Volume 8 1899 > Volume 8, No. 3, September 1899 > Nga Mahi a Te Wera, me Nga-Puhi, ki te Tai-Rawhiti, by Takaanui Tarakawa Tuhituhi p 179-187
NGA MAHI A TE WERA, ME NGA-PUHI, KI TE TAI-RAWHITI.
Ko te pukapuka tenei o nga korero o te mahi a Te Wera, rangatira o Nga-Puhi, me te korero o te whakatupuranga i o matou koroua a, tae iho ki o ratou uri—ki o matou matua, i nga wa e mohoao ana to ratou ahua; e patu noa iho ana tetehi hapu ki tetehi hapu, tetehi iwi ki tetehi iwi. E toitu ana to ratou wehi ki a ratou ano whaka-Maori, i waenganui i te tau 1642 ki te tau 1768 ki te tau 1814, ara, te tau i tae mai ai nga Mihinare.
E patua noatanga iho ana te tangata o roto i te hapu, hei tohinga mo nga tamariki a nga rangatira. E tino kaha ana te pouritanga ki a ratou kei te tau 1814, ka ahu atu ki muri. Kahore he kakahu Pakeha, kahore he toki Pakeha, kahore he pu, he paura, he matā; erangi no waenganui i tena tau ki te tau 1642, ko Taimana Pakeha tenei, ko to mua tenei i a to tatou tupuna, i a Kapene Kuki, i tae mai ai ki tenei motu ki Aotea-roa. A, i patua e nga Maori mohoao ki Aorere, ki Te Wai-pounamu. Ko a ratou rakau patu tangata, he koikoi, he huata, he taiaha, he tewhatewha, he hoeroa; he mea tarai ki te toki pounamu, ki te toki kohatu.
Ka haere mai te ope a Te Kopara—he rangatira no Ngati-Paoa—kia kite i enei moana-roto, i Roto-rua, i te Roto-iti, a, me te mohio ano i roto i a ia, he uri ano ia na Rangi-tihi, na Kawa-tapu-a-rangi, na Pikiao, na Heke-maru hoki. A, ka haere mai ka tae mai ki Te Roto-iti, kaore i mohio era mohoao o taua roto, he whanaunga tenei no ratou. A, patua ana, ka mate a Te Kopara. A he roa te wa, i taua tau ano—1775—ka haere mai te ope ngaki mate; ka puta ki Roto-rua a Ngati-Paoa, a Ngati-Maru, a Ngati-Pukenga. Ka riri ki Orangi,1 ka hui ki a Ngati-Rangi-wewehi, ka hinga etehi o te ope nei. Te utu, ko Whara-whara, papa o Te Awaawa (nana te mata i pa ki te potae-mata o Hongi i Roto-rua).
Ka hoki te ope nei, a, he roa te wa, ka hoki mai ano nga iwi nei, a, ka uru mai hoki a Waikato, ki a Ngati-Mania-poto. Ka puta ano - 180 ki Puhi-rua,2 ki Roto-rua. Ko Te Rau-roha tenei, ko Puhata tenei, ko Hau-auru tenei katoa. Ka riri, a, kore rawa iho ra; ka houhia ki te rongo—e toru rawa nga ra e riri ana, ka mau ra te rongo—ka haere noa atu, ka haere noa mai ki roto i a ratou. A, ka maranga ano te riri, na te taua taua tikanga, a, whakakoki noa kia uru ki te pa, kore rawa; kua ki katoa i te ope. A, ka maro te whati, e hopuhopu ana te ope i te herehere māna. Ka kitea a Hikairo e Te Mahaki, no te ope; ka whaia ko Hikairo, me Te Rangi-ka-heke; ka takina e nga tokorua ma roto i te wai, a kua eke tonu a Te Mahaki; ka tahuri a Hikairo, e pekea ana e Te Rangi-ka-heke, a, ka mate a Te Mahaki.
Ka hoki te ope nei, ka puta ki Te Aroha, ki Ohine-muri; ko nga morehu o Ngati-Maru ka haere ki te Totara noho ai. A, he roa te wa, i te tau 1821 ka hinga ko Mokoia, ko Mau-inaina, kei Te Tamaki enei pa, no Ngati-Paoa, i hinga i a Nga-Puhi. Kotahi te pa i tahuri, ko Mokoia, a, i hui katoa nga tangata ki tetehi o nga pa. Ko Te Rau-roha te rangatira whakahaere o te riri a, ka mea atu ia, “Kaua e noho, mekahaki.” He tauhou hoki tenei mea te pu ki a Ngati-Paoa. I te atapo tonu ka maunu te pa nei, ka haere, ka ahu whaka-Waikato. Ka tae ki Horotiu, kua kiki tonu i era mano, ka whakatu te haere ki Pa-tetere.
I muri tata mai i a Mau-inaina, i taua tau ano, kua horo a Te Totara pa, i a Nga-Puhi. Kei Hauraki, kei Te Kauaeranga tenei pa. Ka mate i reira te iramutu o Te Whata-nui, a Whetu-roa; ka mamae te ngakau o Te Whata-nui ki tona iramutu. Ka hoki a Nga-Puhi; tae rawa ki raro, ka hokia mai, ka tika tenei ki roto o Waikato. Ko te pipinetanga o Waikato, ona mano, kei tona tino kohanga i tupu ai ona rangatira; ko Matakitaki ka riria, a ka nui te kaha o Waikato, erangi na te kai i patu, katahi ka horo. Ki katoa nga maioro i te tangata mate. Ko te wa tenei i nga pu tuatahi, i tikina ai e Hongi i te tau 1820 i a Kingi Hōri, te papa keke o Kuini Wikitoria; a i tenei wa hoki ka tino maha te tae mai o nga Kaipuke patu tohora o Marikena, a, ko nga tau ano enei o aua riri, o Te Totara, o Matakitaki.
Kati! ka whakamarama ake au i tenei takiwa o taku korero. Ko taku papa tetehi i haere nei i roto i nga whati nei, i a Ngati-Paoa. Ko te ingoa o tona matua i haere nei a ia, o Ngati-Paoa, ko Te Hu, me tona hapu. Ka tae katoa nga heke nei ki Pa-tetere, ka noho i reira, he maha nga ra. Ka rangona taku papa e karangatia ana ko Tara-kawa-te-ipu; he potiki na Te Ao-kapu-rangi; ka rongo nga iwi tangata whenua—a Ngati-Raukawa, a Ngati-Tu-korehe, a Ngati-Tu-korari me Ngati-Tura—ka haere mai a Turi-te-atua-he-rangi me Wai-harakeke, ka uia haeretia. A ka tonoa e te tangata whenua kia haere a Ngati-Paoa ki te mau atu i a ia ki Roto-rua. A, ka whakaae a Te - 181 Hu-o-te-rangi; ka haere e toru te kau ki te arahi, me te tangata whenua ano, ara, nga papa a Tarakawa, a Te Atua-herangi ma.
Ka tae ki Puhi-rua, tu kau ki te marae, kua tae mai to Tarakawa tuakana, a Te Awaawa; ka mauria ki te tuāhu—ko te ingoa o te tuāhu ko Tangi-hua; ko ona koroua kua tae noa atu. Ko Kohuru ki te pito ki uta ki nga toko o te tuāhu tu mai ai, ko Te Waro ki te pito ki te taha o te wai; kei reira nga puke e waru hei kakenga māna ina whakahaua kia oma ki te wai. He maha nga tikanga o tera ahua mo te tangata—he tu-pure, he tohi, he tua kaha mo te riri, he tangaengae, kia hopu tangata ai me era atu mahi. He tihaha ki a Kahu-kura i te wai, he whakangungu ki a Uenuku i uta. Kia horomia he kohatu ki roto i te puku, ka hamama te waha ki runga, kia kite iho te Rangi e tu iho nei, me nga whetu ingoa, me Rehua, me Puanga, ki a Atu-tahi, ki a Tawera, ki a Tau-toru, ki a Whanui, ki a Matariki, me era atu whetu. Ka mutu ki runga ka hamama ki raro, ki a Papu-tu-a-nuku. Ka mutu, ka whakahaua e te mea i nga toko kia oma ki te wai, ma runga tonu i nga puke e waru kua ahua ra kei te taha o te wai. Ki te pakaru etehi o aua puke ra, he mea he; ka ki mai te mea i te taha o te wai, ara, te tohunga ra, e mea nga puke i pakaru, a, ka mohio te tohunga i nga toko ra, kihai i tika. Kia kore e pakaru aua puke ra ko tona tikanga ia tera.
A, heoi, ka peratia ra taku papa e ona matua—e Kohuru raua ko Te Waro. Ko enei kaumatua he tungane no Te Ao-kapu-rangi, whaea o Te Ipu-Tarakawa me Hone-te-Hihiko. He tino tohunga tuāhu raua, i heke iho to raua kawai i a Tawhaki e kiia nei i piki ki te rangi. Tae atu ia ki te rangi kua whanau tana tamaiti, a, kawea nei e ia, tohia ana. Ko te ingoa o taua tamaiti ko Hine-iere. A ka whakapapatia te ara iho o oku koroua i a Tawhaki—tirohia ki raro nei:—
Family Tree. Tawhaki, Hine-i-ere, Wahie-roa, Rata, Ika, Maru-punga-nui, Tu-a-roto-rua, Maru-punga-nui, Maru-kuku, Hari, Tua-panga, Manu, Tau-hinga, Karapa, Te Whango, Te Kohuru, (2) Tangaroa-mihi, (2) Pare-pu-whenua, Te Ao-Kapu-rangi, (2) Te Waro, Te Ipu-Tarakawa, Takaanui Tarakawa
Ka mahia nei e nga koroua nei ta raua tamaiti, a, oti pai ana. Ka ki raua i runga i te tuāhu, “Ka rite i a koe nga mea katoa i mahia i tenei ra ki runga i a koe, me to wairua, a, ko to tinana, ka tae ki te mutunga o te tangata,” ara, ki te tuohutanga.
Ka mutu ka tahuna kotoatia nga kakahu i runga i a ia; ka hoki ki te kainga, kaore i hoatu he kai māna, no te ata awatea ka whangaia. A, no te ata hoki ka patua e Te Awaawa te ope i haere mai ra ki te kawe mai i a Tarakawa, mate katoa hei utu mo tona papa, mo Te Wharawhara. Tae rawa atu ia e pukai ana; ka tangi ia ki ona rangatira, nana a ia i whakahoki mai, ara, a Te Hu me tona nuinga. Ko tona rahi, kei te rua-tekau-ma-rima tau; i whakaritea e ia ki tetehi tamaiti tona rahi.
He roa te wa i noho aio ai a Roto-rua, ka tae mai a Te Whata-nui me Te Rauparaha ki Roto-rua, i te tau 1821. Ka whai kupu a Te Whata-nui ki a Ngati-Whakaue, ki a Tu-hou-rangi, ki te kitea he kanohi Nga-Puhi ki taua takiwa, kia mate rawa, mo tana iramutu, mo Whetu-roa i mate ki Te Totara i a Nga-Puhi. A, ka haere nga kaumatua nei, ka mahue te kupu kino nei. E tata ana tenei ki te tau 1822.
Ko Te Pae-o-te-rangi tenei. Hokowhitu te ope a Nga-Puhi, ka noho ki Roto-kakahi, ki te motu, ki Motu-tawa. A ka hui a Tu-hou-rangi ki tona manuhiri, a, kua kakahu a Te Mutu-kuri i ona kakahu o tera hanga, o te whare-potae, a, kua haere tonu ki te whare i te manuhiri. A ka peratia ano me ta Te Awaawa; mate katoa; ka rere ano nga morehu, a, tukua atu ana, ka mate ko te Pae-o-te-rangi, he tamaiti rangatira no Nga-Puhi. Ka puta nga morehu ki Ohine-mutu, ka patua e Ngati-Whakaue, ka mate tokorua, ka rere ano etehi, a tae atu ana ki raro ki Tokerau, korerotia atu ana.
Ka rongo katoa nga wahi o Nga-Puhi, a ka riterite noa te ngakau mamae, ki te iti ki te rahi. Ka ki nga rangatira katoa, kei a Te Kiri-mate te kupu mo te haere. Ka ki a Te Kiri-mate, ma nga papa o Te Pae-o-te-rangi, “Ae! Waiho ano, rewa ana te toto; kaua e waiho kia matao.” Na te Koki, na Ta-waewae taua kupu. Ka tu tetehi o nga papa, a Te Wera Hauraki Kai-teke3 (nona kotoa ena ingoa) ka mea, “Tukua ki raro ta korua kupu, me waiho mo tera tau, kia pae he o, he kao maroke, he ika maroke, he kai hei kahanga mo te manawa e u ai nga waewae.” Ka hurihuri a Nga-Puhi i ana kupu, a, kitea ana ko ta Te Wera te mea tika, a oti ana, hiki ana te haere ki Rotorua ki te tau 1823.
(Tera atu te roanga.)- 183
THE DOINGS OF TE WERA-HAURAKI AND NGA-PUHI, ON THE EAST COAST, N.Z.
This is a relation of the history of Te Wera, chief of Nga-Puhi, and also that of the generation of our old people, down to the times of their descendants—to our parents; when they lived like wild people, when hapu fought against hapu, and tribe against tribe. The fear of each other was constant, even from the year 1642 to 1768, and to 1814 when the Missionaries first came here.
Men were constantly killed in those times as sacrifices at the baptism of the children of chiefs. Their ignorance was extreme in 1814, and previous to that; they had no European garments, no axes, neither guns, powder, or bullets, between that date and 1642, when came Tasman the Pakeha, who was the first visitor before our ancestor Captain Cook came to this island of Aotea-roa. But Tasman was attacked at Ao-rere, in the South Island. Their man-killing weapons in those days were: Koikoi (spears), huata (lances), taiaha double-bladed wooden swords), tewhatewha (flanged clubs), and hoeroa (whale-bone spears); all dubbed out by the jade and stone-axes.
The party of Te Kopara—a chief of Ngati-Paoa, of Hauraki—came to see these sea-like lakes of Roto-rua and Te Roto-iti, knowing within himself that he was a descendant of Rangi-tihi,4 Kawa-tapu-a-rangi, Pikiao, and Heke-maru. He came on his way and reached Te Roto-iti, but the wild people of that lake did not know he was a relative of theirs, so they killed Te Kopara. After some time—in 17755—there came a party of revenge, and Ngati-Paoa, Ngati-Maru, and Ngati-Pukenga (all Hauraki tribes) appeared at Roto-rua. A fight took place at Orangi-Kahui (above Puhi-rua, where the Tauranga road comes out of the forest) with Ngati-Rangi-wewehi of the north side of Roto-rua, when some of the invaders fell. As compensation, they killed Wharawhara, the father of Te Awaawa (whose bullet, in after years, struck Hongi's helmet, at Mokoia, Roto-rua).- 184
The war party then returned, but after a long time came back, accompanied by the Waikato and Ngati-Mania-poto tribes. They appeared at Puhi-rua again, a place inland of Te-Awa-hou, Roto-rua. With them were Te Rau-roha, Puhata and Hau-auru, all chiefs of the Hauraki tribes. A fight took place which resulted in little, and, after fighting three days, a truce was made, and then the hostile parties intermixed. Trouble now arose through the action of the war party, and when orders were given to retreat to the pa, it was full of the enemy. A fight now occurred, during which the war party caught many prisoners. Hikairo (a great chief of Roto-rua) was recognised by Te Mahaki, of the invaders, who gave chase to him and to Te Rangi-ka-heke, who led the chase by way of the water of the lake. There Te Mahaki was close upon them, and when Hikairo turned round he saw Te Rangi-ka-heka spring upon Te Mahaki and kill him.
The war party after this returned to Te Aroha and Ohinemuri on the Thames River, from whence the remnant of Ngati-Maru proceeded to Te Totara pa and remained there. A considerable time after this, in the year 1821,6 Mokoia and Mau-inaina pas at the Tamaki River, near Auckland, fell, and Ngati-Paoa were beaten by Nga-Puhi, under Hongi. After the first pa—Mokoia—had been taken, the people all gathered at Mau-inaina, the second pa. Te Rau-roha, who was the chief in command, said: “Do not let us remain here, but retreat.” Ngati-Paoa were strangers to fire-arms at that time, whilst Nga-Puhi had plenty. At daylight, all within the pa retreated and went away towards Waikato. When they reached Horo-tiu (the name of the Waikato River near Hamilton) they found the land full of the thousands of that place, and so they set off again for Pa-tetere.
Shortly after Mau-inaina fell, in the same year,7 the Totara pa was taken by Nga-Puhi. This is at the Thames, Kauae-ranga. At that place was killed the nephew of Te Whata-nui of Ngati-Rau-kawa, named Whetu-roa; at which Te Whata-nui was deeply grieved. Nga-Puhi now returned home, but some time afterwards came south again, on this occasion to Waikato. Here were gathered together the thousands of Waikato, in the very nest whence sprung their chiefs. Matakitaki was besieged, and great was the strength of Waikato in its defence, but starvation killed them and the pa fell. The great ditch of the pa was filled with the dead. This was about the period of the first fire-arms, many of which had been fetched by Hongi in 1820 from King George, the uncle of Queen Victoria. By this time also a very great many American vessels engaged in the whale fishery - 185 visited New Zealand, and these were the times of those sieges, of Te Totara and Matakitaki.8
But stop! In this part of my story let me make an explanation. My father was one of those who joined in the retreat of Ngati-Paoa. The name of his elder relative with whom he went—after Mau-inaina—was Te Hu, together with his hapu. When all the migrations reached Pa-tetere, they remained together for many days. The arrival of my father, whose name was Tarakawa-te-ipu—a son of Te Ao-kapu-rangi—was heard of by the neighbouring tribes of Ngati-Raukawa, Ngati-Tu-korehe, Ngati-Tu-korari and Ngati-Tura; so Turi-te-atua-he-rangi, together with Wai-hara-keke, came in search of him. The people of the land now induced Ngati-Paoa to convey Tarakawa to Roto-rua. To this Te Hu-o-te-rangi consented, and a party of thirty, besides some of the people of the place, that is, his relatives—Te Atua-he-rangi and others—proceeded to escort him to Roto-rua.
When they arrived at Puhi-rua, directly after they reached the marae of the pa, Tarakawa's elder brother Te Awaawa came to take him to the altar (tuāhu) which was named Tangi-hua; his uncles had already gone thither. Kohuru stood on the inland side by the tokos (or wands of the altar) whilst Te Waro stood by the side of the water, where were eight mounds over which he (Tarakawa) would have to pass when ordered to run to the water. There are many different descriptions of this kind of ceremony, such as the tu-pure, the tohi, the tua-kaha for war, the tangaengae, &c., used in order that the pupil may be able to catch men and perform other deeds. The tihaha to Kahu-kura at the water, and whakangungu to Uenuku ashore, are parts of the ceremony. After swallowing a stone, the voice is upraised, that Heaven above may see, besides the principal stars, such as Rehua, Puanga, Atu-tahi, Tawera, Tau-toru, Whanui, Matariki and others. After finishing with those above, Papa-tu-a-nuku, the Mother-Earth, is addressed, and then, he who has also charge of the wands, directs the pupil to run to the water, passing over each of the eight mounds that had been heaped up near the water's edge. If any of the mounds are broken, the ceremony is nullified; he by the side of the water, that is the tohunga there will say, “so many mounds are broken,” so that the tohunga of the wands may know that all has not been correctly performed. In order to be efficacious, none of the mounds must be broken.
It was thus my father was treated by his uncles, by Kohuru and Te Waro. These old men were brothers of Te Ao-kapu-rangi, Tara-kawa's mother, and also the mother of Hone-te-Hihiko. They were - 186 chief priests of the tuāhu (altar), and their line of ancestral descent was direct from Tawhaki, who, it is said, ascended to the Heavens. After Tawhaki reached there, was born his child, whom he took and baptised (tohi)—her name was Hine-i-ere. Here is the genealogical descent of my parents from Tawhaki (see the Native part).9
Thus the old men operated on their young relative, and completed the ceremonies in proper manner. Whilst at the tuāhu they said to him, “You will now be able to accomplish all, after what has been performed over you this day; your spirit and your body (are fully equipped) to the end of man,” that is to old age.
On completion, all the clothing he had on him was burnt; and when they returned to the village, no food was given to him, until the next morning at daylight.
In that same morning also all the people who had brought Tarakawa there, were killed by Te Awaawa, as payment for his father, Te Wharawhara, who had been killed by that tribe, as related previously. When Tarakawa reached the scene, they were lying in heaps quite dead. He lamented over his friends—Te Hu-o-te-rangi and party—who had returned him to his own people. At this time, Tarakawa was about twenty-five years old.
For a long time Roto-rua remained in calmness, and then Te Whata-nui and Te Rau-paraha visited Roto-rua (this was about December, 1821, or very early in 1822). Te Whata-nui made an address to Ngati-Whakaue and Tu-hou-rangi—two of the Roto-rua tribes—in which he said that if they saw any Nga-Puhi faces in the district they were to kill them, on account of his nephew Wheturoa, lately killed at Te Totara by Nga-Puhi (December, 1821). Then these two old men left, leaving behind them this evil counsel.
Next came Te Pae-o-te-rangi, with a party of seventy (twice told) of Nga-Puhi, who stayed at Roto-kakahi lake, at the island of Motutawa. Here the Tu-hou-rangi tribe gathered to receive their guests, whilst their chief, Te Mutu-kuri, dressed himself in mourning garments, and then entered the house were the strangers were. Then was enacted the same scene as when Te Awaawa killed the Ngati-Paoa and others; most of the Nga-Puhi were killed, whilst some escaped by flight, who were not pursued, but Te Pae-o-te-rangi, a young chief of Nga-Puhi, was killed. When the fugitives reached Ohine-mutu, Rotorua, two of them were killed by the Ngati- - 187 Whakaue tribe, some escaping to return north to Toke-rau (Bay of Islands) to relate their losses. This was in 1822.
When the news spread to all parts of Nga-Puhi, great grief was felt, by both the great and the small. The chiefs concerned left to Te Kiri-mate the decision as to the steps to be taken. Te Kiri-mate said that the elder relations of Te Pae-o-te-rangi should decide. “Yes! leave it so; blood has flown; do not let it get cold!” This was the opinion of Te Koki and Ta-waewae. Another of the elder relatives stood forth, Te Wera-Hauraki-Kaiteke10 (who bore all those names) and said, “Let the word of you two be lowered, and leave it for next year, so that dried kumara and fish may be obtained for the belly that supports the legs.” Nga-Puhi considered well these words, and finally concluded that Te Wera was right; and so the expedition of revenge was postponed until 1823.
(To be continued.)
1 Orangi-kahui; kei runga ake o Puhirua, kei te putanga mai o te rori mai o Tauranga i te ngahere.
2 Puhi-rua, kei uta atu o Te Awa-hou.
3 Ko te papa o Te Wera, ko Kai-teke, no te weranga o ta raua tamaiti ko Te Ao-kapu-rangi, ka riro i aia tena ingoa, a Te Wera.
4 Rangi-tihi, a very celebrated ancestor of Te Arawa tribe, fifth in descent from Tama-te-Kapua, the Captain of Te Arawa canoe that arrived in New Zealand about 1350.—Trans.
5 I am not aware how our author arrives at this date.—Trans.
6 These pas fell in November, 1821. Both are situated close to the village of Panmure.—Trans.
7 December, 1821.—Trans.
8 Matakitaki fell to Hongi about May, 1822.—Trans.
9 I am afraid there is a strange confusion in the genealogical table given in the original of this story. The Tawhaki there shown cannot by any possibility be the famous Tawhaki, unless very many generations are omitted. On this head, see this journal, vol. viii., p. 13.—Trans.
10 Kaiteke, a noted priest in his time, was Hauraki's father. Hauraki took the name of Te Wera (The Burnt), after his child by Te-Ao-kapu-rangi (of Te Arawa had been burnt; in which he followed a very common Maori custom.—Trans.