Volume 9 1900 > Volume 9, No. 1, March 1900 > Wars of the northern against the southern tribes of New Zealand in the nineteeth century: Part III, by S. Percy Smith, p1-37
The Journal of the Polynesian Society.
VOL. IX. 1900.
WARS OF THE NORTHERN AGAINST THE SOUTHERN TRIBES OF NEW ZEALAND IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.
ON the 29th June of this year Messrs. King and Kendall started from the Bay on a visit to Hokianga. They found Hongi at the Kerikeri, and, passing on by the old track from the latter place, they arrived at Matangi's village on the banks of the Upper Waihou on the 30th. On the 1st July they visited Muriwai at Utakura, and from there went down in a canoe to the Heads to Mauwhena's village. They were well received everywhere. On their return they reached Patu-one's village, Te Papa, on the Upper Waihou, on the 11th July, and on the 16th of that month got back to Rangihoua, Bay of Islands, bringing Patu-one with them. This was the first visit ever made by Europeans to Hokianga, and both gentlemen appeared to have been struck with the number of Maoris living there, and the warm welcome given to them.
On August 13th, Mr. Marsden arrived at the Bay on his second visit to New Zealand, bringing with him (in the “General Gates”) Tui and Titore, who had just returned from a visit to England, and the Rev. John Butler. From Mr. Marsden's “Journal” we learn of some of the doings of the Nga-Puhi warriors during this year.- 2
On Marsden's arrival, he found Hongi just on the eve of starting for Whangaroa to chastise the people of that place for having eaten a whale that had been stranded on the shore, over which Hongi claimed what we should call “manorial rights,” but in deference to the wishes of his friend Marsden, he deferred the punishment of these people, at the same time expressing his intention of going further north, to remove the bones of his wife's father, which he did. On arrival there, however (at Oruru, probably), he found the people had desecrated the grave, and used the bones of his father-in-law for fish-hooks; whereupon he took summary vengeance by shooting six of the offenders, after which a peace was patched up. Hongi was back again at the Bay on the 30th August.
On the 20th August there arrived at the Bay a party of chiefs from Hauraki, who came to arrange a peace, they having not long since cut off a cousin of Tui's, and, in return, had lost two of their own people by an expedition from the Bay. On the 23rd September, a further number of Hauraki people arrived on the same errand, and a peace was made, but was not of long duration, as we shall see. These Hauraki people would probably be some of the Ngati-Paoa tribe.
Marsden, on his visits to the settlements about the Bay, saw numbers of preserved heads, which he learned had been brought back from the east coast by Hongi's and Te Morenga's expeditions of the previous year. (See this Journal, vol. viii., p. 213.) Many of these were at Korokoro's pa, situated on an island close to Motu-rua, where Marsden met that chief on the 27th August, with his brothers, Tui and Rangi, and also “Hooratookie,” or Tuki, one of the Maoris taken to Norfolk Island, and returned by Governor King in 1785. (See this Journal. vol. vi., p. 105, supplement.) Mr. Marsden also visited Kingi Hori (or Te Uru-ti) and his nephew Rakau at Kororareka, and also Te Koki, living just across the Bay. The former was about to marry Tara's widow, and had lately been robbed (muru) of all he possessed in consequence, an honour that he no doubt fully appreciated, as being in strict accordance with rigorous Maori law. Pomare was at that time living at his home at Waikare.1
On September 14th, Korokoro and Hongi had an amicable meeting at Te Puna, brought about by the former's desire to secure Hongi's consent to refrain from molesting his people during his absence at the Thames, where he was about to proceed with the full strength of his tribe to make peace, as he declared, with the Hauraki people, on account of a rupture due to the death of his uncle Kaipo's son, who had - 3 been bewitched by the Hauraki people. We shall hear of his expedition later on. They left about November, and were still absent at the end of the year.
On September 28th, Marsden left the Bay on a visit to Hokianga with Messrs. Kendall and Puckey and one of Hongi's sons, together with Wharepoaka and “Roda” (? Rora, or Roraka, of Te Roroa), of Hokianga. He returned to Rangihoua at the Bay on the 12th October, after having visited several chiefs, amongst these the old chief Wharemaru, about 80 years old, who with his son, Matangi, and his son-in-law, Te Taonui, were living at a village named Oraka, on the Upper Waihou. At Utakura he found Muriwai and 300 warriors, many armed with muskets; they were engaged in a quarrel with Matangi at the time. This did not, however, prevent Muriwai furnishing Marsden with a large canoe, in which he accompanied him to Mauwhena's village, near Hokianga Heads. From here, Mr. Puckey went with the priest named “Temangena,” to sound the bar. They then visited Whirinaki Valley, where they were received with the accustomed old-fashioned welcome by a large number of people then living there. On their return they stayed at a village near the narrows, which Marsden calls “Wetewahetee,” which must be Te Whaiti, of which Taraweka was chief. On the following day, Taraweka took the party up the Waima River to Punakitere, to two pas called Otahiti and Rangi-whakataka.2 Subsequently they visited Patu-one at Te Papa, a village on the Upper Waihou, with whom was his brother, probably Waka-Nene. Marsden returned greatly pleased with his visit, and describes in glowing terms the country and the numerous and hospitable population he found there. He got a great deal of interesting information from the priest “Temangena,” and having Mr. Kendall with him (who was, after five years' residence, well acquainted with the language) was able to learn a good deal about the people and the country. Marsden's journal of this expedition is very interesting reading.
After his return to the Bay he visited Motu-iti, the residence of Hauraki (or Te Wera3), where Marsden met Mohanga, who accompanied Dr. Savage to England in 1805.
On the 19th October, Mr. Marsden started on a visit to Taiamai, the district where the Williams family have been so long settled, some 20 miles from the Bay. From there he visited the hot springs near Ohaeawae, and, returning to the Bay, departed for Port Jackson in the brig “Active” on the 9th November, 1819. He gives a good description of the Taiamai District, and relates some very interesting conversations he had with the Maoris of that part.- 4
We learn from Mr. Butler's journal that, early in December, Hongi and Te Morenga were fighting one another at Kerikeri over some potatoes which had been stolen, and that the former lost two men, and the latter had eight men killed. Rewa and Tareha (who was said to be the greatest savage in New Zealand) were engaged in this little quarrel.
Marsden says of Korokoro in 1819:—“Korokoro is a very brave and sensible man. I have seen no chief who has his people under such subjection and good order as he.”
In this year Mr. Marsden spent about nine months in New Zealand, and some of the information to be gleaned from his journal is interesting, and bears on this history. He sailed from Sydney in H.M.S. “Dromedary,” on the 13th February, and reached the Bay on the 27th.
On the 2nd March Hongi left for England in the whaler “New Zealander” to procure arms with which to overcome his enemies.
On the 5th March Marsden started for his second visit to Hokianga with some of the ships officers and Mr. W. Hall, but no particulars of his visit are given, which is unfortunate, for a reason which will be shown presently. He was away a fortnight, and, after his return, the “Dromedary” went to Hokianga, Mr. Marsden, going with her, and returned in her back to the Bay, as it was deemed unsafe for the ship to enter the river.
Early in May Marsden left Rangihoua for a visit to Waimate, Taiamai, &c., and on this occasion they found Tareha at the former place. Marsden says;—“Here we met the largest assemblage of natives I had ever seen. Here were some of the heads of tribes with their fighting men from Hokianga on the western coast to Bream Head on the east coast. We understood that the different tribes had met to settle some war expedition, and that each tribe had to furnish a certain number of men. I inquired what was the occasion of so large a meeting of chiefs from such distant parts, and was informed that previous to the destruction of the “Boyd,” in 1809, Hongi and his tribe made war on the people of Kaipara, when he was defeated, and lost a number of his friends and tribesmen, and among them were two of his brothers (this was at Moremo-nui, 1807), and that the heads of Hongi's tribe had called this meeting to arrange an expedition against Kaipara in order to avenge the death of those who fell in the above war. I also learnt that Hongi had been collecting ammuni- - 5 tion ever since the defeat, to enable him to renew the war, and that he had left instructions with his people to do so in a few months after his departure for England.”
This was the gathering for Tareha's expedition to Kaipara, which will be referred to later on.
Mr. Marsden, after his return to the Bay, embarked on board H.M. store ship “Coromandel” for the Thames on the 7th June, taking with him Te Morenga and Tui. On the 12th they anchored in Waiau, or Coromandel Harbour, named after the ship, where Marsden spent a week amongst the natives forwarding the object of the voyage, which was to collect spars. Here he met Te Horeta, of the Ngati-Whanaunga tribe, and Te Puhi, both of whom he describes as tall handsome men. From Coromandel, Marsden went to Katikati, as related later on, and on his return he started, on the 25th July for Kaipara, some of the Ngati-Paoa people taking him in their canoe through the Waiheke Channel, which he calls the Wairoa, and then up the Wai-te-mata, near the head of which on the 27th July he met Te Kawau4 (Kowow), a chief of Kaipara, who, taking Marsden and his friend (one of the officers of the Coromandel), into his canoe, turned back and conveyed them to the head of the river, and thence overland to near the sandhills of the west coast. (This was at Ruarangi-haereere, where the Taou hapu of Ngati-Whatua were then living). Te Kawau went back with them the next day, the 29th July, and conveyed them to Mokoia up the Tamaki River, and from there Marsden rejoined the ship on the 1st August. Te Hinaki, of Mokoia, accompanied Marsden and Te Morenga on board the “Coromandel,” where the former had the pleasure of making peace between Te Hinaki, of Ngati-Paoa, and Te Puhi, of Ngati-Maru. The cause of the trouble between Te Hinaki and Te Puhi was this: Some time previous to 1820, a party of Ngati-Paoa, under Rongo-mauri-kura, had been capsized in a canoe in the gulf opposite Manaia, near Coromandel. Their bodies drifted ashore, and were supposed by Te Hinaki to have been eaten by Te Puhi and the Ngati-Maru. This, however, the latter strenuously denied. In consequence of this a series of engagements took place between the two tribes, which are fully described in J. White's “Ancient History of the Maori,” vol. v., chap. vii. Marsden describes a battlefield, somewhere near Kauaeranga, which is the same alluded to in the above work at page 102. And when at Te Awha's pa, near the junction of the Ohinemuri, which I take from the description to be Te Puke, the bullet holes in the pa were pointed out to him which were made by the muskets of Ngati-Paoa and - 6 Waikato a year or so previously, and where Te Puhi said his father (? a matua) had been killed. This is also referred to on p. 102 of the above work. After this was the joint attack on Te Totara pa by Waikato, Ngati-Paoa and Nga Puhi, which failed, and the taua returned home in disgust. This Nga-Puhi taua was, I think, that of Korokoro, who left the Bay about November, 1819, and must not be confused with Hongi's attack in 1821, when Te Totara pa was taken, as will be described later on.
Marsden's visit to Kaipara, 1820.
On the 12th August Marsden and Te Morenga started for Kaipara on their way to the Bay of Islands. After calling again at Mokoia, on the Tamaki River, he proceeded on to the Kaipara settlement about Ruarangi-haereere (near the Reweti Railway Station). Here they saw “the chief's brother lying in a shed, unable to stand, from the wound of a spear, which he had received some considerable time before. Te Kawau, and the two others who had attended us made great lamentations over him, weeping aloud.” This man no doubt had been wounded by some of Tareha's Nga-Puhi people, who were then in the district. Mr. Marsden was received very kindly by all the people at the settlements about Kaipara. On one occasion, he says (whilst at Ruarangi-haereere), “The next morning Mr. Ewels and I (this was on his first visit) set off for the sand hills accompanied by one of the chiefs, in order to take a view of the western ocean. We passed a pa on a commanding spot; but the chief told us it now afforded them no protection against their enemies since fire-arms had been introduced. He showed us where their enemies had fired into them with ball, and the distance was too great for them to throw their spears.”
The Rev. Hauraki Paora, who lives at Reweti, close to Ruarangi-haereere, where Marsden stayed, tells me, “Mr. Marsden stayed some time with Te Taou tribe here, and the hill is still known on which he sat, and is called to this day Te Tou-o-te-Matenga, ‘The-sitting-place-of-Marsden,’ because when he sat down a hollow was left in the loose sand. I was told about this by Te Otene Kikokiko in 1873, who was there when Marsden came. He also described the wonder with which they all beheld a white man for the first time. When Marsden stood up to pray, they all said “E mea ma! Ka tu ki runga!” “O friends! he stands up!” When he commenced singing a hymn they exclaimed to one another, “E mea ma! Ka hamama te waha!” “O friends, he opens his mouth!” And when he knelt to pray, they called out, “E mea ma! Ka tuturi nga turi, a ka komekome nga ngutu!” “O friends! he kneels on his knees! his lips move!” We were all entire strangers to pakehas at that time. The things that Mr. Marsden - 7 brought with him were pipes, Jew's harps, and a she goat. The Maoris were delighted at the Jew's harp, for their own roria were made of supplejack bark.”
From this place Marsden went on to visit Muru-paenga, the great leader and warrior of Ngati-Whatua in those days, of whom frequent mention has been made; his account is very full, but I have only space for part of it. He says, “This chief is considered one of the greatest warriors in New Zealand, and I had often heard of his fame from Ruatara, Tui, and others. He has been the rival of Hongi and his tribe for over twenty years. Before the ‘Boyd’ was cut off at Whan-garoa in 1809, Hongi went against Muru-paenga with a great force; Muru-paenga defeated him and slew two of his brothers, wounded him and killed the greater part of his men, and compelled him to save his life by flight.5 Muru-paenga is a man of very quick perceptions; his mind is alive to every observation. His complexion is very dark—his eyes fiery, keen and penetrating—his body of middle stature, but very strong and active. He appears to be about 50 years old. From the expression of his countenance he cannot fail in commanding respect amongst his countrymen. I had heard so much of him for years that I was gratified in meeting him. He told me his residence was at some distance, but that he had come to pay his respects to me. I promised to pay him a visit.”
The next day several of the principal chiefs accompanied Marsden on his visit, calling on their way at the residence of Muru-paenga's son Kahu, a fine young man, not long married. “His residence is in a rich valley. When dinner was over we proceeded on our way, passing a very strongly fortified pa belonging to Mowhetta (Mawete) and went through some rich valleys in one of which a battle was fought about two months ago, in which one chief fell.” This pa was probably Piopio, which was a Ngati-Whatua stronghold in those days.
Marsden then describes some lengthened conversations he had with Muru-paenga, and his priest Muri-akau,6 during which the former complained very much of the Nga-Puhi doings, who were then in the district plundering and murdering the inhabitants, and expressed his expectation of having to fight them. This again was Tareha's expedition already mentioned. “Muru-paenga's residence was very beautiful, in view of the river Kaipara, and the land about it very good - 8 though of a light sandy nature.'” The Rev. Hauraki Paora tells me this was Waikohe, near Judge Fenton's estate, inland of Aotea bluff, Kaipara; it was a village of Ngati-Rongo's.
Marsden remained with these people until the 21st of August, when he embarked on the Kaipara, crossed the Heads and proceeded up the Wairoa, noticing the Otamatea river on the way. It was Te Otene-kikokiko and his people who conveyed Marsden to the Wairoa. He visited Te Toko (of the Uri-o-hau tribe of Ngati-Whatua) and Taurau of the Ngai-Tahuhu, “both powerful chiefs hostile to Hongi.” On the 26th they left the canoe and walked across to Whangarei, where Te Morenga got amongst his own people again. They were much distressed at witnessing the ruin and devastation which the partizans and allies of Hongi had brought on the country. From Whangarei, Mr. Marsden proceeded to the Bay where he arrived on the 4th September, 1820, being thus the first white man ever to visit Kaipara and make the overland journey.
From the Bay, Mr. Marsden again went south with Mr. Butler as far as Mokoia at the Tamaki, and from there again passed through Kaipara and by the West Coast arriving at Hokianga on the 22nd November, and from there went overland to Whangaroa, where he joined the “Dromedary” on the 25th November, 1820.
When at Te Mauwhena's village, near Hokianga heads, Mr. Marsden says:—“When I last visited this place (which must have been about the 8th or 10th March, 1820) the son of Mauwhena the head chief, his brother's son and some other men of consequence were gone to the southward on a war expedition. They had now returned. In this expedition Mauwhena and his brother had both their sons killed. On my arrival I was first conducted to two of the chief women who were in deep distress. One was Mauwhena's daughter-in-law, whose husband had been killed and eaten at Taranaki in an engagement with the people of that place, and the other was her late husband's sister, &c.”
Now, this is a very important statement, for it is the only exact record we have of the date of return of the Tuwhare-Patu-one expedition from the south of New Zealand.7 It was the people of Hokianga together with the Roroa hapu of Ngati-Whatua, living along the coast south of Hokianga, who formed that expedition, and there has been no other since. The Maori accounts say that they were twelve months away. Marsden was as Hokianga in October, 1819, and visited Patu-one at that time, so any doubt as to which of his visits to Hokianga he refers to when he says, as above, “when I last visited this place,” seems set at rest, and he must refer to that in March, - 9 1820. Patu-one and Tuwhare must therefore have left on their expedition about November, 1819, and returned about October or November, 1820.
Tareha's ope to Kaipara. 1820.
Very few details of this expedition are known. It was undertaken whilst Hongi was in England, and Marsden says he had left word with his people to undertake a taua against Ngati-Whatua in order to try and obtain some utu for the losses Nga-Puhi suffered at the hands of Ngati-Whatua in the battle of Moremo-nui in 1807. The gathering of the northern people at Waimate has already been described. Marsden also saw the arrival of a contingent from Hokianga to join the party. This was in May, and as the taua had visited Kaipara two months before the middle of August, they must have left Waimate in May. Tareha was the leading chief in this affair; with him were Rewa, Moka, Whare-nui, Hihi and Hare-Hongi, besides—as Marsden says—some of the Whangarei people. They went by way of Manga-kahia, and down the Wairoa river, and as they proceeded devastated the country and killed as many as they came across. It is clear they got as far as the Aotea Bluff and the Ngati-Whatua settlements of Kaipara, for Marsden mentions a valley he crossed in which a battle had been fought two months previously to August, and a chief was killed there. This valley was between Helensville and Aotea, probably near Otaka-nini. Where the taua was as Marsden passed north, is not known, possibly up the Otamatea or one of the other great inlets of Kaipara. Just before Marsden left New Zealand in the “Dromedary,” in December 1820, news was received that the taua had returned, and Major Cruise mentions that early in October news had been received at the Bay that the taua had suffered a defeat, which may either refer to Tareha's taua or to the death of Koriwhai near Mahurangi. At any rate Nga-Puhi, notwithstanding their guns, did not have every thing their own way. The Missionaries at Kerikeri, on learning that this taua had been merciful in sparing their prisoners, presented the chiefs with some axes and hoes, in token of their leniency. Korokoro and Te Koki did not take part in this expedition.
There is a brief record to the effect that a party of Nga-Puhi, during the year of Hongi's absence in England, attacked the Roroa people at Wai-o-rua, Kaihu, and that, under Muru-paenga's leadership, they defeated Nga-Puhi. This may have been part of Tareha's army.
The following incident occurred, I think, in this year, for King George, referred to below, was alive as late as April 5th, 1820. Probably Muru-paenga had followed up Tareha's expedition after Marsden left, as he had expressed the intention of doing. Marsden - 10 says, (Missionary Record, 1822, p. 440) “After this (Moremo-nui) the chiefs of the south side of the Bay united their forces and went against Muru-paenga, as they relied on their muskets, not on spears and clubs; but Muru-paenga out-generalled them. When the two parties met, Muru-paenga ordered his men to lie down as soon as the others were on the point of firing, and so soon as the volley was over to rush the enemy. This succeeded, and Muru-paenga put his enemy to flight, killing a number of their chiefs, amongst whom was Whiwhia's father and King George. Only 15 returned home; the rest were killed or taken prisoners. I have often heard the chiefs speak of this.” This defeat of Nga-Puhi is probably referred to by Major Cruise as above. At the same time, it is said that Whiwhia's father was killed, with many others of the Kapotai hapu, in a fight with the Ngati-wai people of Whanga-ruru. Possibly they were allied at that time with Muru-paenga.
The taking of the Tauhara pa, situated on the North Head of Kaipara, must be placed also in this year. The incidents of the siege and capture are related by Polack, but he is quite wrong about the year, for at that time there were practically none of Ngati-Whatua left in the Kaipara district, nearly all having fled to the protection of Wai-kato after the battle of Te Ika-a-ranga-nui in 1825. Te Uri-o-Hau branch of Ngati-Whatua suffered great losses at the taking of Tauhara by Nga-Puhi, and they must have been under the leadership of Tareha in this expedition. The pa was formerly a very strong one beautifully terraced, but a large portion has now been washed away by the strong current of the Wairoa river.
The Wai-te-mata and Thames in 1820.
Some of the events of this year may be learnt from Major Cruise's “Journal of a Ten Months' Residence in New Zealand,” published in 1824.
The “Dromedary,” (formerly “The Howe” frigate) having conveyed a shipload of convicts to Sydney, came on to New Zealand to load spars for the Admiralty. She arrived at Paroa, Bay of Islands, on the 28th February, having on board the Rev. S. Marsden and nine Maoris, amongst whom were the chief Titore, and Ripiro, one of Hongi's sons. Major Cruise estimated the former to be about 45 years of age, and says, “He was perfectly handsome both as to features and figure, and stood six feet two in height.” Ripiro was then about 15 years of age.
On the 2nd March they witnessed the return to the Bay of Te Morenga's great expedition from the Thames—as the Major says, but really from Tauranga, &c.,—(to be referred to later on) with about 50 canoes and many slaves. They boasted of having killed 200 people, - 11 whilst only losing four of their own. On the same day Hongi sailed for England with Mr. Kendall in the whaler “New Zealander,” the former to obtain arms to recover the prestige lost by Nga-Puhi in their defeat at the hands of Ngati-Whatua the previous year, and at Moremo-nui in 1807. In this battle, Cruise says, “The Bay of Islands people had openly attacked a chief of Kaipara, by whom they were routed. The slaughter was very great, and several of Hongi's brothers were killed, whilst the tribe of Wiwia—Titore's elder brother—was nearly annihilated.”
The “Missionary Register” for 1820, after announcing the arrival in England on the 8th August, 1820, of Mr. Kendall with Hongi and Waikato, says of the former chief:—“He is of manly aspect—very much resembling the bust carved by himself, of which an engraving was given in our volume for 1816. His age is about 45; his mother, now living and very old, told Mr. Kendall he was born soon after Captain Cook visited the Bay. He understands somewhat of English, but does not speak it. The late Ruatara was the son of Hongi's sister. Waikato is one of the chiefs of Rangihoua. His age is about 26. He has an open and manly countenance, and understands English tolerably well, and makes himself understood therein. Waikato and the late Ruatara married two sisters.”
From the Bay the “Dromedary” went to Whangaroa, and thence to Hokianga, but did not enter the river, as it was feared there was not enough water. They were back at the Bay on the 5th April.
On the 2nd May they witnessed the return from Mercury Bay of another large expedition, which was manned by the people of Waitangi and the inland districts. They had had some severe fighting, and brought back some prisoners. No names are mentioned.
Some of the officers being at Waimate on the 10th May saw a great gathering of people, then said to be 3000 strong, under Tareha, who was concerting measures to obtain revenge against Ngati-Whatua for the death of one of Hongi's brothers, killed on the west coast “12 years ago.” (This was at Moremo-nui, 1807.) This gathering was Tareha's expedition to Kaipara, just referred to.
On the 25th May, Te Morenga and Muriwai, of Hokianga, visited the ship with Te Horeta, of the Thames. This was the noted Te Horeta, of Waiau, Coromandel, who saw Captain Cook when a child. He returned to his home at Coromandel on the “Coromandel,” one of H.M. store ships, which had also come to New Zealand for spars. Mr. Marsden, Te Morenga and Tui went to the Thames with that ship, as already related.
On the 11th June, Titore, with two canoes, left for the Thames, said to be on a warlike expedition, from which he returned to the Bay on the 12th August.- 12
On the 21st July there was news of great fears at the Bay on account of a projected attack on that district by a chief of Kaipara, who was said to be a very big and powerful man, chief of a powerful tribe (D'Urville says this chief was Muru-paenga, as no doubt it was.)
On August 12th Major Cruise left the Bay in the colonial schooner “Prince Regent,” Captain Kent, for the Thames, taking with them as pilot "“Wheety,” or Whitoi (Pomare), a Hokianga? chief, who told them of a passage he intended taking them through in search of the “Coromandel,” which was not previously known. This proved to be the Rangitoto Channel, the present entrance to Auckland.
On the 21st August, they sailed up past Rangitoto to the mouth of the Wai-te-mata, and on the North Head saw several natives and some canoes. They anchored under Motu-Korehu, or Brown's Island, just opposite the Tamaki River, which Cruise calls “Taurere,” the name of a place a little way up it. Very soon several canoes came off, and with them a chief named Te Tata, a tall and handsome man, who informed them that Mr. Marsden had passed up the Wai-te-mata ten days before their arrival, and that the “Coromandel” was at Waiau. Soon afterwards there came off Te Hinaki, a great chief, and his son. This was Te Hinaki, chief of Ngati-Paoa of those parts, who was killed at the taking of Mokoia in the following year by Hongi. Te Hinaki had with him a musket and a cat; the latter he gave to the Major—surely the first of its race ever to reach the Wai-te-mata. Cruise describes these people as being far superior to those of the Bay in every respect; much fairer in colour, taller, more athletic, and the women graceful, and with harmonious voices.
The following day—the 22nd August—the schooner was surrounded with canoes, the people being very peaceful and bringing large quantities of potatoes which they bartered for nails, but were very desirous of obtaining muskets. The following day they passed along Waiheke channel, but came to an anchor off Motu-karaka, or Clarke's Islands, which Cruise correctly describes. He says there were few inhabitants here, only one canoe coming off to them.
On the 23rd they passed up the sound between Waiheke and Ponui islands, which sound Cruise calls Peneneekee (perhaps Pana-naki—a name I do not recognise), and out into the gulf by the passage to the north of the latter island, on the end of which they noted “a large pa with a vast number of people.”8 They then crossed over to Waiau or Coromandel, where they found the “Coro- - 13 mandel” at anchor, and were welcomed by Te Horeta,9 whose acquaintance they had made at the bay.
Cruise describes the people of Coromandel—the Ngati-Whanaunga tribe—as a miserable looking people who had often suffered from the Nga-Puhi incursions, whilst those on the opposite side of the gulf—the Ngati-Paoa—had been spared through their relationship to Koro-koro, the celebrated Nga-Puhi chief.
Leaving Coromandel on the 26th August, the “Prince Regent” again anchored in the Wai-te-mata between Motu-korehu and the main land on the 27th, where they experienced some bad weather; whilst here they visited some villages near the anchorage in which were great numbers of people. On the 31st, a Mr. Clark—an officer of the “General Gates,” a whale ship which the commander of the “Domedary” had seen fit to seize whilst at the Bay on account of her captain having escaped convicts on board, and which he sent to Sydney—started up the Wai-te-mata to go overland to the Bay. He was thus the second Pakeha to make the overland journey, Mr. Marsden being the first, so far as we know. Mr. Clark arrived safely at the bay on the 25th September, having been kindly treated by the natives all the way through.
On the same day (31st August) Major Cruise and Mr. Kent paid a visit to Mokoia, the site of the present village of Panmure, and as he describes this pa a little more fully than usual, it is worth quoting on account of the celebrity the place attained in the following year through the cruel massacre of nearly all its inhabitants by Hongi.
Readers will remember the strong maioros or walls of this pa, which are perfectly distinct to the present day. The road down to the Tamaki bridge is cut out of the old pa.
“There being every appearance of the day continuing moderate, we went up the arm of the sea called Towrerree (Taurere, Tamaki in reality) which leads into (towards) the river Wycotta (Waikato); and - 14 after following its course for about five miles, the boat arrived at Mogoia (Mokoia). This village was about a mile long and half-a-mile broad, and the houses were larger, and more ornamental with with carving than those we had generally observed. Each family occupied an allotment, which in shape was oblong and enclosed with high strong paling. These allotments contained many houses; and the intermediate passages or streets were as clean as the season would permit. The adjacent country was flat, with the exception of a high round hill which formed the pa (Mauinaina, or Mt. Wellington) and which presented the same volcanic appearance as that already noticed in the island of Moto-corea (Motu-korehu). The ground was good and under cultivation, interspersed with detached houses and hamlets; and a profusion of potatoes lay in different parts of the village. An immense number of people received us on landing, and remained with us until we re-embarked; they attended us in all our walks over the surrounding country, and showed us every civility. After leaving Magoia, we pulled up the river for about three miles; the banks continued to be thickly inhabited, the ground flat, arable and well cultivated, producing potatoes, kumaras, and in the more swampy places, a great quantity of flax.”
From the above account we may see how thickly inhabited this part of the district was at that time, so soon alas! to be entirely laid waste. The people seen here by Cruise were the Ngati-Paoa tribe, under their chiefs Te Hinaki, Te Tata and probably Kohi-rangatira.
The Major was under the impression that the Tamaki was the mouth of the Waikato river. Had he continued his journey a few miles further, he would soon have been convinced to the contrary. He makes no mention of Manukau, so it is probable that D'Urville, a few years later, was the first to ascertain the true facts as to that harbour.
On the 3rd September the schooner finally left, passing out into the Gulf between Motutapu and Motu-ihi, and taking with them on a visit to Sydney a relation of Te Tata's and “the son of a very powerful chief named Enacky” (Te Hinaki). Unfortunately he does not give the name of this young man. Cruise contrasts the conduct of the Ngati-Paoa with that of Nga-Puhi, and says that they never lost a single article through the former, whilst the latter stole every thing they could lay their hands on. They anchored at Te Puna, Bay of Islands, on the 4th, Mr. Marsden having arrived at Paroa the preceding evening after his long journey from Wai-te-mata through Kaipara and Whangarei. The principal and only chiefs they saw whilst at the Bay were Korokoro and Te Koki, all the other chiefs and people being away at Kaipara (he says) on a war party, and - 15 rumours had just come in of their having suffered a great defeat at the hands of Ngati-Whatua, which was probably that under Muru-paenga already referred to.
The “Dromedary” left the Bay for Sydney on the 5th December, arriving there on the 21st, and finally sailed for England on the 14th February, 1821.
It has been mentioned that Te Morenga's expedition returned to the Bay on the 2nd March, 1820, from Mercury Bay and Tauranga. Cruise also learnt that Korokoro had returned two months before, or in January, 1820, from the Thames, where he had created devastation, and Marsden notes in his diary that he, with Tui, visited several bays where many people recently had lived, but all the pas had been destroyed. One place was shown where the beach had been covered with dead bodies, and the tribe living there had been almost exterminated. This expedition was undertaken by Korokoro and Tui (says Marsden), because the son of Kaipo, otherwise called “Old Benny,” had on a visit to the Thames been bewitched by those people. Tui went down to fetch him, but he died on the way home. Hence Korokoro and Kaipo's expedition.
In the middle of June, 1820, Marsden went up the Thames, where he found living in a pa named Te Puaraki,10 Te Puhi and his brother Turata. This pa was about four miles up the Ohinemuri, and consequently must have been near Mackaytown. Te Puhi was in great anxiety on account of Te Haupa's tribe, living on the west side of the Thames, which had lately made war on him and killed amongst others his brother. Te Haupa's people, the Ngati-Paoa, were at that time in alliance with Nga-Puhi, i.e. with Korokoro's tribe, and Te Puhi stated that their arms were too much for him. We shall see that Te Puhi's fears were realised the following year, when Te Totara pa fell. During this journey Marsden went as far as Katikati11 (he wrongly supposed, however, that this was Mercury Bay), and as he and Te Morenga sat on a hill overlooking the Bay of Plenty, Tauranga and the surrounding districts, the latter told Marsden the particulars of his late expedition to Tauranga, which left the Bay in January, 1820, and returned there on the 2nd March, 1820. The following is translated from Dumont D'Urville's account, as I have not access to the original in the “Missionary Register.”- 16
Te Morenga's Expedition to Tauranga.—January and February, 1820.
“Te Morenga commenced by telling me that the last time he was at Mercury Bay (Tauranga) was on a military expedition, the motives for which he explained as follows:—Some years ago one of his neices was carried off from near Cape Brett (Whangarei) by a brig from Port Jackson, (the “Venus”) and subsequently sold to a chief of Mercury Bay (Tauranga) named Shoukori (Hukori or Hukere) who still lives there, and she became his slave. Hukori and another chief named Ware having quarrelled, in consequence Te Morenga's neice was killed by Te Waru, or some one of his tribe, and afterwards roasted and eaten. It was some time before Te Morenga heard of this, but he felt bound to avenge her death, as much for the honour of his tribe as for justice to the memory of his relative, so soon as he felt in a position to do so. Nearly 16 years (14 really) elapsed before he felt himself sufficiently strong, and then he declared war against Te Waru. A sister of Te Morenga's had also been carried off by the same vessel from the Bay of Islands, and she met the same fate as her neice further towards the south; he had already avenged her death (in 1818).
“In January 1820, Te Morenga reviewed his forces consisting of 600 men, 200 of his own tribe, 200 from other parts of the Bay, and 200 from Whangarei, the last 400 being auxiliaries. With this force he advanced on Mercury Bay (Tauranga) and landed on an island situated at its mouth (probably Matakana is intended). Te Waru came out in his canoe to see what brought this force to Mercury Bay (Tauranga) Te Morenga replied, that Te Waru had roasted and eaten his neice and that he had come to demand satisfaction for the insult, and he desired to know what sort of satisfaction Te Waru proposed to give him. Te Waru replied as follows: “If that is the object of your expedition, the only satisfaction that I am disposed to give you, is to kill and eat you also.” Te Morenga considered this a very insulting reply, and told Te Waru that as such was his resolution, their dispute could only be settled by an appeal to arms. Te Waru replied that he was ready this day. Te Morenga answered this by saying he was not prepared then but would meet Te Waru on the morrow. Te Waru consented to this. Te Morenga shewed me the point of land which he chose for the encounter; it was a level space just opposite where Captain Cook had anchored. (In this Marsden is wrong, for Captain Cook was never very near the Coast at Tauranga).
“The following day the two parties found themselves at the place fixed. When they had arranged their forces, Te Morenga gave orders to his men not to fire until he gave the order. He had 35 muskets, - 17 whilst Te Waru had only his spears and patus. Te Waru made the first charge, accompanied by a volley of spears, and one of Te Morenga's chiefs was wounded. He then gave the order to fire, and 20 of Te Waru's men fell dead, and amongst them two chiefs, one named Nuku-panga, father of Te Waru,(?) and the other Hopu-nikau. Directly their two chiefs fell, Te Waru's party fled from the field of battle. Te Morenga ordered his men to halt and not follow the flying enemy. He was content with the sacrifice already made, seeing that two chiefs had already been killed, and he did not desire to shed more blood. His allies, however, were not satisfied with this leniency; a council of war was convened by the chiefs, who blamed the conduct of Te Morenga for not having profitted by the advantage which they had gained. They contended that even if Te Morenga was satisfied with the death of the chiefs as payment for his niece, nevertheless Te Waru ought to be chastised for his insolent language at their first interview, and they demanded that the attack should be immediately renewed.
“Te Morenga desired first to know the disposition of Te Waru, his father (?) having been killed, and fancied he would easily consent to terms of peace. For this reason he went forth from the camp in search of Te Waru, who had fled with his warriors. Te Morenga came across the wife and children of Te Waru and about 30 of his people, all of whom he conducted into the camp, assuring them of their safety. He demanded of them where they kept their stores of potatoes. Te Waru's wife showed them the place, and from there they obtained some. On Te Morenga asking if Te Waru was now disposed to make peace, he was told that he was not.
“The day following, whilst the Nga-Puhi chiefs were assembled in their camp they perceived that Te Waru had rallied his forces, and was descending to encounter them. They immediately flew to arms, and in very short time a great number of the enemy were killed by the muskets, and the rest put to flight, Nga-Puhi following them up. Many of the fugitives jumped into the sea and were drowned, whilst nearly 400 remained dead on the battlefield, and 260 were made prisoners. Of this number, 200 were divided amongst the Bay of Islands people, and we saw them disembark at Rangihoua on the 2nd March, 1820. Sixty-five of the prisoners remained as the share of the Whangarei chiefs.
“Te Waru was thus completely conquered, and fled to the woods with the few people who remained to him. After the battle, Te Morenga went in search of him, and having found him in the end, a conversations ensued between them. Te Morenga demanded if Te Waru would surrender, and reminded him of the insolent language which he held at their first interview. Te Waru, recognising that he was conquered, replied that he had no idea muskets could produce such - 18 an effect, and up to this time had rather under-valued them as instruments of war, but he asserted that it was impossible to resist them, and, in consequence, he would submit himself. He asked Te Morenga news of his wife and children, and, on learning of their safety in the Nga-Puhi camp, he acceded to Te Morenga's desire that he should accompany him thither to receive them back. On their arrival, he was reunited to his family. Te Waru remarked that the death of his father (?) had rendered him very sad, and asked Te Morenga to give him something in compensation for his loss. Te Morenga gave him a musket, which, with other presents received, seemed to satisfy him. Afterwards Te Waru retired home with his family and friends.
“Te Morenga told me that they remained three days an the field of battle feasting on the flesh of those who had been killed, and subsequently made sail with their prisoners and Te Waru's canoes for the Bay, where they arrived three days after the ‘Dromedary,’ on the 2nd March, 1820.
“I may be permitted to remark that I noted the particulars of that affair whilst I was sitting on the heights (above the scene), and that on my return to the ‘Coromandel’ I revised my notes with Te Morenga, in order to report the facts after his own expressions as accurately as possible.”
Such is Mr. Marsden's account of Te Morenga's raid on Tauranga, and allowing for his inability to understand all that Te Morenga told him—though it is said the latter could speak English, learnt on his visits to Port Jackson and on whalers—it is probably correct in the main. It rather appears as if Te Morenga's other expedition in 1818, in which he killed Te Tawhio, had got confused with this account, where Te Morenga refers to Te Waru's “father” having been killed. However, this may be, there is one incident that Marsden omits, which is worth repeating, as it throws quite a strong light on the chivalry of the old Maori, and reminds us of the knight errantry of the Middle Ages. I take this story from Mr. J. A. Wilson's “Life of Te Waharoa,” and it refers to that part of Te Morenga's history, where he relates how he went in search of Te Waru after his second defeat.
Mr. Wilson says: “Again Nga-Puhi invaded Tauranga and encamped at Matua-a-ewe, a knoll overhanging the Wairoa river, a mile and a-half from the Ngai-Te-Rangi pa, Otumoetai. Such was the state of affairs when, in the noontide heat of a summer's day, Te Waru, the principal chief of Ngai-Te-Rangi, taking advantage of the hour when both parties were indulging in siestas, went out alone to reconnoitre the enemy. Having advanced as far as was prudent, he sat down among some ngaio trees near the beach, and presently observed a man, who proved to be a Nga-Puhi chief, coming along the strand from the enemy's camp.” (Mr. Wilson does not give the Nga- - 19 Puhi chief's name, but it was Te Whare-umu, a well known chief.) “The man approached, and turning up from the beach, sat down under the trees, without perceiving the Tauranga chief who was near him. Instantly the determination of the latter was taken. He sprang unawares upon the Nga-Puhi, disarmed him, and binding his hands with his girdle, he drove him towards Otumoetai. When they arrived pretty near the pa, he bade his prisoner halt; he unloosed him, restored his arms, and then, delivering up his own, said to the astonished Nga-Puhi, ‘Now serve me in the same manner!’ The relative positions of the two chiefs were soon reversed, and the captor driven captive entered the Nga-Puhi camp, where, so great was the excitement and the eagerness of each to kill the Ngai-Te-Rangi chief, that it was only by the most violent gesticulations, accompanied with many unmistakable blows delivered right and left, that the Nga-Puhi chief compelled them for a moment to desist. ‘Hear me,’ he cried, ‘hear how I got him, and afterwards kill him if you will.’ He then made a candid statement of all that had occurred, whereupon the rage of Nga-Puhi was turned away, and a feeling of intense admiration succeeded. Te Waru was unbound, his arms restored; he was treated with the greatest respect and invited to make peace—the thing he most anxiously desired. The peace was concluded; the Nga-Puhis returned to the Bay of Islands; and, though in after years they devastated the Thames, Waikato and Rotorua districts, yet Tauranga was unvisited by them until 1831, when they attacked Maungatapu.”
Koriwhai's Death, 1820.
Some time during Hongi's absence in England, probably about the end of 1820, an expedition of Ngati-wai, a subtribe of Nga-Puhi, sailed down the East Coast from the Bay, under Koriwhai and others. Somewhere on the coast near Mahurangi, they desecrated the graves of some of the Ngati-Rongo people of Ngati-Whatua tribe by throwing the bones about. On learning this Ngati-Whatua gathered together to the number of 50 and attacked the Ngati-wai, and although the latter were the stronger party, numbering 200 warriors, Ngati-Whatua were victorious, and succeeded in killing Koriwhai. This fight occurred at Kohuroa (or Koheroa), a place situated between Mahurangi and Pakiri. There is a place called Kohuwai in the Pakiri Block. This death was said to be one of the principal causes of Te Whare-umu's expedition to Kaipara in 1825, Koriwhai being a relative of Te Whare-umu's.12 It is possible that Koriwhai's death is referred to by Cruise when he mentions that news of a Nga-Puhi defeat had reached the Bay in December, 1820.- 20
Mr. John Webster, of Hokianga, was kind enough to make some enquiries for me about Te Koriwhai's death, and he furnishes the following from the people of Lower Hokianga. This account does not quite agree with that given by the Rev. Hauraki Paora:— “Koriwhai is said not to have been killed in battle. He was at Kohuroa, in the Kaipara District, and came by his death there through foul play at the hands of a party of Ngati-Maru tribe of Hauraki, and to avenge his death the whole of the Nga-Puhi warriors proceeded to Hauraki, under Te Morenga, Te Ngarehuata and Uri-ka-puru, and Mauinaina and Te Totara fell, a Ngati-Maru chief named Te Kea being killed.” These two seiges did not occur, however, till 1821. It is likely enough that some of Ngati-Maru assisted Ngati-Whatua to kill Te Koriwhai. Te Puhi Hihi also told Mr. C. F. Maxwell that Ngati-Maru helped to kill Te Koriwhai.
Mr. Webster also got the following lament for Te Koriwhai, which was composed by a brother of Te Hape, a well-known chief of Ngati-Korokoro, of Hokianga. The poet was also a tohunga:—
Tau o Mawete,
Tangi noa ana te ahi paoa-roa,
Na Mata-tahuna ki Patu-hope ra,
Ka rere Atutahi, ka kau Mata-riki,
Mata-roa, Mata-rohaki, Mata-waia,
E tangi ana koe ki te u o tai,
He kore kai mau-e-
Tena te kai, kei hamama,
Kia whangaina koe te uhi-poto,
Kai a te po, te whare o Moetara,
Whare kokonga pouri, te mate o Tu-whakaroro,
Ka he ra koe ki te umu manga na Ruatea,
Te wai kaukau o Omanaia.
Mihimihi te tai-e-
Te tai o Matua-po.
Ka ngaro te pakihi nga taumata huinga te Tupua,
Waiho te hemorere ka makaia,
Nau i kau atu,
“Te moana tapokopoko na Tawhaki.”
Ka u ki Pa-tene,
Te whakaaro koe te korero nui na Mauwhena,
Nana i mau mai te whaka-topuni,
Ka u ki Niu Tireni.
Mau atu Paraha ki te atawhai-e-
Kia amoamo i te toki a te po,
Kia kakahuria ki tona kahu pupara,
Whakatangi ra i tou puariki whenua,
Whatitiri ka papa i runga te rangi,
Ka tahuna ra koutou te ahi a te Tupua,
Matenga pai e mate ana ki te whare,
Na te mate kino, ka tini ki te po, mano ki te po-e-
Na te turoro.
Na te patu a Whiro, nana i homai nga mate ki a tatou,
- 21 He kotahi-e-taua, me tupu nui koe,
E tae taua, te motu ki Mahurangi,
Roto o Hauraki,
Te ara i haere ai o Tupuna,
Whakataka te'tua i Te Wairoa,
Te ara i haere ai o matua,
Tangi te mapu-e-
Ka hoki te manawa o Tu,
Okioki te riri-e-
Me tukutuku koe, nga wai e rere,
Raro te Kirikiri.
Korua ko Marae-roa, te Potiki-a-Rangi,
Kia papatu ko te wai-tohi-mauri,
Kia tupu ai ra,
Ka kawai o Hokianga e Tama! -e-.
In April, 1821, the “Church Missionary Proceedings” note that Titore returned to the Bay after a 16 months' campaign on the east coast, and on the 19th April the Rev. J. Butler says:—“We were visited (at the Kerikeri, Bay of Islands) by a chief named Hauraki, or Te Wera, whose place is at Okura, seven miles down the river. He had been away a long time on an expedition towards the South Cape of New Zealand. The chief place of action seems to have been a district called ‘Enamatteeora,’ about 400 miles from the Bay.” The name given to this district is clearly a mistake; it is intended for Hine-mati-oro, the name of the great chieftainess of the Te Aitanga-a-Hauiti, who lived near Tologa Bay. “He has brought back 40 prisoners, several of whom were in his canoe; they were men of noble stature, and appeared rather dejected. Several women that he had taken were also in the canoe, one of whom (who was a chief's daughter), he had made his wife. (Probably this was Te ao-kapu-rangi, of Maketu). Her father had been slain in battle, and his head was in the canoe with several others. When it was held up as a trophy, the poor creature lay down, covering herself with a mat.” On April 12th, Mr. Francis Hall writes:—“We were informed that a lot of the Rangihoua people with several chiefs from the neighbouring districts, who have been on an expedition to the south east for 16 months, have come back with several prisoners and many heads. They have made dreadful havoc, and destroyed whole villages. Titore was one of the party.” This statement in reference to Titore conflicts with Cruise's account, for he says:—“June 11th, 1820—Titore (or, as he calls him, Tetoro) left for the Thames, evidently bent on mischief,” and on the 12th August, 1820, he notifies the fact of Titore's return to the Bay from the Thames.13 We do not know any particulars of this lengthy expedition from the Maori account.- 22
Te Morenga's Expedition to Tamaki, and Death of Koperu, 1820–21.
In Mr. Fenton's “Orakei Judgment,” he notes that a party of Nga-Puhi, in the year 1821, touched at Tamaki Heads on their way to Maketu." I think this is probably Hauraki's expedition above referred to, but that the year is wrong, it should be 1820. Mr. Fenton also adds:—“Another party under Koperu came down from the Bay in canoes, and attacked Mau-inaina, on the Tamaki, but were repulsed by Ngati-Paoa, assisted by Apihai Te Kawau and his Ngaoho people of Ngati-Whatua. Apihai Te Kawau came from and returned to Mangere on the Manukau.”
The above expedition was that under Te Morenga and others, which, according to Mr. Francis Hall, returned to the Bay on the 29th July, 1821, just two days before Hongi's return from England. Mr. Hall says:—“We hear Te Morenga's party have returned from the Thames (all Hauraki, Wai-te-mata, &c., was the Thames in those days), after taking vengeance on Hinaki's people, who had killed Te Morenga's brother some time since. They killed and ate many, and brought home many heads, besides prisoners. They made their attack in the night, when all were at rest, or Hinaki's people, who are very numerous, would have been too many for them.”
The Rev. Mr. Buddle, in his lectures, (see “Karere Maori, p. 78, 1851) says:—“A man called Koperu, of the Nga-Puhi, was on a visit to Ngati-Paoa at the Tamaki, at a pa where Panmure now stands, called Mau-inaina. Tini-wai, for some cause or other, by singing a song, induced Te Paraoa-rahi to kill Koperu. They often conveyed their wishes in this way. Paraoa-rahi understood it and killed him instantly.” Arama Karaka Haututu, a well known chief of Te Uri-o-hau, one of the branches of Ngati-Whatua, speaking at a meeting held at Aotea, Kaipara, in April 1883, said: “Ko Mokoia, na Te Morenga, na Taki, na Te Uri-kapana; te putake, ko Koperu. He kohuru na Paraoa-rahi, waiho a Hongs hei hapai.” “Mokoia was (assaulted) by Te Morenga, by Taki, and the Uri-kapana hapu of Ngapuhi; the reason was because Koperu had been killed by Paraoa-rahi; it was left to Hongi to avenge this.” We do not know the particulars of Te Morenga's expedition beyond the above, or whether Koperu was killed during it or previously. At any rate this death was one of the reasons of Hongi's raid on the Tamaki at the end of this same year, the other reason specially mentioned in the Maori accounts was the death of Te Raharaha, of Whangaroa (H. Williams), at the hands of some of the Ngati-Whatua. Judge Gudgeon tells me there was another cause, as follows: After the battle of Kaipiha, the Nga-Puhi people returning from Hauraki, called in at Whangarei, and there - 23 dug up and ate the potatoes planted by the Parawhau tribe. This, in the opinion of that tribe, was done purposely to incense them against Ngati-Paoa. Shortly after this, Ngawaka and Koperu with many Nga-Puhi went to make peace with Ngati-Paoa and Ngati-Maru, and they were accompanied on this expedition by Iwi-tahi of Te Parawhau. When the two parties met, the usual war-dance took place, and Te Iwitahi, to satisfy his sense of injury at the potato episode, shot one of the Ngati-Paoa people. In some way Nga-Puhi succeeded in smoothing over this difficulty for the time, and a peace was made between them and Ngati-Paoa. Then Iwitahi, being somewhat strong-headed, insisted on entering the pa of Mauinaina, and was there killed and eaten.
Rev. H. Paora says Koperu was killed during Hongi's absence in England, or in 1820. Hongi returned from England by the ship “Westmorland,” with Mr. Kendall and Waikato, 11th July, 1821.
On August 10th, 1821, Mr, Butler notes: News has just arrived that a chief named “Lalala” (? Raharaha) has just been killed and eaten together with his wife and several other chiefs by the Kaipara people. The natives are in all quarters preparing for war.” I believe Te Raharaha was killed at Pataua, a little north of Whangarei. Mr. Butler continues: “August 23rd. A party of natives from Hokianga came this morning to join the great expedition now fitting out to revenge the death of ‘Lalala.’” Again, September 2nd, he notes: “The armament now fitting out will consist of 2,000 men, more formidably prepared for destruction than any former expedition. 3rd September. Another division of the crews leave to-morrow to join the main body. The natives have been casting balls all day in Mr. Kemp's shop.” One the 4th September he writes: “Four large and beautiful canoes mounted with from 60 to 70 men each, rowed up and down the river for exercise and to show their skill. Hongi was dressed in his scarlet uniform. There is an old priest goes with him (probably Kaiteke). We think they will have at least 1,000 muskets with them.”
The Rev. J. Butler says: “On the 5th September, 1821, Hongi, Rewa and several of their friends set off for the Thames on a war expedition; indeed the natives for 100 miles round are already on their way, Hongi, Rewa and Waikato bringing up the rear. The place of general assemblage is Whangarei, about 100 miles from the field of action. There has never been anything like such an armament in New Zealand before; Tui and Titore and their friends are all engaged in this general onset. I asked Rewa if they intended to save anyone alive. He replied, “A very few, if any, would be spared, and these would be women and boys.” Little boys would in some measure be spared, as they would be brought up as slaves, and without knowledge - 24 of father or mother, and without animosity against their masters. I enquired if there were any particular chiefs that they wished to kill; he named eight: Hinaki14, Totahi, Te Kawau15, Kaiwaka16, Muru-Paenga17, Matohi18, Patehoro and Tyheah (?Taiaha), with all their people. Mr. Marsden and myself in our journey to Mokoia, Manukau and Kaipara (in 1820) went through the district belonging to these people and were treated with great kindness by them.”
This great expedition was directed against the Ngati-Paoa people of the Tamaki, whose principal places of residence were Mokoia and Mauinaina.
Fall of Mau-inaina at Tamaki.—November, 1821.
It has been said that Hongi went to England in 1820 for the express purpose of obtaining arms19, wherewith to combat his enemies of the Ngati-Whatua, who had beaten Nga-Puhi in the battle of Moremo-nui, in 1807, and also to strengthen himself against his other enemies of the Hauraki Gulf. So far as England was concerned, he was not very successful, though he was loaded with presents of other sorts, which his friends there thought would be useful to him. In Sydney, however, he was able to gratify his desire for arms to a considerable extent, by exchanging his presents for muskets and powder. At Sydney he met Hinaki, the chief of Ngati-Paoa from Mokoia, and Te Horeta, of Coromandel.20 The three chiefs returned to New Zealand together, arriving at the Bay of Islands on the 11th July, 1821. Whilst at Port Jackson, Hongi composed and sung the following song, expressive of his intentions towards Te Hinaki:—
Ko te hanga, ko te hanga e tohea,
Iri toki, ko Wero, kei Ware-kuku,
To kiko putanga a hau ki Kohunga,
E wai, e waiho te ngohi nei, rere Turi-kakoa,
E waiho te hanga nei.
I ki a Korohiko, ka kiokio to mata titiro,
To matamata, ka kai o reke,
- 25 Ko Te-Rangi-houwhiri koe,
Nga tangata pau rawa koa te pukenga,
Na Tara-mai-nuku, pipi te ure ko to hono,
Te paire a watea-e-,
Kia kotia ko poro-kaki-nui,
Kotia ko te pu tutu, e tu mai nei,
Kahore koe i kite i te taru kino nei,
I te pukupuku, i te hanehane matemate,
Ki te kete waiho noa ai, Ho'ano,
Me tatari ki a wai-ehu,
Me tatari ki a wai-ehu,
Kia whakaki Taure-kaki-rourou.
Hoani Nahe, of the Ngati-Maru tribe of the Thames, supplies me with the following in regard to the doings of Hongi on his return:—It was on account of Nga-Puhi's losses at the battle called the “Wai-whariki,” fought at Puketona (near Mr. Ed. Williams' residence, on the road from Waitangi to Ohaeawae, Bay of Islands, about 1795) in the days of Maori weapons, that Hongi determined to attack the Ngati-Maru at the Thames, now that he had procured arms. He deliberately informed Hinaki and Te Horeta of his intentions when they met in Sydney, on Hongi's return from England with the guns and powder he got from King George. Te Horeta and Hinaki had gone across to Sydney on a visit when they met Hongi. On their return to the Bay they were Hongi's guests, and on one occasion he set before them a bucket of milk, knowing that they would not touch it through its unpleasantness (being unfamiliar to them). Hongi said to them: “O Te Horeta! and Te Hinaki! behold some food! It is milk of a cow—an animal of the pakeha's. It is a good food—drink it.” Neither of them were, however, equal to the task, for they were strangers to such things, and felt a disgust towards the milk. When Hongi saw that neither of them would touch it, he drank the milk himself at a draught. This was intended as a test of them. If they had been able to drink the milk. Hongi would not have prevailed against their tribes. Had Horeta known this, he and his friend would have drunk the milk, but it had been karakia by Hongi, so that they should feel disgust at it. After Hongi had finished the milk, he exhibited to his guests all his guns and powder brought from England, arranging the former in rows, and giving each its name, saying:—“E mara ma! O friends! O Te Horeta! and Te Hinaki! Behold! this gun is ‘Te Wai-whariki,’ this is ‘Kaikai-a-te-karoro,’ this is “Wai-kohu,' this is ‘Te Ringa-huru-huru,’ this is ‘Mahurangi,’” thus naming all the battles in which Nga-Puhi had been defeated.
On the 5th September, Hongi appeared at the Bay from his home at Waimate, bent on obtaining utu for some of his losses through the Thames tribe, and after reviewing his fleet and putting them through several manœuvres he left the same day for the general rendezvous. - 26 “Each canoe was manned by from 50 to 60 warriors, and they forced their vessels through the water at an extraordinary pace. The place of rendezvous was to be Whangarei. Never in New Zealand had such an armament been seen before. It was dreadful to hear the threats of these warriors of what they intended to do, in massacreing, destroying without mercy, all they met with. Hongi left the Bay with 2000 warriors (some accounts say 3000), amongst whom were over 1000 armed with muskets, and the fleet was composed of more than 50 canoes.” All the people round about the Bay joined in this expedition, besides some from Hokianga, the names of Muriwai and Putu-one, of that place, being mentioned; and Hongi's companion in his English voyage, Waikato, was of the number, as well as Te Morenga and Taki, with the Uri-kapana people.
On passing Pataua, Hongi apparently was desirious of proceeding against some of the Ngati-Whatua, who were staying in that neighbourhood, with the intention of obtaining some utu for the death of Te Raharaha, but finally postponed his purpose to another opportunity.
From the rendezvous at Whangarei, the fleet passed on to Tamaki, on their way killing some people at Te Weiti, who were probably some of the Ngati-Whatua. In the meantime, Te Hinaki had reached his home at Mokoia, on the Tamaki, the present village of Panmure, where he, Te Rauroha and Kohi-rangatira made every preparation possible to receive their redoubtable enemies. No doubt there were other great chiefs of Ngati-Paoa in the pas of Mokoia and Mauinanina, but no record of them is obtainable; indeed, not many incidents of this seige and capture, which had such momentous results, have been retained. The seige occurred in the month of November, according to Maori accounts, 1821. On the arrival of Nga-Puhi, they overran the country in their search for food, killing all the stragglers they came across, and then sat down to beseige the pa.
Family Tree. Pukepo, Te Pata, Te Rape, Te Whakpakonga, Te Hinaki, Harata-Patene
It appears from an account obtained from the Nga-Puhi people by Mr. John White, that Ngati-Paoa had little hope from the first of prevailing against their powerful and well armed foes. They therefore collected their most valuable possessions and took them as a peace offering to Hongi. These presents were duly received by Nga-Puhi, but they showed no sign of moving off from the position they had taken up. There would seem to have been an interval now, when for a brief space the fighting ceased, but the people of the pa remained in dread as to what course Nga-Puhi would pursue, but this time of suspense was not of long duration.- 27
Mr. C. O. Davies, in his “Life of Patu-one,” the celebrated Nga-Puhi chief of Hokianga, says: “We are told that Patu-one accompanied Hongi on his expedition against the Ngati-Paoa of the Tamaki district, at which place, after considerable fighting, the enemy was routed by the Nga-Puhi invaders, and a chief named Kaitu, of the Patu-kirikiri tribe, was taken prisoner by Patu-one. It appears that at one time there was a desire on the part of Hongi to retire from the siege of the pas named respectively Mokoia and Mau-inaina; a desire probably occasioned by the entanglement of Hongi's foot in some vines, when one of the besieged with a bullet from his musket knocked off the helmet invariably worn since his return from England. Patu-one, however, advised a renewal of the siege on the following day, after, perhaps, an appeal to the oracles and a performance of certain ceremonies at the Maori altar, imagined to counteract the ill omens seen by the army, namely, the accidental entwining of Hongi's foot and the prostration of the sacred helmet in the dust. For some time victory seemed to favour each army alternatively. At length Hongi, who had the greatest number of muskets, and who had arranged his men in the form called in Roman tactics the “cuneus,” or wedge, placing himself in the apex and directing those behind him to wheel round upon the enemy from right and left, or to fall back into their original positions as opportunity offered, shot Te Hinaki and defeated his army with great slaughter.”
This fight apparently took place outside the pa. For incidents of the capture of the pa itself we are obliged to have recourse to a French source. Dr. Lessou21 learnt from Tui, who with Pomare were both engaged in the operations, that “Hongi had to beat a retreat at first, but returning to the charge, whilst his people kept up a fire on the pa, they succeeded in pulling down some of the pallisades, but not without losing many men. This done, they climbed up the sides of the mount which was crowned by the pa, losing numbers of their men, but finally reached the summit. Here they found the besieged protected by a thick wall of earth, against which the musket-balls fell harmless. Hongi then ordered wood to be fetched, and with this elevated a platform which overlooked the stronghold, and here he placed his best marksmen. Each discharge killed some of the defenders, and soon those who guarded the entrance were all dead, and nothing opposed the triumph of the invaders. The pa was now rushed, and a fearful slaughter took place, men, women and children all shared the same fate, and with them three Europeans sailors who were living with the people in the pa. The wounded warriors were all killed, the Thames tribe (Ngati-Paoa) losing 300 men. Hongi took - 28 the best portions to present to the families of those engaged in the expedition. The army remained on the field of battle feasting on the flesh of those who had been killed, until driven away by the putri-faction of the remains.”
It appears from the Maori accounts that Hongi had a very narrow escape of losing his life in this affair; for Rangi-whenua, one of the Ngati-Paoa braves, just before he fled from the pa, saw Hongi with his foot caught in the pallisading, as he attempted to scale them, and he would have been killed by Rangi-whenua with a cooper's adze which he carried, had it not been for fear of Hongi's two pistols. Rangi-whenua fled from the pa, after killing many of the Nga-Puhi with his adze, and started to swim across the Tamaki river, when he was challenged to come back by Te Ihe22, of Nga-Puhi, and fight it out. He did so, and the two braves fought a single-handed combat in front of the Nga-Puhi host. Te Rangi-whenua was, however, killed by a left-handed blow from Te Ihe's tomahawk. He deserved a better fate for his pluck.
It is said that Te Hinaki was killed by Hongi himself, and that the latter drank some of the former's blood in satisfaction of his hatred. Te Hinaki's head was taken back in triumph to the Bay of Islands and there exhibited.
Mr. John White, in his “Lectures on Maori Customs and Superstitions,” says that it was customary to give the eyes of the enemies slain in battle to the relatives of those who had fallen in the fight, which were always eaten. This fate was inflicted by Hongi upon the whole of the family of Te Paraoa-rahi and their relations, in vengeance for the death of Koperu, the murder for which he commenced his war on the Thames and Waikato. He also says in the same work, that although the whole of the Nga-Puhi army was under Hongi's leadership, a dispute arose as to how the pa—Mau-inaina—should be attacked, which eventually resulted in a separation of the Nga-Puhi tribes engaged. Four or five of the hapus retired under their own chiefs and would not help in the attack, but joined again after the battle and assisted in the subsequent campaign. This was an assertion of their own independence, Hongi not being the ariki of their hapus.
The Rev. Mr. Buddle, in his “Lectures,” says:—“Some children belonging to a Waikato chief happened to be in the pa of Mau-inaina when it was taken, and they were killed. This led the Waikatos to seek utu, and they went to Whangarei and destroyed the principal chief there.” This is probably the expedition of 1823, referred to later on.- 29
The Native accounts say that over a thousand of the Ngati-Paoa people fell in the taking of Mau-inaina, and a traveller who visited the battlefield in 1844 records that “the bones of 2000 men still lay whitening on the plain, and the ovens remain in which the flesh of the slaughtered was cooked for the horrible repasts of the victorious party.”
The remainder of Ngati-Paoa, who managed to escape, fled to Waikato and Patetere for protection, where we shall hear of them again; and with them was one of their great chiefs, Kohi-rangatira. Thus was the death of Koperu at the hands of Te Paraoa-rahi avenged by his fellow-tribesmen, and the Tamaki District laid waste for many a day a come. I cannot ascertain whether our friends the Ngati-Whatua took part with Ngati-Paoa in their defence of Mau-inaina, but I think not, though it seems probable that some of them were dwelling at Mangere at the time. We know that Apihai Te Kawau, Awarua, Te Tinana, and others of the Taou branch of the Ngati-Whatua were absent at the time with Tukorehu's army on an expedition against the tribes living at the south end of the island, which will be referred to later on.
Fall of Te Totara Pa, 1821.
After the fall of Mau-inaina, it is not quite clear whether Hongi returned direct to the Bay or went on at once to carry out his threats against Ngati-Maru at the Thames. Hoani Nahe says that after taking Mau-inaina, he went at once to the Thames, and he gives the date of the attack on Te Totara as December, so the probability is that he went there at once.
Although the fall of the Totara pa at the Thames has no immediate bearing on the history of Ngati-Whatua, it had with Nga-Puhi, and the consequences of it were very far-reaching. As I have obtained some particulars about it not hitherto published, I have put down the story, as it falls immediately after the capture of Mau-inaina.
At this period, Te Totara was the great stronghold of Ngati-Maru. The pa is situated about a mile south of the bridge over the Wai-whakauranga Stream, on the road from Shortland to Paeroa. It occupies the seaward end of a long spur coming down from the wooded mountains to the east, which terminates in a steep face abutting on the mangrove-lined banks of the Waihou, or Thames, River. The fine grove of karaka trees growing on the western slope of the ridge, just below the old pa, is a noticeable feature from the present main road, which passes along the edge of the grove. The old maioros, or ramparts, of the pa, are still to be seen, and show that it was one of great strength in Maori warfare. There were not many of - 30 the Ngati-Maru tribe, however, in the pa at the time of its fall, though there were several people of other tribes. The following account was given to me by Hoani Nahe, of Ngati-Maru:—
“When Hongi arrived from the north, he assaulted and took the pa of Mau-inaina, killing the chief of that pa, Te Hinaki. From there he came on to Hauraki, and assaulted Te Totara pa, but failed to take it. They were two days and one night trying to take it, but did not succeed. Then Hongi conceived a treacherous idea with respect to the Totara, the pa of Te Puhi and his elder brother, Te-Aka-te-rangi-ka-peke, and their numerous relatives. There were none but chiefs in the pa—the chiefs of Ngati-Maru—whose names I have forgotten, and remember only those of Te Puhi and Te-Aka.”
“I will explain what I mean when I referred to the Totara being taken by treachery (he mea kohuru). Hongi, finding he could not take the pa by assault, sent a number of his chiefs to make peace with the people of the pa—a deceitful peace—(maunga-rongo whakapatipati). On their arrival at the pa they delivered their message. Te Puhi and Te-Aka agreed to this, thinking it was to be a bona fide peace with them and the chiefs of Ngati-Maru, but it turned out to be the worst ever made by the Maori people. So soon as all had been arranged, Te-Aka presented the famous mere, named Te Uira, and Te Puhi, his mere, named Tutae-o-Maui, to Nga-Puhi, in order to cement the peace, in accordance with Maori custom. The chiefs of Nga-Puhi, who were sent by Hongi to arrange this deceitful peace were:—Muriwai, Te Koki, Te Nganga, Te Toru, Whiwhia, Toretumua, Ururoa, Te Whare-rahi, Moka, Manu, Kahe, Whai, Kaiteke, Whare-poaka, Te Morenga, Nga-ure, Te Whare-umu, Kopeka, Kawiti, Mata-roria, Te Awa, Te Kahakaha,23 Te Heke, Tareha, Te Hakiro, Kukupa, and Te Ihi,24 which are all the names known.
“On this same day, Pomare and his hapu (sub-tribe) returned home, because he was aware that Hongi's designs were treacherous, and he did not approve of them. Hongi himself remained in their camp at Te Amo-o-te-rangi, with the main body. When this company of chiefs returned to their camp they reported to their chief, Hongi, that peace had been made, and two meres given to cement it.”
Mr. J. A. Wilson, in his interesting “Story of Te Waharoa,” p. 12, says:—“Towards evening Nga-Puhi retired, and it is very re- - 31 markable—as indicating that man in his most ignorant and savage state is not unvisited by compunctions of conscience—that an old chief lingered, and, going out of the gate behind his companions, dropped the friendly caution, ‘Kia tupato,’ be cautious, or, on your guard.”
To return to Hoani Nahe's narrative: “When Hongi heard the news, he at once commanded his army to launch their canoes, so as to appear as if they were off home. But it was all deceit on his part. When they reached Tararu, about five miles from Te Totara, they landed there to await darkness. From Tararu they returned in the night to Te Totara, and entered the pa without opposition, none of Ngati-Maru being on guard, as they believed the peace just made was a true one, and, moreover, they had witnessed Nga-Puhi's departure towards home. In consequence of this, the pa was taken, and men, women, and children fell an easy prey to Nga-Puhi, sixty of Ngati-Maru alone, besides many others, meeting their death, all of the former being chiefs. There were many more people killed by Nga-Puhi at Matakitaki than here, because there was only one hapu of Ngati-Maru in the pa, that named Te Uri-ngahu, who indeed owned the pa, and very few of the other hapus of Ngati-Maru, most of whom where at Matamata, and some away in the southern expedition with Waikato and Ngati-Whatua against Ngati-Kahu-ngunu and the tribes of Cook Strait. The greater number of people in the pa belonged to the Waikato, Arawa, Ngati-Awa, Ngati-Pukenga, Whanau-a-Apanui, and other tribes.” It is said that this scheme of Hongi's to take Ngati-Maru unawares originated with his blind wife, Turi, who always accompanied him on his expeditions.
Mr. J. A. Wilson says:—“ … It is said that one thousand Ngati-Maru perished. Rauroha25 was slain, and Urumihia,26 his daughter, carried captive to the Bay of Islands, where she remained several years.”
Hoani Nahe adds:—“There was only one gun in Te Totara pa, and very little powder, and it was this gun that killed many Nga-Puhi before the peace was made, but the powder was all consumed. There was only one man of Nga-Puhi killed at the pa itself, and that was done by Ahurei, who felled him wiih a toki-panehe, or adze, made of hoop-iron. This was all the payment the people of Te Totara got for their great losses. It is said the man's name was Te Hotete (? Tete). - 32 It was in revenge for this that Wetea and Tukehu, the children of Te Puhi and Te-Aka, were killed by Hongi. They had been taken prisoners when the pa fell, but were only wounded, not killed. They had been speared, and then left so that their blood might be drank by those who made this deceitful peace. Before, however, they had been speared, they requested they might have time to take farewell of their tribe and their lands. This was consented to by Hongi. The boys then took farewell of those left alive, and of their home. They did this thinking they would be taken away as slaves, but on learning that they would be killed, they recited an old song of their tribe, which is as follows:—
I. Takoto ai te marino, horahia i waho ra,
Hei paki haerenga mo Haohaotupuni,
Noku te wareware, te whai ra nge-au,
Te hukanga wai-hoe, nau E Ahurei!
Kai tonu ki te rae ki Koohi ra ia,
Marama te titiro te puia i Whakaari.
Ka taruru tonu mai ka hora te marino,
Hei kawe i a koe, “Te-pou-o-te-kupenga
Kowai au ka kite.
Kurehu ai te titiro ki Moehau-ra ia,
Me kawe rawa ra, hei hoko pau'-e-,
Ki tawhito riro ra, ki te ketunga rimu.
II. Kaore te aroha, a komingomingo nei,
Te hoki noa atu i tarawai awa,
Tenei ka tata mai te uhi a Mata-ora,
He kore tohunga mâna, hei wehe ki te wai,
Kia hemo ake ai te aroha i ahau,
He kore no Tukirau, kihai ra i waiho,
He whakawehi-e, mo te hanga i raro nei,
Nou nga turituri, pawera rawa au
Taku turanga ake i te hihi o te whare,
E rumaki tonu ana he wai kei aku kamo.
“So soon as they had finished their song, Hongi jumped up and speared one of them, and drank his blood. Both the boys laughed, for they felt no fear. Then jumped up another of the Nga-Puhi chiefs and did the same for the other lad. These were the same chiefs who, the previous day, had made peace with Ngati-Maru!”
“The other people, Ngati-Maru and their allies, who dwelt in the neighbourhood, finding they could not rescue their friends in the pa, fled to the mountains, for the fear of Nga-Puhi was great.”
Thus Hongi avenged the defeat of his tribe at Wai-whariki in 1793 and other battles in which—before the days of guns—the Thames - 33 people had been victorious. In the fight at Te Totara Nga-Puhi lost very few of their braves, but amongst them were Tete and his brother Pu, the former of whom was husband of Aku, Hongi's daughter. The death of these young chiefs gave Nga-Puhi a pretext for invading Waikato the following year, as it was believed they were killed by some of the Waikato who were in Te Totara pa, as mentioned above by Hoani Nahe.
On the 19th December, 1821, three canoes belonging to Hongi's expedition, under Muriwai, arrived back at the Bay with over one hundred prisoners, whom they took on with them the same day to their homes at Hokianga, together with many heads. The “Missionary Register” for 1823 describes with some detail the horrors which were perpetrated on the unfortunate prisoners on the return of Hongi to the Bay, which occured on the 21st December, 1821. It is said they brought back about 2,000 prisoners. The dead bodies of Tete and Pu were also taken to their home for the usual rites to be performed.
Mr. Francis Hall on the 19th December, 1821, says; “Tete was the most civilized, best behaved, and most ingenious and industrious young man we have met with in New Zealand. His brother Pu, a fine young man, is also amongst the slain. This has created great grief in the family. Tete's wife and Mattooka (? Matuku), his brother are watched and bound to prevent them from putting an end to their lives. Pu's wife hung herself on hearing the news. Hongi's wife has killed a prisoner of war, which is customary on such occasions.”
Again on December 19th, he says; “We received the painful news this morning that Hongi and his people had killed more prisoners, making the number which we know of to 18 who have been murdered in cold blood since they returned from the fight.”
Another Missionary says: “January 19th, 1822. Hongi came this morning to have his wounds dressed, he having been tatooed afresh on his thigh. His eldest daughter, the widow of Tete, who fell in the late expedition, shot herself this morning through the fleshy part of the arm with two balls; she intended to have made away with herself, but we suppose in the agitation of pulling the trigger with her toe the muzzle of the musket was removed from a fatal spot.”
A young man related to the celebrated Te Rauparaha was killed at Te Totara, and that great warrior on his visit to Te Waru at Tauranga the same year, being incensed at this death—foolishly and unnecessarily as he thought—is said by Mr. Travers27 to have secured Pomare's consent to allow him to kill some of the Nga-Puhi, who - 34 shortly after this visited Tauranga, as utu for him. Mr. Travers says it was on account of the death of the infant children of Tokoahu, who had married a grand niece of Te Rauparaha's, but I believe Toko-ahu's children were killed at the taking of Mau-inaina. But both Tarakawa and Judge Gudgeon tells me that the cause was the death of Te Whetu-roa, a nephew of Te Whata-nui, of the Ngati-Raukawa tribe, who was living at the time with Ngati-Maru in Te Totara pa, and who was also related to Te Rauparaha, that was killed there, and this last seems the most reasonable take, for it is well known that the Ngati-Raukawa and Ngati-Toa tribes are closely related. However, this may be, there is no doubt that Te Rauparaha and Te Whata nui were the authors of the disaster that befel Ngi-Puhi the following year, as we shall see.
The fact that Te Rauparaha was at Tauranga, trying to secure Te Waru's aid in his expedition against the people of Cook Strait, when the news of the fall of Te Totara reached Tauranga, is tolerably certain, and by the aid of this fact we shall be able to fix the date of another important event in New Zealand history. It is well known that as soon as possible after the battle of Okoke, fought on the Motu-nui Flat, between the Urenui and Mimi Rivers, Taranaki, Te Rauparaha settled his tribe—the Ngati-Toa—at Waitara and its neighbourhood, amongst the Ngati-Mutunga and Te Ati-Awa tribes. So soon as their welfare had been provided for he started off to Taupo and Rotorua, to try and induce Ngati-Raukawa to join him in his proposed settlement at Cook Strait. Failing their acquiescence, he went on to visit Rotorua, and then Te Waru, of Tauranga, with the same object, and was there in December, 1821, when Te Totara fell. Allowing him two months for these operations, it results that the battle of Okoke must have taken place about the beginning of November, 1821, and this will serve to fix another date.
It is also well known that the ope of Tukorehu (called Amio-whenua, to be referred to later on), of Ngati-Maniapoto, with his allies, the Ngati-Whatua under their chiefs Apihai-te-Kawau, Uruamo and others, were at the date of the battle of Okoke, shut up in the Puke-rangiora pa, Waitara, Taranaki. This ope was then on its way home after having come round by Port Nicholson, and after Okoke, Te Wherowhero and other chiefs of Waikato escaped to and joined Tukorehu in the besieged pa. From here Te Wherowhero returned to Waikato, arriving in time to take part in the defence of Matakitaki in about May 1822. We may, therefore, assume that the siege of Puke-rangiroa by Te Ati-awa was from about October 1821 to say January or February 1822.28- 35
The story of Pomare's consent to Te Rauparaha's demand to be allowed to kill some of the Nga-Puhi to assuage his injured feelings seems to me improbable, and moreover I doubt if Pomare was with the Nga-Puhi at Rotorua in 1822 at all. What seems more probable, and for which there is some authority, is that the party of which Pomare was leader, retired just before Te Totara, and he then proceeded to the Bay of Plenty and attacked Tuhua Island at this time. The following account is from “The Life of Paratene-te Manu”: “My fourth fight was at the Island of Tuhua or Mayor Island, in the Bay of Plenty. We were armed with guns as well as with our native weapons—the spear, the club, the battle-axe of stone, and the green-stone and whale-bone meres. We proceeded by sea and landed at the Island of Tuhua, where we fought with the people of that place, and their pa fell to us. The name of the pa was Nga-uhi-apo. Here we took prisoner the wife of Puru—the chief of the pa—and her children. At daylight next morning Puru approached us, and coming into the midst of our war-party, he cried and lamented for his wife. Then spoke the chief of our party, “Let us return his wife to him.” So the woman was returned to her husband. On this Puru called out, “Let a warrior from your taua come with me.” So Te Tawheta and three others went with Puru and returned him, his wife and children to their own people. On arrival at one of the island villages where the people were gathered peace was made, and a certain woman was given to us to cement the peace. The name of the woman was Te Rautahi, and Te Ruruanga was her daughter. Te Rautahi was a chieftainess of Tuhua. We then returned to our homes.”
A very good description of Tuhua will be found in “Transactions N.Z. Institute, vol. xxvii, p. 417,” by E. C. Goldsmith, then District Surveyor of the Tauranga District, in which he describes the many pas, some of which are very strong, that formerly belonged to Urunga-wera and Te Whanau-a-Ngai-taiwhao branches of Ngai-Te-Rangi tribe. This was not the only time these tribes suffered at the hands of Nga-Puhi, as we shall see.
Death of Te Pae-o-te-rangi, 1822.
The following is the account of the affair at Roto-Kakahi, near Rotorua, as told by Petera-te-Pukuatua, the present chief of Ngati-Whakaue living at Ohīnemutu, Rotorua, to Mr. A. Shand in 1893: “After Te Rauparaha had settled at Kapiti (read here Waitara) he came on a visit to his relatives of Te Arawa tribe living at Rotorua, where he saw Te Puku-atua (Petera's father) and other chiefs of that - 36 tribe, and endeavoured to induce them to aid him in destroying a party of Nga-Puhi, who were then at Tauranga, and on their way to Rotorua. His object was to obtain revenge for the death of Te Puhi (read Te Whetu-roa), of Ngati-Maru, a relative of his who had been killed at Te Totara pa when it fell. Neither the Ngati-Whakaue nor the Ngati-Rangi-wewehi tribes of Rotorua would consent, so Te Rau-paraha determined to try the Tu-hou-rangi tribe, to whom also he was related. He passed on from Rotorua by way of Tiki-tere to Motu-tawa, an island in Roto-Kakahi lake, where the Tu-hou-rangi tribe was assembled. After some time Mutu-kuri, the chief of Tu-hou-rangi, consented to aid Te Rauparaha in his object, and a scheme worthy of the wily chief of Ngati-Toa was laid.29
Whilst he was staying with his friends on Motu-tawa, the war-party of Nga-Puhi appeared on the shores of Roto-kakahi Lake, and there asked the Tu-hourangi people in the pa to send canoes across to ferry them over to the island, at the same time professing a desire to make friends with Tu-hourangi. Some of the Tu-hourangi people called out, (the island is not half a mile from the shore) “We are afraid to go over to you for fear of being eaten.” To this the Nga-Puhi replied, “What good should we obtain by eating two or three of you, whilst so many remain, bring a canoe that we may cross over and salute you.” Accordingly a canoe was sent, and it brought over about twenty of the Nga-Puhi, and in like manner others were ferried over, who, on their arrival, were distributed to different parts of the pa. Tu-hourangi continued to bring over their visitors until there were about one hundred and thirty of them in the pa, including their chiefs Te-Pae-o-te-rangi, and Waero, all of whom were armed with guns. At this juncture, Te Rauparaha said to the Tu-hourangi people, “Bring no more over, we will kill those here, kei kori, lest they turn on us.” So Tu-hourangi arose and killed all the people in the pa; not one escaped, the chiefs mentioned being among the slain. Thus Te-Rauparaha obtained revenge for his relative Te Puhi.”—(Again, read Te Whetu-roa).
“Whilst Tu-hourangi were massacring Nga-Puhi in the pa at Motu-tawa, their friends on the mainland, seeing what was going on, were frantic with rage, shouting, and firing their guns in vain, for the distance was too great for the muskets of those days to be effective. After a time Nga-Puhi returned home.” But on their way some of them were killed at Ohine-mutu by Ngati-whakaue.- 37
The Nga-Puhi account of this affair is a little different in detail. The following is one of their accounts. “Tiraha—who is now—1849—living at Paihia—lost his father Papa, at Rotorua, where he was murdered by Te Rauparaha, and this lead to the Nga-Puhi expedition to that place. Papa was killed through deceit. The people in the pa had a large house around which they had erected a very high pallasading, and Papa and his friends, sixty in number, had been invited into the house as guests. There were about 600 people in the pa. Some of the latter killed some Maori dogs, and burned the hair in order that the scent of it should reach the guests who would thereby think the dogs were killed for food. Then Te Rauparaha arose and recited a karakia beginning:—
He tamariki ranei koe
Kia akona he mahara-e-ra,
Ngaua i te wiwi,
Ngaua i te wawa, &c.
So soon as the karakia was finished, the guests were killed, one only of the Nga-Puhi escaping by climbing over the pallasade and then dashing down into the lake. This occurred at Motu-tawa, an island in Lake Roto-kakahi. The man's name was Te Maangi. As he swam away from the island he was followed by two men of the pa in a canoe, and when they drew near Te Maangi dived as far as he could, but soon losing breath he was overtaken and the men attempted to kill him with their paddles. But Te Maangi was a brave fellow: he seized the bows of the canoe and managed to jump into it, when the two fellows retreated to the stern. Possessing himself of a paddle he made for them, when they took to the water, but by paddling after them he succeeded in killing both with his paddle and then rejoined his friends. Te Maangi lost all his teeth through the blows of the two men when chasing him.”
This massacre, which must have taken place early in 1822, was the reason of Hongi's expedition to Rotorua in 1823, but he had first an account to settle with Waikato for the death of his relations at Te Totara.
Takaanui Tarakawa, who is well up in these events, states that Te Rauparaha was not at Motu-tawa at the time of the massacre, but he and Te Whata-nui of Ngati-Raukawa after their visit to Rotorua, both left together, and it was during their stay at Motu-tawa that Te Rauparaha sung the song or karakia above to incite Tu-hourangi to fall on Nga-Puhi when they came.
(To be Continued.)
1 Pomare's original name was Whitoi; he took the second name after hearing of King Pomare of Tahiti.
2 Both situated near the Waima junction with the Punakitere.
3 See the Native History of Te Wera in this Journal, vol. viii.
4 This was Apihai Te Kawau, the principal chief of Ngati-Whatua at the time Auckland was founded in 1811.
5 This was at Moremo-nui, 1807.
6 This name, Muri-akau, is not recognised by the Ngati-Whatua people, the only name like it is Muri-awhea, but he is not known to have been a Tohunga. There are no descendants of Muri-awhea alive.
7 See this Journal, Vol. VIII., p. 216.
8 This pa has been abandoned for many years.
9 Te Horeta, or “Old hook nose,” as the Pakehas irreverently called him, died at Coromandel on the 21st November, 1852. The Karere Maori of 20th April, 1854, gives a long life of him: “He was a daring and successful leader, and noted for kindness of heart. He obtained his second and better known name of Te Taniwha from the fact of his having leaped over a cliff into the water, then rising under the bows of his enemy's canoe, he got on board and drove every one away. “He is a Taniwha, not a man,” said his enemies. He took part in many a tribal fight, but was inclined to mercy after the battle, even in the sanguinary wars of old.” His friendship with the Pakeha commenced with the arrival of the “Coromandel” at his home, as related above, and he continued their steadfast friend, often under severe trials, to the day of his death. His son, to whom his mana descended, was Kitahi Te Taniwha, well known in later years as the venerable chief of the Ngati-Whanaunga tribe of Coromandel.
10 Tapuariki probably, which is the name of a strong pa still to be seen in the locality.
11 At Katikati Marsden learnt that Te Waru and Aneenee (? Nini) were absent on a war expedition to the south.
12 From Rev. Hauraki Paora.
13 This discrepancy may arise through the similarity of names of two Nga-Puhi chiefs of that period—Titore and Te Toru. Possibly it was the latter Cruise refers to.
14 Hinaki, principal chief of Ngati-Paoa of the Tamaki.
15 Te Kawau, principal chief of Taou hapu of Ngati-Whatua.
16 Kaiwaka or Te Haupa, principal chief of Ngati-Paoa.
17 Murupaenga, chief of Ngati-Rongo hapu of Ngati-Whatua.
18 Matohi, a principal chief of Te Roroa, of Kaihu, Kaipara.
19 Hongi's particular weapon was a musket called “Patu-iwi,” which he always carried with him. It is now deposited in the Auckland Museum.
20 It is said by D'Urville, in his extracts from the “Missionary Register,” that the chiefs who met Hongi in Sydney had been conveyed thither by H.M. store ship “Coromandel,” and yet the “Coromandel” was at Mercury Bay? in August, 1821.
21 “Voyage autour du Monde.”
22 Te Ihe, the hero, caught by Te Mautaranui at Whakatane.
23 Te Kahakaha was one of Hongi's great warriors. He was shot at the Whaka-tere fight, near Waimate, in Hone Heke's war against the Pakeha. Manning, in his “Heke's War in the North,” gives a capital description of his death, and of Heke's attempt to rescue him.
24 We learn from Marsden that the chief Waikato was also of the party, at any rate, at the taking of Mau.inaina, but that he did not accompany Hongi to Rotorua. Waikato was Ruatara's brother and Hongi's brother-in-law.
25 In the “Orakei Judgment,” already quoted, Mr. Fenton, says Te Rauroha was living at Mangapiko, Waikato, in 1824.
26 The Rev. W. R. Wade says that on July 12th, 1835, he visited Kawakawa, and there found Urumihia on a visit from the Thames with many of her tribe. She had formerly married Kinikini, but was now separated from him.
27 “Transactions N.Z. Institute,' Vol. V., p. 59.
28 This siege of Puke-rangiora must not be confused with the more celebrated siege by Waikato in 1831.
29 This statement as to Te Rauparaha being at Motu-tawa at the time of the attack ou Nga-Puhi must be read together with that in this Journal, vol. viii, p. 183, where it is stated that both Te Whata-nui and Te Rauparaha returned home from Rotorua, after having a vised Tu-hou-rangi to slaughter the Nga-Puhi. Of this fact the author of that paper assures me he is certain.