Volume 81 1972 > Volume 81, No. 1 > Social organization of Manu'a (1930 and 1969), by Margaret Mead: some errata, by Derek Freeman, p 70-78
                                                                                             Previous | Next   

- 70

At the end of 1969 what has been described as a “revised edition” of Margaret Mead's Social Organization of Manu'a (originally published in 1930) was issued by the Bishop Museum Press. This new edition has a handsome front cover, a new introduction and a chapter of conclusions, by Dr Mead, “outlining her current thought concerning the theoretical formulations and factual findings of the original work”, together with “two bibliographic appendices”. 2

The original text of Social Organization of Manu'a has not, however, been revised in any way, having been reprinted with all of the errors (including the many literal errors in the Samoan language), which disfigured the edition of 1930. Moreover, coming as it does from the Bernice P. Bishop Museum (an institution with an established reputation in the field of Polynesian scholarship), it is well possible that unsuspecting readers of the reprint of this “classic in the field of cultural anthropology” will themselves be led into error. I have, therefore, in the interests of the accuracy upon which ethnography depends if it is to be of any scientific value, compiled a list of errata to go with the 1969 Bishop Museum Press reprint of Mead's Social Organization of Manu'a.

In the case of an ethnographic study such as Mead's Social Organization of Manu'a which is likely to be used as a source of information by scholars engaged in comparative study of the Polynesian region, it is obviously of importance that all citations in the vernacular should be accurately recorded in a consistent orthography. For an ethnographer working in a little known or hitherto uncontacted region such accurate recording of a local language may pose formidable difficulties, but Miss Mead, when she began her researches in Samoa in 1925, was fortunate in having for her guidance the 4th revised edition (1911) of Pratt's scholarly Dictionary of the Samoan Language, as well as Krämer's Die Samoa-Inseln (1902), which contains numerous texts in Samoan (in a consistent ortho- - 71 graphy, based on Pratt), as well as a glossary and an index of proper names.

Two of the most important conventions of Samoan orthography established by Pratt (who spent some 40 years in Samoa) are the use of an inverted comma to represent the glottal stop, and of a macron to mark phonetically long vowels. 3 Thus, in his grammar, Pratt (1911:2) notes that the glottal stop (or “break”, as he calls it) is “a very important distinction between words otherwise similar in spelling, and must be carefully observed”; and among the examples he gives are: ulu “head” and 'ulu “breadfruit”, and ta'e “to break” and tae“excrement”. The orthography of a Samoan word containing a glottal stop (or stops) is thus not complete without its correctly placed inverted comma (or commas).

It will be evident then that in ethnographic reports on Samoa, the correct marking of the glottal stops present in Samoan words is of vital importance, for this not only ensures grammatical and semantic accuracy, but also facilitates etymological analysis, the glottal stop in Samoan corresponding to the consonant “k” in other Polynesian languages. Similarly, the inclusion of a macron, when this is integral to their orthography, is essential if some Samoan words are to be identified correctly in writing or in print.

Mead, unfortunately, although she had Pratt's Dictionary to guide her, did not, in the 1930 edition of Social Organization of Manu'a, use either the inverted comma (marking a glottal stop) or the macron (marking a phonetically long vowel) in a consistent way. Occasionally, as in the phrase: 'o le nu'u (p. 15), the glottal stop is correctly shown, but very frequently it is omitted. Sometimes we are offered two versions of the same word on the same page, e.g. p. 174: Aga'e (correct) and Agae (incorrect); p. 196 Aso'au (correct) and Asoau (incorrect). On other occasions a glottal stop is shown where it does not belong, e.g. p. 103, where toe (meaning: again) is incorrectly printed as to'e (meaning: a sea eel; cf. Maori, toke, an earth worm), and p. 201, where tia (meaning: a funeral cairn) is incorrectly printed as ti'a (meaning: a slender rod used in a game of darts; cf. Tikopia, tika, a dart).

One of the most hallowed of the institutions of Ta'ū was the Fale 'Ula (lit. crimson house; cf. Maori, Whare Kura), in which the genealogies and oral traditions of the Samoans were preserved. Mead spells this correctly in places (e.g. p. 149), but she also makes use of the erratic forms: fale-ula (p. 168), fale ula (p. 190) and faleula (p. 199), which are misleading, for whereas 'ula signifies crimson, ula means to be facetious. As the title of the sacrosanct supreme chief of Manu'a we are offered the forms: Tu'i Manua (p. 148), Tui Manua (p. 188) and Tui Manu'a (p. 188), only the last of which is correct. Further the form “Tu'i Manua” is untoward, for whereas Tui is the honorific term for a chief of paramount rank, tu'i means: to pound into pulp or to curse.

Again, the macron, while used correctly in some instances (e.g. p. 213 māfaufau), is frequently omitted, some of these omissions being not unimportant semantically; on p. 115, for example, Mead records that one of the terms used in Western Samoa to refer to the death of a high chief is gasoloao, and suggests that this form is derived from gasolo, to slip down (i.e. as thatch slipping out of - 72 place on the roof of a house; cf. Pratt, 1911:161). The correct orthography of this honorific term from Western Samoa as recorded by Pratt is, in fact, gāsoloao, and, as the macron indicates, its etymology is very different from that proposed by Mead. The form gāsolo means: to pass along, as in procession; while ao, which is used to refer to an exceptionally high title, has the root meaning of a cloud. Thus gāsoloao euphemistically describes the passing away of a title-holder of high rank by poetically likening this event to the way in which towering cumulus clouds pass across the skies of Samoa. That any Samoan would use the word gasolo, meaning: to slip down, to refer to the passing away of a high chief is, in any event, entirely contrary to the values of Samoan culture. In other cases, the macron is shown where it does not belong; e.g. Falē (p. 11), āli'i and solē (p. 133).

The orthography of some Samoan words calls for the use of both an inverted comma and a macron. One such word is the name of the island on which Miss Mead carried out her principal researches in Samoa. In the new edition of Social Organization of Manu'a we are offered three different versions: Ta'u (p. xviii), Taū (p. 157) and Tau (p. 162). All are imprecise, the correct orthography being: Ta'ū.

In another instance, a macron is omitted, and a glottal stop gratuitiously inserted, to produce a particularly inappropriate solecism. Fitiuta is one of the most distant and proudly dignified polities in the whole of Samoa. The term which Samoans use to refer to such a place is faigatā, a word commonly translated: “difficult”, but which, in this instance, carries the connotation of a place where (because of the high rank of its chiefs), the approach of any malaga, or party of visitors, has to be painstakingly punctilious, this being for the reason that a polity, with chiefs of such exceptionally high rank, is quick to take offence at the slightest impropriety. Mead, however, has described Fitiuta (p. 196) not as faigatā, but as fa'igata, a neologism, which has the literal meaning of: “defunct banana”.

Mistakes like this may be laughable to some but they are decidely out of place in what purports to be a scholarly ethnography of Manu'a—the highest ranking region, traditionally, of all Samoa. A comparable error occurs on p. 173 where, in the course of a discussion of the origin of the name Manu'a, a reference is made to: Manua Tale. This should read: Manu'a Tele, which has the literal meaning: “great wound”, a reference to the rending of the earth during the creation of Samoa. Tale, when used as an adjective (as in this instance) means: “coughing”; and so the version published by Dr Mead: Manua Tale, has the ludicrous meaning of “coughing wound”.

On the same page (p. 173), the title of one of the highest ranking chiefs in Western Samoa, Malietoa, is twice misspelt: “Maleetoa”, and on p. 185 the personal name of Tui Manu'a Eliasara, the last Samoan to hold this august title, is misspelt: “Etisela”.

On p. 206, the portion of a shark (malie) which is, by tradition, ritually due to Sai and Faoa, two of the high-ranking titular chiefs (ali'i) of the island of Ofu, in eastern Samoa, is said to be the sogo. The correct word for the portion in - 73 question (the dorsal fin) is, in fact, gogo; while sogo, in terms of Samoan cultural values, has the highly objectionable meaning, especially in a situation where it concerns titular chiefs (cf. Milner, 1966:213), v. (of urine, etc.), smell, stink.

Again, on p. 94, the Samoan word for the coconut-leaf platter on which fā'ausi (a taro delicacy) is served to titular chiefs is given as: maile. Maile, means: dog, and is a common word, the use of which is interdicted in the presence of chiefs. The correct term for such a coconut-leaf platter is: ma'ilo.

On p. 103 a girl when making kava in an assembly of chiefs is said, after the bast strainer has been returned to her free of particles of kava root, to soli lea i luga o le tanoa, which literally means: “to trample on the kava bowl”, soli meaning: “to tread on or trample”. This passage should read: sōloi fa'ata'amilo lea o 'augutu 'o le tanoa, a reference to the ritualised wiping of the flat rim of a kava bowl with a bast strainer, sōloi meaning: “to wipe”.

Yet another catachrestic usage deserving of especial mention is Mead's listing (p. 214) of taupo as the term for “the titled girl of a chief's family”. Pratt (1911:303) correctly gives the form tāupou, as the term for a ceremonial virgin, but this orthography Mead specifically rejects, stating that she prefers the “simpler phonetic spelling” of taupo. This, as anyone with an understanding of the Samoan language will recognise, is a very odd statement, for it betrays not only an inadequate ear for a basic Samoan diphthong, but also a failure to appreciate quite elementary points in Samoan cultural behaviour and etymology. A tāupou, as the holder of a title of rank, has the right, similar to that of a titular chief (ali'i), to sit, on certain occasions, in chiefly company, at one of the posts (pou) in the tala “rounded lateral section” of a fale tele, or fono house. And it is to this right that the word tāupou refers, i.e.: tau, particle, denoting continued or repeated activity; pou, the post of a house. In marked contrast, means: night, so that one of the possible connotations of taupo (the form preferred by Mead) is, as Krämer pointed out in 1902 in cautioning against this solecism, “to indulge in love affairs at night”, 4 a meaning totally alien to the culturally defined role of a ceremonial virgin, or tāupou.

Unfortunately, the emphatically cacographic taupo, because of the prominence given to it by Mead in Coming of Age in Samoa (1928 and all subsequent editions) and in Social Organization of Manu'a (1930 and 1969), has—despite Krämer's warning—become an established solecism in the literature of anthropology. 5 One can only hope that the correct form of this fundamentally important Samoan word will in time become known—at least among anthropologists; and that this and other consequences of Margaret Mead's inadequate knowledge of the Samoan language will gradually be eliminated.

Recently, Dr Mead has written of the “rights” of people who “only recently lived a self-sufficient life without script or relationship to script. . . .” 6 One of the rights of all peoples, I would venture to suggest, is the right to have their language correctly recorded—and especially by professional ethnographers.

The people of Samoa, whose orators are among the most accomplished and sophisticated users of words to be found anywhere in the world, take an intense pride in their language. Thus, it was the late Tupua Tamasese Mea'ole, Joint Head of State (with Malietoa Tanumafili II) of the Independent State of Western Samoa, who was the “moving spirit” 7 in arranging for a modern study of the - 74 Samoan language to be made (in succession to the studies of the Rev. George Pratt and the other missionary scholars of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries), by G. B. Milner, Reader in Oceanic Languages in the University of London. And, at this juncture in the history of the Samoan people (a number of whom are university graduates), it is difficult to discern any extenuating circumstance for the failure of both Mead and the Bishop Museum Press to check the orthography of the Samoan words that appeared in the text of Social Organization of Manu'a as it was published in 1930, before this monograph was reproduced in 1969 and announced as a “revised edition”. 8 This is particularly the case in view of the availability from 1966 onwards of Dr G. B. Milner's superbly scholarly Samoan Dictionary. Yet, this most notable contribution to Samoan studies (based on research in all parts of the Samoan archipelago) is not even mentioned in the list of Later Publications on Samoa Used in Preparation of 1969 Edition, which is appended (pp. 231-234) to the reprinted version of Social Organization of Manu'a.

In the following list of errata, errors (even when they occur repeatedly in the text) are noted once only. Numerous minor imprecisions (especially instances in which glottal stops or macrons are not shown) and a few usages which I have been unable to identify, have been passed over. Errata in English, German, Latin and Fijian are not included. A few mistranslations have been noted. The errata in the language of Samoa which I have listed are to be found in both the 1930 and the 1969 editions of Social Organization of Manu'a by Margaret Mead, Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 76, Honolulu, Hawaii. 9

  • PAGE
  • 12 for vai po read vāipou
  • 28 for Sili'a read Silia
  • 31 for laloga read lalaga
  • 48 for tapa 'aos read tapa'au
  • 49 for talolos read ta'alolo
  • 50 for Samataafe read Sauma'iafe
  • 52 for Ua uso ne i le malaga? read 'Ua usu nei le malaga?
  • 57 for Mapu read Ma'upū
  • 58 for vai atu read vāe atu
  • 58 for vai ane read vāe ane
  • 58 for alala read alaala
  • 58 for Talofai read Tālofae
  • 58 for faina read āfāina
  • 58 for Ua sua le vai read 'Ua sua le tai
  • (Note: the meaning of these words is “the tide is rising” not “the tide is out”, as stated by Mead.)
  • 60 for alala read afioga
  • 61 for maliē read mālie
- 75
  • 64 for taiga read ta'iga
  • 65 for mauaoloa read mau'oloa
  • 68 for aga'e tupu read agaiotupu
  • 70 for tui paepae read tu'i paepae
  • 71 for tamaita'i read tama'ita'i
  • 81 for Tama Paia
  • read Tama Pa'ia
  • 82 for tautala lai titi read tautala la'itiiti
  • 87 for cord(pito) read umbilical cord (uso pito)
  • 89 failele means “nursing mother” (cf. Milner, 1966:56), not “a birth feast”.
  • 94 for maile read ma'ilo
  • 94 for 'aiava read 'aiavā
  • 95 for ao moega read aumoega
  • 98 for taipoga read tautōga
  • 99 for ausoga read auosoga
  • 103 for tui read tu'i
  • 103 for fa'aoga read fa'aaogā
  • 103 for soli read sōloi
  • 103 for to'e au mai read toe 'aumai
  • 104 for Ua use read 'Ua usi
  • 104 for fa's soasoa read fa'asoasoa
  • 104 for fesilafaiga read fesilafa'iga
  • 107 for ili read fili
  • 107 for a'alavelave read fa'alavelave
  • 107 for ai read 'ae
  • 107 for fou'i read fōa'i
  • 107 for matou te'a 'ai'ai read mātou te 'a'ai
  • 107 for ina o'o le ma'i read ina 'ua o'o le ma'i
  • 107 for toaina read toea'ina
  • 108 for olua read 'oulua
  • 109 for vavaloa read vāvāloloa
  • 109 for paū read pa'ū
  • 114 for vai read vāe
  • 115 for masiofi read masiofo
  • 115 for gasoloao (Note: gāsolo means “to pass along”, while gasalo, means “to slip down”.) read gāsoloao
  • 120 for malo read mālō
  • 121 for aui read 'aui
  • 121 for fa'a sa ina read fa'asāina
  • 121 for o le silo'i logi read 'o le sila'ilagi
  • 122 for tigisami read atigi sami
  • 122 for ugi read uga
  • 124 for o'a read 'o'a
  • 124 for fausa sa read lama
  • 124 for O musu read 'A musu
  • 125 for o le sol iga read 'o le soliga
  • 126 for 'o le afafine (“daughter”, woman speaking) read 'o le afafine (“daughter”, man speaking)
  • 127 for toa'ina read toea'ina
  • 127 for olamatua read 'olomatua
  • 127 for si'au read sio'u
- 76
  • 128 for tausoga read tauusoga
  • 128 for laititi read la'itiiti
  • 128 for toalua read to'alua
  • 129 for 'o lau alo read 'o lou alo
  • 129 for paia read pa'ia
  • 129 for 'o lau alo afafine read 'o lou alo fafine
  • 130 for ila mutu read ilāmutu
  • 130 for ava read āvā
  • 130 for si'ou read sio'u
  • 131 for tina read tinā
  • 131 for a'u'o read 'o a'u 'o
  • 131 for 'o lo'o uso read 'o lo'u uso
  • 133 for ua uso moni mā'ua read 'ua uso moni mā' ua
  • 133 for suna read suga
  • 147 for Saumata'afi read Sauma'iafe
  • 148 for Tu'i Manua read Tui Manu'a
  • 150 for Ga'ogaooletai read Gaogaoletai
  • 150 for Fatu (Rock) was the female read Fatu (Rock) was the male
  • 150 for Ele'ele the male read 'Ele'ele the female
  • 155 for fale ua read fale 'ua ato
  • 156 for Mauna read Manu'a
  • 157 for Taū read Ta'ū
  • 157 for Fuilelagi read Fuailagi
  • 158 for fai tui read fai tu'i
  • 158 for Foisia read Fo'isia
  • 158 for fofoa read foafoa
  • 158 for mali'e read laumei
  • 158 for Mafue read Mafui'e
  • 159 for Pili vave read Pilitavave
  • 159 for Pili pa'u read Pilipa'ū
  • 159 for Pili tama tagi read Pilitaimatagi
  • 159 for Tiitii read Ti'eti'e
  • 159 for o le 'ate read 'o le ate
  • 160 for Saumatafi read Sauma'iafe
  • 160 for saua ali'i read sauali'i
  • 161 for o le Fafa read 'o le Fafā
  • 162 for fai le aso read faiaso
  • 166 for fa'anoa read fa'anoanoa
  • 166 for lo'u uso ua sou read lo'u uso 'ua sau
  • 166 for pea read pe'ā
  • 167 for Soatoa read Sotoa
  • 168 for muao read muā'au
  • 168 for talaiga read tala'iga
  • 168 for talita read talitā
  • 168 for lalafi tagata read lamalama
  • 168 for lalama read fasioti
  • 169 for soli le tulafono read solitulāfono
  • 170 for mati read mata
  • 170 for fatefea read fa'ate'a
  • 170 for fatauto read fa'atautō
  • 173 for Maleetoa read Malietoa
  • 173 for Manua Tale read Manu'a Tele
- 77
  • 174 for Fitiuamua read Fiti'aumua
  • 174 for lupu le tai read tupu le tai
  • 174 for olo read 'olo
  • 174 for Agae read Aga'e
  • 176 for Raratonga read Rarotonga
  • 177 for Laamaomoo read La'amaomao
  • 177 for mamoo read mamao
  • 177 for Alia read 'Ali'a (or Li'a)
  • 178 for aupola read 'aupolapola
  • 179 for puaá read pua'a
  • 179 fāi'ai is a dish of baked coconut cream not of “cooked bananas”.
  • 180 for Tauānuu read Tauanu'u
  • 181 for Solesole read sōlisōli
  • 182 for aufata read 'aufata
  • 183 for fale toa read fale to'a
  • 184 for Lia read 'Ali'a (or Li'a)
  • 185 for aluali'i read atuali'i
  • 185 for Etisela read Eliasara
  • 186 for Ua tua le malo o Tui Manua read 'Ua tū'ua le mālō'o le Tui Manu'a
  • 186 for Sili vi vao read Sili'aivao
  • 187 for Tuiologono read Tuiologona
  • 190 for tuloaga read tulouna
  • 190 for afia mai read afio mai
  • 191 for Sama'au'ulu read Samala'ulu
  • 192 for Salaese read Salelesi
  • 192 for 'ausoga read auosoga
  • 195 for Asoau read Aso'au
  • 196 for Taapi read Ta'ape
  • 196 for fa'igata read faigatā
  • 198 for Taniiliili read Tau'ili'ili
  • 198 for Mapū read Ma'upū
  • 198 for Lapui read La'apui
  • 198 for Laie read Lealaie'e
  • 198 for Galeai read Galea'i
  • 198 for Lautitlaulelei read Lautilaulelei
  • 198 for Lapu read La'apui
  • 198 for Fale ula read Fale 'Ula
  • 199 for Lapue read La'apui
  • 199 for Alii read 'Ali'a (or Li'a)
  • 200 for ulu read 'ulu
  • 200 for fa'ava read faiāvā
  • 201 for paoga read paoga
  • 201 for ti'a read tia
  • 203 for Sae read Sai
  • 203 for Lei read Le'i
  • 203 for Taloaauau read Talo'au'au
  • 203 for Laolagi read La'olagi
  • 203 for Talaaoao read Talo'au'au
  • 203 for fetala'iga read fetalaiga
  • 204 for Taloau read Talo'au'au
- 78
  • 204 for Leui read Le'i
  • 205 for itu tua read itū i tua
  • 205 for Aluuluu read Ālu'ulu'u
  • 206 for iu read i'u
  • 206 for sogo read gogo
  • 207 for fai le tui read fai le tu'i
  • 208 for malauili read malauli
  • 208 for Sasa read Asaasa
  • 209 for Malemu read Malemo
  • 209 for Malelena read Malelega
  • 209 for Niutao read Niuatoa
  • 210 for Laulagi read La'olagi
  • 213 for aiga read 'āiga
  • 213 for 'aittagi read 'aitagi
  • 213 for fa'atu'uiga read fa'atuiga
  • 214 mamalu refers to the dignity of a chief (cf. Milner, 1966:127), not to property given to validate a title
  • 214 for tafolo read taufolo
  • 214 for talolo read ta'alolo
  • 214 for tapua read tupua
  • 214 tāpua'i refers to the giving of sympathy (cf. Milner, 1966:243); the word for to pray is tatalo
  • 214 for taupo read tāupou
  • 214 for tulafona read tulāfono
  • HONIGMANN, J. J., 1954. Culture and Personality. New York, Harper and Brothers.
  • KEESING, F. M., 1934. Modern Samoa. London, George Allen and Unwin.
  • KRÄMER, A., 1902. Die Samoa-Inseln. Erster Band. Stuttgart, E. Schweizerbartsche Verlagsbuchhandlung (E. Nägele).
  • MEAD, M., 1930. Social Organization of Manua. Honolulu, Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin, 76.
  • —— 1967. “The Rights of Primitive Peoples.” Foreign Affairs, 45:304-18.
  • —— 1969. Social Organization of Manu'a. (Second Edition.) Honolulu, Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin, 76.
  • MILNER, G. B., 1966. Samoan Dictionary. London, Oxford University Press.
  • PRATT, G., 1911. Grammar and Dictionary of the Samoan Language. (Fourth Edition.) Samoa, Malua Printing Press.
  • SAHLINS, M. D., 1958. Social Stratification in Polynesia. Seattle, University of Washington Press.
  • TREGEAR, E., 1891. The Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary. Wellington, Lyon and Blair.
1   I wish to thank those European scholars with an expert knowledge of the Samoan language, as well as the Samoan authorities resident in Upolu, Tutuila and Manu'a who commented on sections of this paper while it was being prepared for publication. For this present version, however, I alone am responsible.
2   Announcement, of Bulletin 76 (revised), by Bishop Museum Press, 1969.
3   In her “Publisher's Preface” to the 1969 edition of Social Organization of Manu'a, the editor of the Bishop Museum Press states (p. vii) that “traditions in printing style change through the years”, and “authors and editors feel today that the addition of the indication of the glottal stop aids the reader in pronunciation of the words in which they appear”. This statement is scarcely accurate, for the importance of the correct indication of the glottal stop in Samoan words had been firmly established by Pratt (the first edition of whose Dictionary was published in 1862) some years before the founding of the Bishop Museum Press, and the correct and consistent use of the inverted comma to indicate the glottal stop in Samoan words is to be found not only in the various editions of Pratt's Grammar and Dictionary of the Samoan Language, but also in such scholarly works of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century as Tregear's Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary, Wellington N.Z., 1891, and Krämer's Die Samoa-Inseln, Stuttgart, 1902. In the main text of Social Organization of Mau'a (1969), the glottal stop is represented by a raised comma ('); while in the Introduction and Conclusion an inverted comma (') is used to represent this same phoneme. In this present paper, the glottal stop is represented by an inverted comma, the convention to be found in both Pratt's Grammar and Dictionary of the Samoan Language (1911) and G. B. Milner's Samoan Dictionary (1966).
4   Cf. Krämer 1902:32; “Wenn Miss Fraser stets von einer taupo oder gar tapo erzählt, so sollte sie doch vorsichtiger sein, denn dies heisst bei einem Mädchen ‘in der Nacht Liebeshändel treiben’, was gerade für eine taupou sehr unpassend ist.”
5   Cf. Keesing 1934:53; Honigmann 1954:188; Sahlins 1958:30.
6   Mead 1967:304.
7   Cf. Foreword by Malietoa Tanumafili II, C.B.E., Head of State of Western Samoa, and H. Rex Lee, Governor of American Samoa, in Milner 1966:vii.
8   In October, 1967, when I first heard that a new edition of Mead's Social Organization of Manu'a was to be published by Bishop Museum Press I at once wrote to the Director of the Bishop Museum from Sa'anapu in Western Samoa (where I was then resident) warning him that the text of the 1930 edition contained numerous errors. The receipt of my letter was formally acknowledged, but the warning contained within it was entirely ignored.
9   In this communication I have dealt only with certain of the literal errors in Samoan which are to be found in Social Organization of Manu'a. I am, however, preparing for publication a general appraisal of Margaret Mead's anthropological writings on Samoa.