Volume 92 1983 > Volume 92, No. 2 > Reviews, p 269-282
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AKADEMIIA NAUK USSR: Okeaniia, spravochnik. Nauka, Moskow, 1982. 381 pp., figs, tables, maps, n.p.

Dimitry Obolensky

When we see the title, “Oceania, Reference Book” and the names of the responsible editors K. V. Malakhovskii and V. P. Nikolaev, we are very happy. We can expect some sort of reliable Encyclopaedia of the South Pacific. We only wonder how so much information could have been produced on fewer than 400 pages treating of more than 20 countries, from the points of view of geography, geology, demography, agriculture, ethnobotany, linguistics, religious persuasions, economics, politics, “culture.”

Reading this textbook chapter by chapter gives us up-to-date information about the geography and the recent economic development of Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Kiribati, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Fiji, Eastern Samoa, Micronesia, New Caledonia, etc.

It seems that the editors have released information on reform and improvement achieved by most enlightened, progressive and efficient rulers, for example, Tupuola Efi, only if it was unequivocal.

A remarkable feature of this publication is the fact that the information provided is perfectly up-to-date and often seems to be based on recent research achieved by scientific expeditions in the Pacific. The data provided are most important for the study of the soil and economy, especially agricultural planning. Moscow experts interested in Oceania are brilliantly showing how thoroughly informed and competent they have become, even in the field of linguistics. New Zealand linguists, of course, already hoped to have the right to believe that most important research on the history of Polynesian languages had been achieved by Pawley and Biggs. Being supported in this opinion by linguists as far removed as Moscow is encouraging.

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BURT, Ben: Solomon Islanders: The Kwara'ae. London, British Museum, 1981. 16 pp., map, photos. Price A$3.00 (paper).

Lawrence Foanaota Solomon Islands National Museum

Solomon Islanders: The Kwara'ae is a very interesting, useful and easy to read booklet which reveals some cultural aspects of the Kwara'ae, people whom the author, Ben Burt, tries to explain from an outsider's point of view.

The booklet concentrates on the speakers of one of the main language groups on the island of Malaita and, as a good sample of ethnographic publishing, it has already stimulated the minds of many educated and interested Solomon Islanders to think seriously about producing similar, inexpensive but well-illustrated works.

One point of clarification, however, regarding some of the information provided in the booklet is that the Kwara'ae do not restrict themselves to their own language or even to the general local way of life. For example, on the eastern side of the Island of Malaita the people have considerable interaction with the Kwaio and Fataleka people whereas on the western side they interact more with the Langa Langa people. Hence, this is not an isolated language and cultural area as the booklet's overall message tends to convey to the reader. Apart from that, however, the booklet is worth buying.

The selection of photographs for the booklet has been done in such a way as to make them self-explanatory, although, judging from the responses of many of the Kwara'ae people who saw the booklet, the captions should be placed directly under the pictures rather than on the sides. Also, the caption referring to the priest's name on page eight should be Maerora and not Maeorora.

In the text itself some information needs rectifying. For example, under the subsection on Wealth and Leadership we read “formerly shell money could be exchanged for almost anything which today can be bought and sold for Solomon Island Dollar” (page 6). Unfortunately, this is not the case because shell money was and is highly valued and, as a result, only very specific items could be exchanged for it. Not all garden produce, for example, are exchangeable for shell money, but only taro, yams, pana, and nowadays kumara (sweet potato), and even these must be graded according to their size, quantity and quality.

Apart from these few comments, I would highly recommend the booklet for use as a case study in anthropology courses because it covers many different aspects of one particular language and cultural group, the Kwara'ae, in a contemporary changing society.

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FISCHER, Hans: Die Hamburger Südsee-Expedition über Ethnographie und Kolonialismus. Frankfurt am Main, Syndicat, 1981. 160 pp., maps, photos. Price DM28 (paper).

Michael E. Hoare Alexander Turnbull Library

In 1908-1909 the Hamburg South Seas Expedition, sponsored by the newly founded Hamburg Scientific Institute, carried out hasty (and often superficial) anthropological surveys of New Britain, the Admiralty and St Matthias Groups, Tench Island and of the north-east mainland of New Guinea between Madang and the Sepik. During the second year of its activities (July 1909 to March 1910) the expedition, under different leadership, undertook more detailed stationary field and running surveys in the Caroline and Marshall Islands. The depth and quality of this two-phase expedition at the twilight of the German Imperial presence in the Pacific, are reflected in the publications: the first year's activities produced four volumes of partial results and the second year's a staggering 25 volumes issued over many years. Several well-known writers on Melanesian and Micronesian anthropology, including Augustin Krämer and Wilhelm Müller (-Wismar), were members of the expedition. Its inspiration and co-ordinator was the absent Director of the Hamburg Anthropological Museum, Georg Thilenius.

Hans Fischer's principal aim in writing this book is to analyse the problems of attempting to conduct independent scientific research in a highly politicised colonial atmosphere. With no concessions to his country's failures or weaknesses as a colonial power, or to its later actively pursued debasement of anthropology in the 1930s and 1940s (only one member of the expedition became an active Nazi), the author has presented a reasoned and thoughtful historical analysis of the development of anthropological exploration, theory and changing fashions in research. As an established writer on the theory and fashions of field research and museology and as Professor of Anthropology in the University of Hamburg and a researcher on Oceania, Fischer has taken a rare interest in the historical evolution of his discipline, a discipline which his countrymen did much to promote in the late 18th and early 19th century. Having access to the many extant manuscript diaries, reports and memoranda of the expedition in the Hamburg Museum, Fischer candidly awaited the same revelations that startled the world on the publication of Bronislaw Malinowski's Diary in 1967. While lacking the same impact, the archives of the expedition—quoted selectively and analysed critically in this book—do lay bare the conflicts between scientific objectivity and the socio-political and cultural conditioning of the researchers as it affected their work (and affects, undoubtedly, the work of many modern anthropologists). In the current climate of reassessment and controversy over Margaret Mead's writings, the book is therefore an additional timely contribution.

The Germans encountered insuperable language barriers (only one, F. E. Hellwig, the official collector of artefacts, had a knowledge of Pidgin). Their - 272 interpreters were often reluctant to co-operate and the people studied frequently decamped or resisted investigation. The expedition lacked a coherent theoretical basis for research, and competition between the ship's crew (the vessel Peiho was a floating luxury laboratory) and the scientists over the appropriation of cultural objects was intense. Such competition also distorted and created an artificial market for the objects hastily prepared and collected.

The more relaxed humane leadership of Friedrich Fülleborn in the first year stood out in contrast to the autocratic, ordered regime of Krämer in the second. In Micronesia officialdom was lax and apathetic. The Europeans on the expedition—as had many before them—resorted often to the classical coercements of confiscations, beatings and other physical ploys to gain their objects and data. “Following the model of natural history the inhabitants were treated very much like birds and reptiles” (p. 123). Only when a researcher of the determination and brilliance of Müller insisted on a nine months' “stationary” assignment on Yap did work of a high and enduring quality result.

Fischer has written a useful, balanced and penetrating book. His scholarship is meticulous and his biographies of the participants most useful. The volume has 12 contemporary plates—the expedition carried its own photographer and artist. The bibliography of both archival and secondary sources is extensive. The maps could be better. The principal criticism is that the work lacks an index. In a book with so much information that is indeed a tragedy. This reviewer, at least, hopes that an English translation will be forthcoming.

DORAN, Edwin Jr: Wangka: Austronesian Canoe Origins. Texas, Texas A & M University Press, 1981. 111 pp., figs, tables, maps, photos, apps, index. Price US$15.00.

Leith Duncan

Doran's essay presents a new synthesis of archaeological, linguistic and water-craft data for the origin, sequence of development and diffusion of Austronesian canoes. “Wangka” is possibly the earliest Austronesian word for boat. Doran has sorted out the distributional data of Haddon and Hornell and others, mapped them, assessed their implications and compared these with the findings of archaeology, linguistics and other anthropological evidence for the origin and development of these canoe types.

Doran uses an analysis of seaworthiness and distributional evidence to refute Haddon and Hornell's conclusion that double outrigger canoes were oldest, followed almost simultaneously by double canoes and single outriggers. He argues that double canoes then single (tacking) outriggers as found in Polynesia are oldest, then Micronesian and Melanesian single outriggers (having different types of sail), with Indonesian double outriggers the most recent form. From his - 273 analysis, Sulawesi seems to be the centre of complexity of canoe design and also, probably, the centre of innovation.

In this the book is good but I had hoped from early publicity for more. He himself calls for “A more rigorous study . . . based on the facts of canoe construction and performance (I thoroughly concur) as we can reconstruct them employing modern understanding of the physics of sailing craft.” I contend that with Hi-tec racing multihulls crewed by world-class sailors only just breaking into the performance areas 1 of Austronesian canoes as cited by the explorers, 2 multihull designers would learn much from a systematic analysis of canoe design parameters. As J. S. Taylor, one of the more enigmatic commentators on Pacific canoe design, emphasises, “anyone who thinks that a couple of decades of modern evolution can match 4000 years of empirical development has reached the limit of arrogance” (1975:92).

This is not the task the book addresses but Doran's specific input to the corpus of data on Austronesian origins and migrations with this book is the discussion of watercraft distribution and seaworthiness. His synopses of archaeological, linguistic and distributional data are outside my specific expertise, although with the last it is surprising to note the absence of references to the work of that other enthusiastic compiler of Pacific canoe data, Neyret (1976). Consideration of Doran's work on seaworthiness is, therefore, relevant for both the task I suggest and the issues the book addresses.

Doran has the expertise for such an analysis. He has built and sailed trimarans and other multihulls, carried out instrumental performance tests on three of the five Austronesian canoes or replicas to have been so tested, and been a member for 20 years of the Amateur Yacht Research Society (A.Y.R.S.), a collection of enthusiasts for just such activities. Besides this practical experience he has the comprehensive scholarship from combing the literature to map the global distributions of early watercraft.

While not attempting the suggested topic, this book has, however, laid the foundation with a detailed analysis of distribution patterns and thoroughly researched revision of Haddon and Hornell's sequence of canoe development. Although most of his technical information has already been published. 3

Overall, the argument is plausible; the location of origin and sequence of canoe type development arguments fit. Also, the presentation of the concept “sea-worthiness” and its division into components is a valid strategy. Until the form and function of specific design details are examined the real achievements of Austronesian experts are obscured by their technological limitations in comparison with modern technological advances. Doran's strategy is a seminal means of penetrating this problem, but the complexity of nautical development is such that there is room for dissension with some of his analysis. The issues he raises are of major importance. Therefore, in the interests of furthering the debate I shall deal with points which appear to be in error or with which I disagree.

Examination of some of the technical data in this book raises doubts as to their accuracy. The most disturbing anomaly is in Figure 13 depicting hull lines of two Puluwat canoes. Either the asymmetrical hull lines have been transposed from lee to weather, a drafting mistake which has survived at least two previous - 274 publishings, 4 or these Puluwat canoes have greater hull curvature to leeward instead of to weather like most other asymmetrical single outriggers. If the latter, then I am surprised Doran does not discuss its implications. 5

In his description of a similar canoe from Puluwat, Gladwin (1976) refers to the hull “curving if at all away from the (windward) outrigger.” Fuller (1979) refers to two quite different types of hull asymmetry, a straight keelson with one side of the hull fatter than the other, which reflects ideas about lift to windward, and the second, originating in Micronesia, where a curved keelson is intended to steer the hull away from the float to counteract its drag. In Doran's hull lines the asymmetry is the first type, where the keelson appears to be straight but the fullness of the hull section, more noticeable on the lines of the canoe Mikael, is to leeward where any lift produced would seem to aggravate leeway.

Doran's consideration of seaworthiness as a wholistic concept, involving construction, performance and safety, is extremely relevant. It is, however, a serious omission to neglect the specific purposes for which the vessels were built, and the climatic conditions and sea states in which they were to operate: in sheltered water or lagoon only or for open ocean voyaging. These are major factors in canoe seaworthiness. Without consideration of them comparison seems to be of the same order as relating sabot sailing dinghies to Whitbread racers and windjammers.

Likewise, his attempt to divide seaworthiness into components (some of the most significant are size, materials and structure, righting ability and stability) is a valid strategy. I take issue, not with the author's choice of components but with some of his assessments within them. In some respects the scope of his argument is too broad without doing justice to the detail in some of the available data. In the section on materials and structure (p. 55), for example, there is a fundamental difference in the structure of a canoe composed of a basal log with additional strakes and one constructed from many small pieces. Inevitably there will be differences in strength and durability and therefore seaworthiness but the author does not discuss this until a later section when considering differences between canoe types.

In the section on decks and freeboard he asserts, “No Austronesian canoes have watertight decks” (p. 55) but this is negated in the small sample of canoes in the Auckland Museum where a Fijian fishing canoe has decks lashed and caulked probably as watertight as the hull. This 22-foot vessel from the Lau Group has only two 18 inch by 9 inch openings for bailing and is believed to have been built in the same manner as the larger voyaging Tongiaki with watertight plugs in the bailing holes.

When considering relative safety the question of standard or perspective arises particularly as one of the examples he cites, Hokule'a, has swamped twice with loss of life on one occasion. The apparent inability of double canoes to recover from swamping does seem to differentiate them from other types. Safety at sea is relative and no vessel is 100 percent seaworthy.

Perhaps one of the weaknesses of the discussion is that Doran makes no distinction between small lagoon or sheltered water fishing canoes and larger offshore voyaging vessels. Smaller canoes are likely to be structurally relatively much stronger than larger vessels. This is especially relevant when considering righting - 275 ability. It is probably true that all smaller “Austronesian canoes, whatever their stabilising system, could be capsized” (p. 56) but, although it is also theoretically true of larger vessels, it may not be so in practice. Structural strengths were such that dismasting, especially for large double canoes, or breakup would occur before capsize. With the reputed high calibre of Austronesian seamanship, it seems more plausible that dismasting would have been more likely than capsize.

Doran's discussion of stability (p. 56) appears to be in keeping with current ideas as presented in recent multihull literature. Since most of this present debate is based on “Bermudan” high-aspect rigs, it ignores what appears to me to be the salient characteristic of some Austronesian rigs, namely significant lift generated by the sail. With the advent of windsurfers this factor in the complex dynamic stability situation will become more familiar to designers and be given more cognisance.

When discussing differences in seaworthiness between double hull canoes, single outriggers and double outriggers, those with an outrigger on both sides of the central hull, Doran postulates hypothetical canoes with dimensions standard ised to allow comparison. While this seems reasonable in theory, in practice so many other complex factors act on a vessel in a seaway as to make such a comparison invalid. The difficulties Siers experienced with Taratai provide evidence of a practical nature which alone refutes Doran's hypothetical comparison. Taratai was built unwittingly as a scaled-up canoe, not a voyaging vessel. The resulting breakages led Siers to abandon this part of his project at Fiji. Perhaps Doran's difficulty in this area arises because the major factors in seaworthiness, sea state and the weather, have not been standardised.

His primary data for double outriggers derive from Indonesian vessels which operate in reputedly more sheltered waters and generally milder climatic conditions than either the Puluwat single outriggers or the Hawaiian double canoe replicas, both the latter having to contend with the open ocean.

In the data presented (p. 67) the stress on double outrigger cross-beams is so high that breakage must occur before the full stress cited (p. 67) is reached. Stress in the windward cross-beams may be relieved as he suggests by shrouds between the float and masthead but stress in the leeward cross-beam is unaffected. Referring to the use of crew weight for increased stability (p. 68), Doran states that “double outriggers required little use of crew weight in exposed positions.” I recall, however, descriptions of the great agility required by the crews of Daru double outrigger fishing canoes in the Gulf of Papua, but cannot find the reference. There is, of course, little or no provision for the use of crew weight on his example, the Sulu double outrigger, the Vinta Nardi.

Unlike Doran, I do not have firsthand experience sailing or indeed observing, single or double outriggers, double canoes or proas and can therefore raise only tentative queries about his comments on rates of capsize. The data presented again refer to his hypothetical canoes in an effort to verify his “strong intuitive feeling for the capsize rates involved” (p. 68). I should like to know more about the canoes which have led to his feeling and the abilities of those who sailed them. Capsizing lagoon, inshore fishing or racing canoes is one thing but capsizing off-shore voyaging canoes relates to a different order of seafaring. It is relevant to - 276 note that, according to one A.Y.R.S. tally, a significant number of offshore racing trimarans, and these are the closest analogue to the double outriggers he favours, have capsized under crisis storm conditions. At that stage anyway, fewer equivalent catamarans had capsized under similar conditions.

Proas are of a different order. As yet there has been so little development of this configuration that their potential is as yet unreached. To my knowledge there has been no systematic analysis of asymmetric, float or foil to windward proas. The brief experimental work of Fuller suggests that asymmetry is significantly related to stability. Likewise, apart from the statements of J. S. Taylor (1975), little work has been done on lift and dynamic stability of oceanic lateens or, as Doran prefers, crane sprits. My conjecture is that these two features, as yet little understood by Western designers, are adequate to explain the absence of double outrigger canoes from ocean Pacific areas.

Because seaworthiness has not been related to the major variables of purpose, climatic conditions and sea state, I am not convinced of the validity of adding rank scores for the various components to produce an overall rating for the canoe types. It may be suggesting the absurd but if invalidation of his hypothesis requires rigorous field testing—there is certainly a need for that—then so must its validation. Of the choices, I for one would opt strongly to sail a Puluwat Wa to Indonesia. Would Doran really prefer to sail offshore in a Vinta?

Without doubt this book contributes to our understanding of Austronesian canoes and their distributions. I hope it will not be Doran's last contribution in the field as I look forward to a more definitive work.

  • FULLER, N., 1979. “Letter to John Morwood.” Amateur Yacht Research Society, 93:28-31.
  • GLADWIN, Thomas, 1970. East is a Big Bird. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
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  • NEYRET, R. P. J., 1976. Pirogues Océaniennes, (2nd ed.). Paris Association des Amis des Musées de la marine.
  • TAYLOR, J. S., 1975. “The lessons of Loto-Toa.” Sea Spray, October 1975:92-6.

INGLIS, Amirah: Karo: the life and fate of a Papuan. Canberra, Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies in association with Australian National University Press, 1982. xviii, 143 pp., photos. Price A$10.95 (paper).

R. G. Crocombe University of the South Pacific

Karo was Papua's most famous criminal in the colonial era. The book contains a biography of the man and a description of his great skill as a sorcerer, thief and killer: a package of talents which were evaluated somewhat differently in Papuan cultures of today from those of the colonial Government.

The writing is clear, the descriptions vivid, the context of the interacting cultures well described. A fascinating story in its own right, it also reveals valuable insights into both Papuan and Australian cultures and makes an important contribution to understanding the history of the country.

The author no doubt gave considerable thought to the desirability of publicising some of the most sordid incidents of Papuan history of that period, particularly as the families of some of the most notorious criminals have today become pillars of the Establishment. But to the extent that history is a search for truth the study is well merited, though there is indeed a danger that some people with prejudiced views of Papuan society could use the evidence maliciously.

Unfortunately, at a price of A$10.95 (about NZ$16.00) for such a small book, Papuans will be effectively denied access to it.

PACIFIC 2000: Revue trimestrielle d'information culturelle. Published by “L'Association pour le 4e Festival des Arts du Pacifique en Nouvelle-Calédonie, en 1984.” Address: Festival Arts Pacifique, BP 378, Nouméa, New Caledonia. Edited by Rock Wamytan. First issue dated September 1982. Price 200 CPF per issue; subscriptions (six issues) NZ$18.00.

Peter Crowe University of Auckland

This is a new multilingual journal (chiefly French/English) intended to be short lived. By the time the Fourth Pacific Festival of Arts is held in Nouméa in - 278 September 1984, six issues will have been to press if publication schedules are maintained. Because of this, the journal is bound to become another rarity of the Pacific, from 1985 onwards. The first issue is certainly interesting enough to recommend readers take out a subscription and encourage the editors. The chosen title reflects a continuation of Kanak self-conscious culture revival. In 1975 a Festival was held in Nouméa called “Melanesia 2000” from which several publications emerged. They included a very well produced recording (12” LP disc/cassette); the recording sold out, but might be reprinted for the coming Festival (well worth doing).

This issue contains, in the main, statements of aims for the forthcoming Festival: it is more manifesto than cultural information. There is a policy statement from Rock Wamytan as editor inviting contributions from anyone with something to say, whether in his own mother-tongue, in French or in English, of “reflection, criticism, [or] dialogue on cultural realities in a perspective of progress at the service of Pacific peoples.” Making the point about mother-tongues, the then Secretary-General of the South Pacific Commission (Hon. Young Vivian) gives an interview in Niuean, which is also translated into French and English. It will be interesting to see how many more pieces become published trilingually in subsequent issues. The principle is laudable and important, but there are obvious practical publishing and editorial problems to be solved.

The major article, taking 10 of the 52 pages, is called “Festival Information” and is not signed. One presumes this is a policy statement from the six-member Festival Association committee. Pacific my new home is given as the suggested Festival title or theme (in English only, it should be noted). There are two subtitles to this. The English one is stated first as “Our own Pacific way for our new home,” and then the French one: “Pour une voie océanienne de développement.” It is then claimed that neither of the two languages can exactly translate what is expressed by the other, in this instance (and this in turn leads on to a point being made of the richness, variety and unity inherent in vernacular Pacific languages). But what would be wrong with “Notre propre voie Pacifique pour notre nouveau pays” and “For an Oceanic way of development”? Is there, instead, a polemical undertone in the given French subtitle? When heard rather than read it could be taken for “Pour une voix . . .” And no doubt, too, the slogan “The Pacific Way” is implied in the English version. Political aspects of cultural development are, after all, of concern in New Caledonia—and quite properly so. There seems to be here a conscious effort to express this with suavity and with diplomacy but also with a sense of inevitability: the Just Cause—that Kanak culture must be reaffirmed and take its place in a Pacific pantheon.

“Festival Information” reads as though it was written for circulation to the Arts Councils of the 20-odd countries which may be expected to take part. It deals in direct ways with the integration of art and culture in Pacific socio-economic conditions. The article discusses problems of ownership of art-works (as intellectual property), the traditional versus the modern (examples from music), the position of traditional values and knowledge in fields like medicine, architecture and language. The need to have artefacts returned by metropolitan museums is raised. The final note is that the organisers hope for discussion on - 279 what would make a good festival, that the present text is a proposal in which the authors make no claim of monopoly of the truth, nor do they necessarily think they have found the best words to express themselves. Despite such modesty, the article is persuasive by its comprehensiveness, at once highly intelligent and sensitive.

Three examples are given of “patrimony works”: a song without its tune from Aneityum and two Lifu stories, both trilingually presented. A “dossier” on vernacular languages contains articles on “Language and cultural identity” by Michel Aufray, a reprint from Le Monde of a piece on “Linguistic hegemonies” by Toshio Aoki, and various items of useful information on New Caledonian languages which include lists, a map and a bibliography. There is news of “Broadcasting in French Polynesia” and a not altogether accurate chart called “Broadcasting Survey of Pacific Islands” (for instance, Vanuatu does not have nearly three radios per inhabitant, and public radio did not begin until the mid-sixties). Over six pages are given to a filmography on the Pacific, which is interesting evidence of the range of cinema about the Pacific now becoming known, but frustrating in that film-makers' names are usually omitted and sources for hire or purchase are not always clearly stated. May one appeal for more rigour in citations of film, not just here but everywhere?

I hope it is obvious that Pacific 2000 is a well-conceived new journal packed with unique Pacific material. It is produced to a good standard, well illustrated with photos and line drawings, has colour sections and a tolerable quantity of advertising. The standard of translation into English, while good, nevertheless contains oddities a native speaker would correct. This is quite important, I believe, for the majority of Festival participants will have English as a first or second language. The evidence of Pacific 2000 suggests that the 1984 Festival in Nouméa will be extremely well prepared.

STONE, R. C. J.: Young Logan Campbell. Auckland, Auckland University Press, 1982. 287 pp., plates, apps, index. Price $19.90.

James A. S. Burns

In 1973 Auckland University Press and Oxford University Press published Makers of Fortune: a Colonial Business Community and its Fall by R. C. J. Stone. The author devotes a chapter to Dr Campbell. The opening sentence reads: “The subject of this case study, John Logan Campbell, was probably the most successful of the city's commercial leaders in the nineteenth century and certainly the most famous” (Stone 1973:153).

Campbell, born in Edinburgh in 1817, qualified in medicine as did his father, and by 1840 arrived in New Zealand. Although he lived until 1912, the present volume covers only his first 40 years which is understandable for Dr Stone has - 280 done research and studied his subject for almost two decades—an essential task when it is realised that the Campbell Papers in the Auckland Institute and Museum Library are the most detailed set of private business papers for colonial times anywhere in the country.

With his partner, friend and fellow Scot, William Brown (1809-1898), Campbell acquired Motukorea (Brown's Island) in 1840 and before the end of the year, with Auckland proclaimed the new capital, they moved into the township. Campbell's multifarious activities provide interesting material for a biographer which Stone portrays with accuracy, insight and judgment. The young settler quickly became immersed in trading, land, the Mechanics Institute, the Auckland Savings Bank and the Southern Cross newspaper, often in the role of initiator.

An important and absorbing aspect of this biography is Campbell's attitude to the Maori. When he first arrived in New Zealand, the young doctor was in close contact with the Maoris in the Coromandel at which time they were little changed by association with Europeans. He gained a deep knowledge of the Tangata Maori for whom he developed the greatest respect. The author explores Campbell's perception of the Maori who he realises is less influenced by Western ideas than the white man imagines. He is particularly impressed with the expression taihoa (by and by). “It is my opinion that half the evil deeds in the world would never be committed if all the nations that on earth do dwell had only been providentially blessed by having in their language that potent word—taihoa!” (Campbell 1952:179). It is significant that Sir John Campbell—he received his knighthood in 1902—made provision in his will for an obelisk to be erected on Maungakiekie (One Tree Hill) as a lasting tribute to the character and achievements of the great Maori people.

This meticulous study is more than a scholarly biography; it is a history of Auckland from its primitive beginnings, with conditions so wretched that Brown and Campbell realised they had blundered in deserting civilised Scotland for so austere a colony. Fortunately, as Campbell prospered so did the settlement.

The references, bibliography and index of this work are comprehensive. A fine selection of illustrations include reproductions from paintings of Auckland by such notable artists as S. Stuart, G. F. Angus and P. J. Hogan; the last-named is also represented on the attractive dust cover, depicting the township and Commercial Bay in 1852.

The present volume virtually covers 40 years of Campbell's life until his marriage in 1858. The second part extends to his death in 1912 and will be more concerned with his activities in the Pakeha world than with his interest in the Maori. Dr Stone expects volume two to be completed and published by 1986.

  • BARR, John, 1922. The City of Auckland, New Zealand, 1840-1920. Auckland, Whitcombe and Tombs.
  • BROWN, William, 1845. New Zealand and its Aborigines. London, Smith, Elder.
  • CAMPBELL, John Logan, 1881. Poenamo: Sketches of the Early Days in New Zealand: Romance and Reality of Antipodean Life in the Infancy of a New
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  • Colony. London, Williams and Norgate.
  • —— 1952. Poenamo . . . with an introduction by Joan Stevens: Maori References edited by James Cowan. Christchurch, Whitcombe and Tombs.
  • STONE, R. C. J., 1973. Makers of Fortune: a Colonial Business Community and its Fall. Auckland, Auckland University Press and Oxford University Press.
  • WYNYARD, Montague Harrison, 1958. The Story of Maungakiekie the Ancient Maori Fortress and now One Tree Hill. Auckland, Wilson and Horton. An earlier edition was published 1903 under the title The History of One Tree Hill the Volcanic Mountain Known to the Maori People as Maungakiekie.

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1   Cf. Paul Ricard, built with the expertise and technical resources of the French aerospace industry, broke the longstanding east-west transatlantic record under sail with an average of 12.29 knots (Multihulls, September/October 1980:19-22).
2   Doran cites, for example, a 14-knot average for a Caroline Island canoe on a trip from Guam to Manila (p.62).
3   Journal of the Polynesian Society, 1972:81, 144-159; Geoscience and Man, 12:83-89, 1975.
4   Journal of the Polynesian Society, 1972:81 and Finney (ed.) Pacific Navigation and Voyaging. Polynesian Society, Wellington, 1976.
5   I am grateful to Bernard Rhodes for drawing my attention to this anomaly and most of the design technicalities in the following discussion. His experience includes extensive cruising in French Polynesia and sailing on Tahitian single outriggers as well as designing and sailing contemporary multihulls.