, and remained to be enlarged upon within the house-confines and there made still more of.
20 B. “E whakakaitoa mai ra e nga whenua kia tatou”. Tona tikanga o tenei kupu: “Kaitoa, na koutou i kohuru”.
21 C. Te tikanga o enei kupu “Kei tawhiti rawa. . .nga toa patu”. Kua oma nga tangata i nga patu, kua riro ki te ngahere, here ena tangata nana te kohuru.
22 D. Te tikanga o enei kupu “Ata taria. . .tautau atu ai”. Akuanei. kia mau te rongo, ka haere mai; ka hoki mai i te ngaherehere e oma haere ana. Ka haeremai ki konei whetero kau ai te arero, ka mea. “Naku i patu a mea, naku i patu a mea”.
23 This was actually what did happen in later years (vide R. McDonald, Te Hekenga, chapter 21, p. 123.
24 E. Te whakamaoritanga tenei o te tikanga o enei kupu: “Iti ai au. . .Kia mau ai te tatua e!”: Ko taku mihi ki a koe, he aroha noku, ki to hanga e hohoro nei ki te tahu kai ma taua, kia ora ai te kopu. Mo te kai te tikanga o te tatua. Ki te mea, ka tatuatia te poho o te tangata ki te tatua, katahi ka pai. Ka kore hoki e rongo i e mate kai.
25 B. “Now in taunting malice. . .against us”. The meaning of these words is, “It is deservedly revenged (itoa) for your committed treachery”.
26 C. The meaning of these words “Far distant now. . .their armed warriors are”. The people had fled from their slayers, and those men whose act of murder it was had gone to the forest.
27 D. The meaning of these words “But yet await . . . in defiance protuded”. If now. peace is made, they will come hither; they will return from the forest where they are wandering. If they come here, they will do nought but protude (in defiance) their tongues, and say: “By me was slain so and so—by me was slain so and so”.
28 E. The explaining in clear terms the meaning of these words “Briefly will I. . .to bind the encircling girdle—e!” is this: My lament for you is due to my affection, and thy habit to assiduously cook food for us both, and thus satisfy the stomach. The reference to the girdle alludes to food, for if the stomach of man be encircled with a girdle—then indeed it will be well. For then indeed he will not feel the craving for food.