Volume 7 1898 > Volume 7, No. 1, March 1898 > Concerning Whare-kura: its philosophies and teachings, by Hare Hongi, p 35-41
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CONCERNING WHARE-KURA1 : ITS PHILOSOPHIES AND TEACHINGS.
THE TANGI-TAWHITI.

I HAVE long promised, in answer to your solicitation, to forward you something for publication in the Journal. This first contribution has been hurried upon me owing to the tendency of your indefatigable genealogy collectors to shorten the lines of well-known ancestors so as to narrowly bring those of at least thirty generations ago to the limited span almost of one great-grandfather.

It was far from my intention to send in a genealogy of any extent, but I consider this has been forced upon me, for the reasons already given. I am prepared to resist any attack made upon the genealogy enclosed (Table I.), from any quarter whatever. I claim it to be a thoroughly representative one, giving as it does a direct line to Nga-Puhi (north), Nga-Rauru (centre), and Ngati-Kahu-ngunu of Wairarapa (south). It practically embraces the whole North Island, and I think it will not be denied that the same ancestors provided the peoples of the South Island, and even on to Wharekauri or Chatham Islands.

I must also claim for Kupe and Nuku-tawhiti a much more remote ancestry than your Journal's writers are inclined to allow to them. I consider that these genealogies prove Toi-Te-Huatahi's position in history almost to a nicety; but I claim that both Kupe and Nukutawhiti preceded him. However, for the present that may pass. I shall supplement these papers with some Tangi-tawhitis and translations, amongst which Tu-raukawa will have a place. As one is so easily misunderstood, I should like to add that I do not claim perfection for - 36 my whaka-papa; but I do claim that Toi cannot truthfully be squeezed into a narrower compass. If the Whare-kura had flourished here as it did in old times, I am convinced that the same Toi would occupy from two to five notches higher up.

Sufficient for that. Touching the future, I have written up the various versions touching Te Uru-o-Manono. I am very anxious to locate that house. I think that it was a real temple; and I want also to locate Whare-kura, about which I heard so much as a boy. I shall write you something thereon by-and-bye, and impart some of its teachings to you, which include a comprehensive system of astronomy, which will take you back, if I mistake not, to the Pyramids of Egypt, showing for what purpose they served. I had intended to send you in a paper on Te Ra-poutu-maro, but this is already sufficient for the nonce. I send you these exactly in the order in which I wish them to appear, as I shall frequently refer to them in what follows, i.e., the genealogies and stories both. My object in cutting the stories down was to simply set out the names of persons and places, which are really the only useful portions for specific reference.

WHIRO. (Recited by Ngā-Puhi.)
Family Tree. Kupe (Navigator), Māea = Nuku-tawhiti (Navigator), Nuku, Ranginui, Papa-uenuku, Moereka, Moeraku, Moeuri = Wairerewha or Kurutongia, Ruanui, Whiro-te-tupua (Navigator and Warrior), Hua, Peranui, Piua-i-te-rangi, Tai-te-ariki (This short line is given to illustrate what follows, and for future reference).

Ko te tamaiti ra, ko Ngana-te-irihia, kā, kite i te kai pai, kā rere, kā tango, kā kai.

Ka tāraia te waka nei a Whatu-te-ihi, kā tae te tamaiti ra. Ka kite atu a Whiro, mohio tonu iho ia, “A, ko te tamaiti kai-kino nei tenei,” patua iho; ka hunā tana tūpāpaku ki raro ki ngā maramara o te waka a tāraia ra. Koia te tau nei—

Tīkina e Whiro—ko Ngana-te-irihia.
Kā kapo i te kai—ko konā—ko kai-kino.

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Nā, ka tāria e te matua tana tamaiti, a, roa noa, kore noa ake i kitea mai. Nā, ka tukua te rango tamumu hei kimi—kāhore i kitea. Ka tukua ko te ngaro iro nei, kātahi ka kitea, ka hurahurahia nga maramara, ka tupono atu. Ka hangā te whare— whare nui! kā oti. Nā ka rewa te taua hei patu i te tama a Whiro hei raukakai. Te kitenga atu o Whiro i te ope ra, ka whakahua i tana tau—

E piri, e piri ki te papa o Whatu-te-ihi,
Ia Kahu-tai, ia Kahu-ki-akatea.

Ko tena parekura tena, ka toa ko Whiro, ka mate tērā. Ka tokohia ki te pahuretanga; erangi ka mate i reira a Peranui.

He tino tuturu toa nei a Whiro. Tana mahi, he haere, he whai haere. Koia hoki te tau nei—

Ka hihinga—ka hihinga ki Kuparu,
Ka hihinga ki Wawau-atea.

Translation.

Now that boy, i.e., Ngana-te-irihia, when seeing choice food (food selected and cooked for a special purpose), would spring (forward), would take (snatch), and eat.

During the building of the canoe Whatu-te-ihi, the said boy arrived (turned up). Upon seeing him, Whiro recognised him at once. “Oh, this then is the boy who tampers greedily with the specially-prepared food”—slew him, and concealed his victim beneath the chips of the canoe then being built. Hence arose this expression—

An example made by Whiro was Ngana-te-irihia.
Snatching at the food—was treated thus—'twas kai-kino.

And so the father awaited the return of his boy; time passed, he was not visible anywhere. The humming-fly was despatched in search, but did not find (him). Then the common blow-fly was sent—then 'twas found; the chips were cast aside, and the body discovered. Then a house was built—a great building! and properly finished. Then a war-party marched to slay the son of Whiro, as an offering at the consecration (and for vengeance). When Whiro observed their formidable array he chanted this lay (a part only)—

Cling, cling to the mould of Whatu-te-ihi,
By Kahu-tai, by Kahu-ki-akatea.

Then that battle was fought; 'twas Whiro who conquered, the avengers perished. But few, very few, escaped; however, Peranui was there slain.

A great conqueror was this Whiro. He occupied himself in journeying, and fought his way along. Hence the expression—

They fall—they fall at Kuparu,
They fall at Wawau-atea.

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WHAKATAU.
(Recited by Ngati-Ruanui.)

He raukakai ka tukua hei tohi i te whare me ka oti. Ko te Uru-o-Manono, te whare, kā mate a Tu-Whakaroro i te iwi nōna taua whare, hei raukakai. Ka tukua a Tu-Whakararo hei raukakai mo to tohinga o te Uru-o-Manono, ka haere a Hapakura ki te kaumatua ra ki a Wairerewha (ko Kurutongia tetahi ingoa). Ka ki atu a Hapakura, to whaea o Tu-Whakararo, “Tukua mai ā tāua tamariki hei takitaki i taku mate.” Ka mea atu a Wairerewha, “Ehara enei, he roroa anake.” Koia te ki, “Te whānau roroa o Wairerewha.” Ka mea atu ano a Hapakura, “Engari oti a wai?” Ka ki atu a Wairerewha, “Tikina atu i taku mea itiiti na.” Koia hoki to ki nei—

Tenei te toa—he toa iti—he iti rori.
E ngaro ki roto ki te matikuku.
Tenei au e te tupua.

Kātahi ka tikina ki terā—ki a Whakatau.

Nga tamariki o Wairerewha ko Pepe-mua, Pepe-roto, Pepe-taha, Pepe-te-muimui, Te Tira-toro, Nga-huru, Marama-mai-o-hotu, Tākēkē, Tākōkō, Tā-whiro-atu, Tā-whiro-mai, Whiro-te-tupua, Hua, Manā, Te Marama-i-whanake, Tioro, ko Whakatau Potiki. Ko tō rātou whakapākanga ia. Na ka hāere a Whakatau ki te ngaki i te mate o Tu-Whakararo. Rokohanga atu e iri ana nga iwi i te whare ra, i te Tihi-o-Manono. Tana tapokoranga atu ki roto, ka tangi iho ngā iwi ra ki ā ia, ka ngatata. Ka whakahua ia i tana tau, mutu noa, tau rawa mai ia i waho o te whare, ka rere ki runga; ka whiua tana tari, ka u ki a Tukituki-pūngāwerewere. Ka karanga ia ki tana iwi—kūmea. Ka kumea taua rangatira e rātou—puta ake i te pihanga o te whare. Ka whiua ano tetahi o ana tari, ka mau ki a Poporo-kewa, ka taka mai tena, ka tahuna te whare ra e Whakatau, pau katoa i te ahi, me nga tāngata ano ki roto, ara Te Ati-Hapai.

Translation.

A living sacrifice is given to consecrate a building of importance at its completion. The Uru-o-Manono was the building, and Tu-Whaka-raro was slain by the people who owned the building as an offering. When Tu-Whakararo was taken as a sacrifice, Hapakura2 went to the aged man Wairerewha (Kurutongia was another name). Then spake Hapakura, mother of Tu-Whakararo, saying, “Let me have our young men, that my wrongs may be avenged.” Wairerewha replied, saying, - 39 “Those present are useless—being all very tall.” Hence the saying, “The tall young people (family) of Wairerewha.” Thus spake again Hapakura, “Who then is better fitted?” Wairerewha replied, “Go, select even my very smallest one.” Hence the saying—

Here is the hero—a little hero—insignificantly small.
He could disappear inside (beneath) a finger-nail.
Here am I. Oh ye gods!

Then was selected he—even Whakatau.

The young men (family) of Wairerewha were Pepe-mua, Pepe-roto, Pepe-taha, Pepe-te-muimui, Te Tira-toro, Nga-huru, Marama-mai-o-hotu, Tākēkē, Tākōkō, Tā-whiro-atu, Tā-whiro-mai, Whiro-te-tupua, Hua, Manā, Te Marama-i-whanake, Tioro, and Whakatau Potiki. He was the youngest of them all. Now Whakatau proceeded to avenge the death of Tu-Whakararo. On his arrival, the bones were hanging up in the said building, i.e., the Tihi-o-Manono. On his entering the place, the bones appealed to him, by rattling together. He then chanted his lay—to its completion—then springing swiftly outside of the building, leaped up thereon and cast his lasso, which fastened to Tukituki-pūngāwerewere. He then commanded his followers to pull. They pulled that chief and drew him up through the ventilator (its position was on the roof) of the building. Casting again another of his lassoes, it fastened upon Poporo-kewa. When he was hauled through, and down, Whakatau set alight to the building, which was all consumed by the fire, and the people also inside, i.e., the Ati-Hapai.

WAHIE-ROA and RATA.
(Recited by Ngā-Rauru.)

Wahie-roa built a canoe named Riwaru, and, collecting a war-party, made war against a people called the Poporo-kewa. Those people, however, slew Wahie-roa, which so discomfitted his party that they fell an easy prey to their victors, Matuku, their chief, a powerful, hairy man, taking Wahie-roa's wife, Kura - ara - uwhiuwhi, as a concubine. To avenge Wahie-roa's death, Rata built the canoe Punuia-rata, in which he went with his followers, and they overcame their enemies, capturing and slaying Matuku, whom they cooked and ate. Hence the canoe-song—

  Refrain.
Mate mai Matuku, E ta taua rangi!
Toia, ki te umu, E ta taua rangi!
Ki te umu o Rua-tipua, E ta taua rangi!
Ki te umu o Rua-tawhito. E ta taua rangi!
  Chorus.
Slain was Matuku, How delightful our song!
Dragged to the oven, How delightful our song!
To the oven of Rua-tipua, How delightful our song!
To the oven of Rua-tawhito. How delightful our song!
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Rata found Kura-ara-uwhiuwhi, who in tne meantime had given birth to two children, Kioretī and Kioretā, both of whom Rata brought away with their mother.

TU-WHAKARO and WHAKATAU. (Recited by Ngāti-Awa.)
Family Tree. Tangaroa, Hinauri =, Tinirau, Iho-atamai, Iho-wareware, Tu-huruhuru = Apakura, Tu-Whakararo, Rei-matua, Mairatea (f), Whakatau-Potiki,

Tu-Whakararo yearned for his sister Mairatea, who had married a son of Poporo-kewa, chief of the Ati-Hapai, to whom belonged the well-known house Te Uru-o-Manono, where she had gone to dwell. Tu-Whakararo decided to visit the place. On his arrival, games were instituted, and, being an athlete, he joined in the sport. He was, however, very treacherously killed by one of his antagonists.

Whakatau-Potiki, his brother, avenged his death by destroying the Uru-o-Manono with fire, together with the whole of the Ati-Hapai who occupied it at the time of the assault. Whakatau first snared Poporo-kewa with a line, and dragged him out of the building by his neck.

HEMA and TAWHAKI (Recited by Ngāti-Awa.)
Family Tree. Hema = Urutonga, Hāpai, Tangotango, Tawhaki = Hine-piripiri, Karihi, Wahieroa = Kura-ara-uwhiuwhi, Rata = Tonga-rua-tāwhiri, Rua-tanga-mea, Tu-Whakaroro = Apakura

Hema was slain by the Ponaturi; Karihi was taken prisoner. The Ponaturi were a peculiar people, who lived in the water, but came ashore every night and slept in a house called Marama-tāne. Tāwhaki, going to avenge his father's death, discovered his brother Karihi, who disclosed the knowledge that the sunshine was fatal to that people.

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TABLE I.
Family Tree. Rongo (A), Tāne, Tāhu, Ari, 5 Mutu-whāriki, Tiki-Hawaiki, Tāne-Ruanuku, Te Pipi, Te Wariwari, 10 Ko-Tono, Ko-Te-putanga, Te Whai-ao, Te Ao-mārama3 Rehua, 15 Kaitangata = Whaitiri, Hema = Karenuku, Tawhaki, Karihi, Pupu-mai-nono, Te Ueuenuku, Te Ueuerangi, 20 Tapu-whakaihi, Tapu-whakamana, Kai-tangata, Tawake-ariki, Taurā-kaha, 25 Rakau-maui, Tangata-katoa, Hapai-te-rangi, Akiaki-te-rangi, Ngai-nui, 30 Ngai-roa, Ngai-papa, Ngai-koha, Ngai-wharikia, Tārai angoa, 35 Te Manu-wāerorua, Toi-te-Huatahi, Recited by Ngā-Puhi, verified by Ngati-Rua-nui., TOI-TE-HUATAHI = TE UIAREI, Ruarangi Tāne, otherwise Apa, Rauru (B) Puhi-kai-ariki (also Puhi-a-rauru, Puhi-potiki, Puhi-manawarua, 5 Kahea, Te Toko-o-te-rangi, Te Rangi-tau-mumuhu, Te Rangi-tau-wānanga, Hekaua, 10 Poupā, Maroro, Te Ika-taui-rangi, Awanui, Rākei, 15 Tama-kī-te-ra, Puhi-moana-ariki, Te Hau, or Kupe-pekeroa, Rāhiri, Te Rā-poutū, 20 Kaharau-pukupuku, Kaharau-kotiti, Puhi-taniwha-rau, Taurā-poho, Māhia, 25 Poro, Ngā-hue, Te Wairua, Te Auhā, Te Tupua, 30 Maumau, Huhana, Hare Hongi, (Ngā-Puhi), Recited by Ngā-Puhi., Rauru (C), Maire, 5 Tatā, Korotoi, Rongokako, Tamatea, Uenuku-tītī, 10 Moana-nui, Rakau-nui, Rakai-mokai, Rangi-taka-mua, Kāhia-roa, 15 Kahukura-a-whitia (f) marries ... 15, Ira-karaka, Tumate = Mānawa, Rakai-hakeke, Kura-whango, Pouri, Matua-te-rangi, 20 Hine-i-tukia, Whakairi-te-rangi, Tu-awhio, Tama-i-wahā, Te Huinga, 25 Tu Whakararo, Raurangi, Taketake, Te Ngāere, Te Mānihera, 30 Pou Mānihera, Pou, (Ngati-Kahu-ngunu), Recited by Ngati-Kahu-ngunu., Whātonga, Tara (D), 5 Tiwhana-ā-rangi, Hine-one, Tāhu, Te Rangi-tu-pewa, Te Rangi-tu-māroro, 10 Tuku-pō, Turia, Hine-akau, Rangi-i-hiia, Hapai-te-rangi, Te Rangi-tuatahi, Rutanga (E), 5 Apaapā-rangi, Kahu-kura-ariki, Oāmaru, Tahatiti, Uenuku (ariki), 10 Ruatapu, Rākei-ora, Hine-tapa-tītī (To Ngati-Rua-nui), Tamatea-huatahi, Rauru (F), Rākau-maui, 5 Puruora, Pou-matua, Puha-i-mua, Rongotea-tau-karihi, Rongotea-tai-maranea, 10 Turi (Aotea canoe), Turanga-i-mua, Tamatea-kopiri, Tu-hukuao, Hae-matua, 15 Ueroa, Mahuki, Te Ibi, Te Mana, Uru-te-angina, 20 Tu-materau, Rangi-tuehu, Pāremo, Tu-materau (ii), Pou-niwha, 25 Tutangē, Marumihi, Hapakura, Hine-rangi, Te Rangi-haeata, Ngā-roimata, Tuarua (Ngā-Rauru partly) Recited by Ngā-Rauru., Tables arranged by Hare Hongi, for purposes of reference and comparison. (For the Polynesian Journal.
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Tāwhaki and his brother compelled the doorkeeper to keep the place fastened until mid-day. When the door was opened the sun shone upon them, and they were easily overcome by Tāwhaki, who then burned the place down.

(To be continued.)

NOTES.

The whole of these parts of history were recited to myself personally, together with the accompanying whakapapas. They are entirely original, and quite unconnected with anything which may have appeared in print up to the present time. I desire this to be expressly stated.

I have purposely translated Wairerewha's whānau and tamarikis as his young people. A whānau is not necessarily a family of brothers, as it just as frequently includes nephews and even more remote kindred, usually living together, and termed a whānau. I fancy that Tā-whiro-atu and Tā-whiro-mai are terms applied to Whiro, owing to his many successes as a warrior-navigator.

The chief difficulties encountered in comparing extended whakapapas are:—

  • 1.—Any particular ancestor may have from one to a half-dozen or more names or variations.
  • 2.—Entirely different ancestors are known under the same name, or some slight variation.
  • 3.—Certain names have been intentionally omitted.
  • 4.—Entirely fictitious names have been furnished, and the personality of an ancestor thus lost.
  • 5.—By the plurality of wives or husbands the position of seniority, through their children, has in course of time become uncertain.
  • 6.—The position (in the lines) of father and son, mother and daughter, have been unintentionally reversed.

These phenomena have been occasioned by:—

  • 1.—A common line of descent.
  • 2.—Intermarriages.
  • 3.—Intermarriage of different hapus.
  • 4.—The practice of naming children after some worthy ancestor, with the laudable desire to preserve and perpetuate his fame and deeds, and to encourage a spirit of emulation.
  • 5.—The race of different iwis to secure seniority.
  • 6.—The strong desire to maintain a direct male line, which secures an additional mana to an ariki and his people.
  • 7.—The practice of naming a child or grown person after a relative of note just deceased.
  • 8.—Ancient deeds brought down through time, and fastened upon more modern heroes and places.
  • 9.—A desire on the part of some tohungas to create confusion in the minds of others with regard to their recitals, which has ultimately caused the exslusion of important details.
1  Readers not conversant with Maori history must understand that “Whare-kura” is the name given to the sacred house of old times, in which was taught the history, &c., of the people. It may be added, all the incidents here related occurred in Hawaiki, long before the fleet arrived in New Zealand.—Editors.
2  This name is almost universally spelt Apakura, both by Maoris and Rarotongans. The introduction of the “h” is due to the anxiety of the Taranaki and other West Coast tribes to conform to the orthodox spelling of the language as given in the Scriptures; but they often overdo it, and introduce the letter where it has no business. Originally—i.e., in 1840—these tribes had no “h” in their dialect.—Editors.
3  I haere mai i te Po enei, koia “Te Kahui Po.”—These came from the “Po” (ancient world). They are collectively referred to as “The Kahui Po.”